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Home > Glossary > Glossary Tibetan Terms

Tibetan Glossary of Buddhist Terms

This glossary is only a partial list of technical terms found on the pages of the website. From time to time, as work progresses on the glossary project, new terms will be added to the list. Sanskrit equivalents for Tibetan terms have been provided only for select terms and all diacritical marks for transliterated Sanskrit have been omitted, for ease of display on all browsers.

Choose one of the letters below to see the glossary entries that start with this letter:

' A B C D G K L M N P R S T Y Z everything

TibetanEnglishSanskritDefinition
'bras-bulevel, resultant

The level of a fully enlightened Buddha, attained as the result of Mahayana practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect."

'bras-buresultant level

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something, for instance Buddha-nature, in the state of a Buddha when it is fully purified.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect."

'bras-bu'i skyabs-'groresultant taking of safe direction

A taking of safe direction (refuge) that takes as its sources of safe direction the Triple Gem that one will attain oneself in the future, based on actualizing one's own Buddha-nature. Synonymous with "special taking of safe direction."

'bras-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-laglink of loaded consciousness at the time of the result

The second phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the future lifetime produced as a result of that throwing karma.

'Bri-gung bka'-brgyudDrigung Kagyu

One of the eight minor Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa's disciple Pagmo-drupa -- in this case, Drigung Jigten-sumgon.

'Brug-pa bka'-brgyudDrugpa Kagyu

One of the eight minor Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa's disciple Pagmo-drupa -- in this case, Lingraypa.

'chi-sriddeath existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience death. Unless one successfully does advanced anuttarayoga tantra meditations at this time, this period lasts only one moment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the death state."

'das-pano-longer-happening

The past occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."


J. Hopkins' translation: "past; pass away; go beyond; pastness."

'dod-chagslonging desireSkt: raga

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one does not possess and wishes to obtain it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "desire."

'dod-khamsplane of sensory desiresSkt: kamadhatu

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for sensory objects. Usually translated by others as "desire realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Desire Realm."

'dod-pa'i lhaKama

The god of desire in Hindu mythology.

'dod-pa nye-bar len-paobtainer desire

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of longing desire specifically for some desirable sensory object on the plane of sensory desires. See: longing desire. Equivalent to the obtainer emotion, it is the first of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.

'dod-sredcraving in relation to what is desirable

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire not to be parted from the ordinary forms of happiness that one is currently experiencing. (2) Holding on to objects of the present, which one is attached to keeping.

'du-byedaffecting variableSkt: samskara

A phenomenon that continually changes (a nonstatic phenomenon) and which influences other nonstatic phenomenon to arise, in the sense that it contributes to causing them to happen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional factor."

'du-byed-kyi phung-poaggregate of other affecting variablesSkt: samskara-skandha

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors), other than feelings of levels of happiness and distinguishing, as well as all instances of noncongruent affecting variables, that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of volitions" or "aggregate of karmic formations."

'du-byed-kyi yan-laglink of affecting impulsesSkt: samskara-anga

The second of the twelve links of dependent arising. A karmic impulse that will affect future lives; synonymous with "throwing karma." Some translators render the term as the "link of karmic formations."

'dul-barules of disciplineSkt: vinaya

(1) The scriptural texts that discuss the ethical discipline and vows for the monastic community of monks and nuns. (2) The subject matter discussed in the above texts.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Discipline."

'dun-paintention

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aspiration."

'dus-byas-kyi chosaffected phenomenonSkt: samskrtadharma

A phenomenon that arises because of the influence of causes and conditions, and which changes because of constantly being influenced by causes and conditions. This refers to all nonstatic phenomena. Translators often render the term as "conditioned phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional phenomena."

'du-shesdistinguishingSkt: samjna

One of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that takes an uncommon characteristic feature of the appearing object of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance to it, different from that of everything else that appears in the background within that cognition. It does not necessarily ascribe a name or mental label to its object, nor does it compare it with previously cognized objects. Some translators render the term as "recognition."


J. Hopkins' translation: "discrimination."

'du-shesrecognitionSkt: samjna

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of distinguishing an object as being something specific, such as when studying the Dharma, oneself as being a sick person, one's spiritual teacher as being a doctor, and the Dharma as being medicine.


J. Hopkins' translation: "discrimination."

'du-shes-kyi phung-poaggregate of distinguishingSkt: samjna-skandha

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of distinguishing that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of recognition." See: distinguishing.

'dus ma-byasunaffected phenomenonSkt: asamskrtadharma

A phenomenon that is not affected by causes or conditions. A synonym for static phenomenon. Often rendered by other translators as "unconditioned phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "uncompounded."

'dzin-chamental hold

The aspect of a cognition that describes the level of strength of maintenance of attention on the focal object, without letting go of it. Also translated as "mental glue," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mindfulness and has two aspects: mental abiding and appearance-making.

'dzin-pacognitively taking an objectSkt: graha

Cognizing an object - taking a validly knowable phenomenon as an object of cognition in the sense of cognizing it with either a valid or invalid way of knowing.


J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehend/conceive."

'dzin-stangsway of cognitively taking an object

Also called: way of taking an object


J. Hopkins' translation: "mode of apprehension{N}."

'gal-bamutually exclusive

Two sets are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common locus -- neither contains a member that also belongs to the other. Also translated as "contradictory."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mutually exclusive, contradictory."

'gog-pastoppingSkt: nirodha

The total elimination of something such that it never recurs.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cessation."

'gog-pa'i bden-patrue stoppingSkt: nirodha-satya

The elimination, forever, of some degree of either an emotional or a cognitive obscuration from a mental continuum. They occur only on the mental continuum of aryas -- those with nonconceptual cognition of voidness. Often translated as "true cessation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "true cessations."

'gro-bawandering beingSkt: gamin

A being that "wanders" from one uncontrollably recurring rebirth to the next; a being caught in samsara. Synonymous with "limited being" (sentient being).


J. Hopkins' translation: "transmigrator."

'gro-ba rigs-drugsix realms of existence

Literally, the six families of wandering beings. The six types of samsaric rebirth: (1) hell-beings (trapped beings in the joyless realms), (2) clutching ghosts (hungry ghosts), (3) animals (creeping creatures), (4) humans, (5) would-be divine beings (anti-gods), and (6) divine beings (gods).

'gyod-paregret

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of not wishing to repeat doing something, either proper or improper, that one did or that someone else made one do.


J. Hopkins' translation: "contrition."

'gyur-ba'i sdug-bsngalsuffering of change

The suffering of ordinary happiness, which never lasts, never satisfies, and which eventually turns into the suffering of suffering.


J. Hopkins' translation: "suffering of change/vicissitude."

'jig-paperishing

The nonstatic, affected phenomenon of the ceasing of the present-happening of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "disintegrating; disintegration."

'jig-rten-la grags-pacommonsense object

An external sensory object, extending over the sensibilia (sense data) of several senses and over time; what an ordinary person, when cognizing one moment of the sensibilia of one sense, would impute and consider as an object with his or her common sense. See also: conventional commonsense object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "well known to the world."

'jig-rten-las 'das-pasupramundane

Related to the mental continuum of an arya -- someone who has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. Also translated as "with a base beyond perishing," "transworldly" or "transcendent."

'jig-rten-pahouseholder

Someone who is neither a monk nor a nun.


J. Hopkins' translation: "worldly; mundane."

'jig-rten-pamundane

Related to the mental continuum of a non-arya -- someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. Also translated as "perishably based" and "worldly."


J. Hopkins' translation: "worldly; mundane."

'jig-rten-pa'i chos-brgyadeight transitory things in life

Praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly -- or, more specifically, the emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to these eight. Also called the "eight worldly dharmas."

'jigs-padread

The strong wish not to experience something or for something not to happen. If overlaid with grasping for truly established existence, it becomes fear. Sometimes translated as "fear."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fright; frighten."

'jigs-sredcraving because of fear

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. Also called: craving to be separated from what is fearful. (1) A strong longing desire to be parted from pain and unhappiness. (2) Holding on to objects of the past.

'jig-tshogs-la lta-badeluded outlook toward a transitory networkSkt: satkayadrshti

(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards some transitory network from one's own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as "me" or as "mine." (2) According to Tsongkhapa, the disturbing attitude that focuses on the conventional "me" and regards it as a truly findable "me" identical with the aggregates, or as "me, the possessor, controller, or inhabitant" of the aggregates.


J. Hopkins' translation: "view of the transitory collection [as real I and mine]."

'jog-sgomstabilizing meditation

A method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind in which one focuses on an object with that desired insight, understanding, or state of mind and with full conviction in its validity, but without the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) or subtle discernment (scrutiny). Also translated sometimes as "fixating meditation."

'jug-pacognitive engagement

A manner of cognizing an object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "continuity; enter; begin; engage; apply; entrance."

'jug-semsengaged bodhichitta

A mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, is committed to attaining that enlightenment by having taken bodhisattva vows and which then enters into the type of behavior that will bring one to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[enter-mind]; practical mind of enlightenment; attitudes or aspirations conjoined with actual practice."

'jug-yulinvolved object

The main object with which a particular cognition involves itself or engages. Equivalent to the object existing as cognitively taklen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ob­ject of engage­ment."

'khor-basamsaraSkt: samsara

Uncontrollably recurring rebirth under the power of disturbing emotions and attitudes and of karma. Some translators render it as "cyclic existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "cyclic existence."

'khor-lo gsumthree circles

Three aspects of an action that are all equally void of true existence: (1) the individual performing the action, (2) the object upon or toward which the action is committed, and (3) the action itself. Occasionally, as in the case of the action of giving, the object may refer to the object given. The existence of each of these is established dependently on the others. Sometimes translated as "the three spheres" of an action.

'khrul-badeceptive

Being mistaken or confusing with respect to the appearance of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mistaken; illusion."

'khrul-shesdeceptive cognition

A cognition that takes a phenomenon's mode of existence that it makes appear -- namely, an appearance of its seemingly true existence -- to be the phenomenon's actual mode of existence. The deceptive cognition may be either accurate or distorted with respect to the appearance it makes of the superficial truth of what the phenomenon conventionally is.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mistaken consciousness."

'khrul-snangdeceptive appearance

A cognitive object that appears to exist in a manner different from the way in which it actually exists.

'od-gsalclear light awareness

The subtlest level of mental activity (mind), which continues with no beginning and no end, without any break, even during death and even into Buddhahood. It is individual and constitutes the mental continuum of each being. It is naturally free of conceptual cognition, the appearance-making of true existence, and grasping for true existence, since it is more subtle than the grosser levels of mental activity with which these occur. It has nothing to do with "light."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear light."

'phags-lamarya pathway mindSkt: aryamarga

The three pathway minds of shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva aryas (those with nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths) -- namely, their seeing and accustoming pathway minds, and their pathway minds needing no further training.

'phags-paaryaSkt: arya

A practitioner who has had nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths and thus has attained a shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva seeing pathway of mind (path of seeing). Also called a "highly realized practitioner" or a "highly realized being." Some translators render the term as "noble one."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Superior."

'phangs-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lagresultant links of what has been thrown

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the three and a half links of resultant loaded consciousness, nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, stimulators of cognition, and contacting awareness, which occur during the development of an embryo in the womb in the life that is thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.

'phen-byed-kyi yan-lagcausal links that throw

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the two and a half links of unawareness, affecting impulses, and causal loaded consciousness, which describe the process through which throwing karma is built up and its karmic aftermath is "planted" on a mental continuum as the cause for a next rebirth.

'phrin-lasenlightening influenceSkt: samudacara

The unceasing, unending, effortless activity of a Buddha, which helps bring all limited beings to higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment. Such activity does not require a Buddha actually doing anything: a Buddha's attainment itself exerts a positive influence on others to pacify disturbance, stimulate the growth of good qualities, bring disorder under control, and forcefully end any harm. Also translated as: "Buddha-activity."


J. Hopkins' translation: "deed; activity; work; affair."

'phrin-lasinfluencing nature

One of the threefold natures of pure awareness (rigpa), referring to the enlightening influence it has on others.


J. Hopkins' translation: "deed; activity; work; affair."

a-nu yo-gaanuyoga tantra

In the Nyingma system, the second of the three inner classes of tantra, emphasizing practices involving the subtle energy-system of winds, channels, and creative energy-drops.

a-ti-yo-gaatiyoga

In the Nyingma system, the third of the three classes of inner tantras, in which meditation practices to actualize the immediate causes for an enlightening mind and Corpus of Forms of a Buddha are emphasized.

bag-chagskarmic constant habitSkt: vasana

A type of karmic aftermath, imputable on one's mental continuum as an unspecified (ethically neutral) noncongruent affecting variable after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result every moment until a true stopping of it has been achieved. Some translators render it as "habit" or "instinct."


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

bag-chagskarmic habitSkt: vasana

A synonym for "karmic latency."


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

bag-chagskarmic latencySkt: vasana

A general term for all karmic aftermath -- namely, karmic potentials, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits.


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhialaya for habits

In the dzogchen system, foundational awareness for the habits of grasping for truly established existence, for karma, and for memories. The type of limited awareness that basis rigpa functions as, when it is mixed with dumbfoundedness.

bag-la nyaldormant factor

Literally, something that is "asleep to the taste of the mind." Affecting variables, associated with mental continuums, which are "lying down" and not rushing to manifest mind (consciousness). They include subliminal awareness, tendencies, and habits.


J. Hopkins' translation: "dormancies."

bag-la nyal-gyi shes-pasubliminal cognition

A cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, only to the consciousness of the subliminal cognition and only that consciousness cognizes it. The cognitive object of the subliminal cognition does not appear to the person and is not cognized by the person. Nor does it appear to or is it cognized by the consciousness of the manifest cognition that is simultaneously occurring and overpowering the subliminal cognition.

bag-yodcaring attitudeSkt: apramada

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that takes seriously the situations of others and oneself, and the effects of one's actions on others and on oneself, and which consequently causes one to build up as a habit constructive attitudes and behavior and safeguards against leaning toward tainted or destructive attitudes and behavior. Also translated as "carefulness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conscientiousness; aware; conscientious; conscious."

bar-dobardoSkt: antarabhava

The state of existence from the moment immediately after death until the moment immediately before conception. Translated as the "inbetween state."


J. Hopkins' translation: "intermediate state."

bar-do'i srid-pabardo existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after death until the moment immediately before conception.

bcad-papreclude

To cut off, dismiss, or reject something. To logically cut off or eliminate the possibility that something is something else


J. Hopkins' translation: "cut; decided; eliminated; judged; condemned."

bcad-papreclusion

The conceptual process through which sets and countersets are formulated. It implies previous apprehension of an object to be negated, in which the apprehension itself logically and automatically excludes the object to be negated from the set of either all validly knowable phenomena other than itself or all validly knowable phenomena in total. It is not a deliberate, conscious mental act.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cut; decided; eliminated; judged; condemned."

bcad-shessubsequent cognition

One of the seven ways of knowing something: a nonfraudulent, but not fresh, cognition of an object. It is the second phase of a valid bare cognition or inferential cognition, and is asserted only by the Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika tenet systems.

bcas-pa'i kha-na ma-tho-baprohibited uncommendable action

Ethically neutral (unspecified) actions that Buddha prohibited for certain types of practitioners, for instance monks or nuns, as detrimental to their spiritual practice.

bcomdevastate

To totally weaken the effectiveness of something, such as the positive force of a constructive act, such that it ripens into something far less and more distant in the future, but without completely eliminating its potential to ripen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "destroy; overcome; triumph over."

bcom-ldan-'dasVanquishing Master Surpassing AllSkt: bhagavan

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has conquered (vanquished) all obstacles, attained (mastered) all good qualities, and gone beyond (surpassed) any of the Hindu gods for whom the epithet Bhagavan has also been applied. Some translators render the term as "Blessed One."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Supramundane Victor."

bcos-macontrived

A state of mind mentally constructed through conceptual thought, such as by going through a line of reasoning. Also translated as "artificial."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fabricated; artificial; made up; fabrication."

bcos-meduncontrived

A state of mind not mentally constructed by conceptual thought. Also translated as "unartificial."

bdagimpossible "soul"Skt: atman

(1) With respect to the five aggregate factors of an individual being, something findable inside the aggregates that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. (2) With respect to all validly knowable phenomena, an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self."

bdagsoulSkt: atman

According to non-Buddhist Indian tenet systems, something findable, either with or without being a conscious phenomenon, inside the body of a person, and which is static, a partless monad, separable from the body, and self-sufficiently knowable.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self."

bdag-'brasdominating resultSkt: adhipatiphalam

(1) The type of environment or society in which one is born or enters and the way it treats one, or (2) objects, such as one's possessions, and what happens to them. Such results may ripen from destructive, tainted constructive, or unspecified actions and are called "dominating results" because they extend over and dominate everything that one experiences in a particular rebirth. Also translated as "comprehensive result," "overriding result" or "overlord result," it is synonymous with "commanding result."


J. Hopkins' translation: "possessional effect."

bdag-'jugself-initiation

A tantric meditation practice in which one visualizes receiving the entire empowerment (initiation) ritual for a Buddha-figure, performed in order to renew one's tantric vows. It may only be performed if one has done the serviceability retreat of that particular Buddha-figure and the fire-puja afterwards.

bdag-bskyedself-generation

Synonymous with "sadhana." A meditation method in which one visualizes and imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. See: sadhana.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-generation; self generation."

bdag-gzhan brje-paexchanging self and others

Instead of self-cherishing, cherishing others, and instead of ignoring the needs of others, ignoring one's own selfish needs.

bdag-gzhan mnyam-brjeequalizing and exchanging self and others

A method for developing a bodhichitta aim, consisting of (1) developing mere equanimity, (2) developing uncommon Mahayana equanimity, as a way to regard all others equally in the same way as one regards oneself, (3) thinking of the disadvantages of a self-cherishing attitude, (4) thinking of the advantages of cherishing others, (5) giving and taking, with attitudes of love and compassion, as a way of exchanging one's attitudes about self and others, (6) exceptional resolve, and (7) developing a bodhichitta aim.

bdag-gzhan mnyam-paequalizing self and others

Developing an equal attitude toward all beings, with the same regard as one has toward oneself.

bdag-medlack of an impossible "soul"Skt: anatman

(1) With respect to the five aggregate factors of an individual being, the total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the aggregates that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. (2) With respect to all validly knowable phenomena, the total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness" or "identitylessness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "selflessness."

bdag-rkyendominating conditionSkt: adhipatipratyaya

The nonstatic phenomena that produce the essential nature of something, such as the eye sensors for the visual consciousness and congruent mental factors of a visual cognition. This condition is called "dominating" – literally, the "overlord condition" – because it rules what the essential nature of its result will be.


J. Hopkins' translation: "empowering condition; dominant condition."

bdag-tu smra-baasserting one's identity

The fourth of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising. Equivalent to a deluded outlook toward a transitory network.

bde-bablissful awarenessSkt: sukha

A state of mind, either tainted or untainted, characterized by varying levels of intensity of happiness. Some of the untainted ones can be utilized in anuttarayoga tantra practice as the type of awareness with which to focus on voidness, and as an aid for dissolving the energy-winds in the central channel in order to gain access to clear light awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bliss, happiness, pleasure."

bde-bahappinessSkt: sukha

That feeling which, when it stops, we wish to meet with it again.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bliss, happiness, pleasure."

bde-ba chen-po'i skuCorpus of Great BlissSkt: mahasukhakaya

In the dzogchen system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

bde-bar gshegs-paBlissfully Gone OneSkt: sugata

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has reached the blissful goal of enlightenment through methods that produce happiness along the way to reaching that goal.


J. Hopkins' translation: "One-Gone-to-Bliss."

bden-'dzingrasping for truly established existenceSkt: satyagraha

(1) Both to cognize (literally, take as a cognitive object) the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, which the habits of this grasping cause the mind to fabricate and project, as well as believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist, (2) simply cognizing the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, without actually believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist. Gelug asserts both definitions, while non-Gelug asserts only the first. Abbreviated as "grasping for true existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conception of true existence."

bden-grubinherent existence

See: existence established by self-nature


J. Hopkins' translation: "true establishment."

bden-pabeing true to one's wordSkt: satya

The mental state with which, once one gives one's word to do something to benefit others, one does not break one's promise. The seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes developed by bodhisattvas according to the Theravada tradition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "truth."

bden-pa gnyistwo truths

(1) In Hinayana, two types of validly knowable phenomena into which all existent phenomena can be divided: superficially true and deepest true phenomena. (2) In Gelug Mahayana, two true facts that can be validly known about any existent phenomenon. (3) In non-Gelug Mahayana, all existent phenomena cognized with dualistic appearance-making and cognized without dualistic appearance-making.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the two truths [i.e. ultimate truth (don dam bden pa, paramArtha-satya); and conventional truth (kun rdzob bden pa, samvRti-satya)]."

bden-par grub-patrue existence

(1) An impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Existence established or proven (a) merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, or (b) by the power of something on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka. (2) A mode of existence that is true. Existence established or proven by (a) arising from causes and conditions, according to Jetsunpa and Kunkhyen Gelug Sautrantika, or (b) the power of something on the side of an object, according to Panchen Gelug Sautrantika and Gelug Chittamatra. Also translated as "truly established existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "truly established; true establishment; truly existent; name of school founded by Harivarman; existence."

bden-par grub-patrue findable existence

Existence established or proven by the power of something findable on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and findably established existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "truly established; true establishment; truly existent; name of school founded by Harivarman; existence."

bden-par grub-patrue unimputed existence

Existence established or proven merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and unimputedly established existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "truly established; true establishment; truly existent; name of school founded by Harivarman; existence."

bden-snangappearance-making of true existence

The aspect of a limited being's mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of seemingly true existence. It makes the mental holograms of objects of cognition appear to be truly existent, in the sense in which the Madhyamaka schools define true existence. In the non-Gelug systems, it occurs only with conceptual cognition and it makes appearances of objects of cognition to be truly "this"s and "that"s.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance of true existence{Lati}."

bduddemonic forceSkt: mara

Something that harms limited beings or causes interference and obstacles to constructive actions.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Demon."

bKa'-'gyurKangyur

The collection of the Tibetan translations of the enlightening words of the Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Translated Word of Buddha."

bKa'-brgyudKagyu

One of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. It has two branches, Shangpa Kagyu deriving from Kyungpo Neljor and Dagpo Kagyu deriving from the line Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ka-gyu."

bKa'-brgyud-paKagyupa

A follower of one of the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

bKa'-gdamsKadam

One of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from Atisha's visit to Tibet. After its branches were merged and reformed, it continued as the Gelug tradition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[word-advice]; the Ga-dam school [name of lineage traced to Atiza]; name of mansion; advice; instruction; counsel; preceptual instruction; advisory speech; exhortation."

bKa'-gdams-paKadampa

A follower of the Kadam tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ga-dam-ba [a Tibetan order, or person of that order]."

bKa'-gdams-pa dge-bshesKadampa Geshe

A spiritual master and friend from the Kadam tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, especially one who is an extremely humble, down-to-earth master of attitude-training.

bla-med rnal-'byoranuttarayoga tantraSkt: anuttarayoga tantra

In the Sarma (New Translation Period) Tibetan Buddhist schools, the fourth or highest class of tantra practice, emphasizing special internal methods for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure.

bloattitude

A mental factor that takes its cognitive object by regarding it from a certain point of view.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness."

blointellect

The mental activity that gives rise to conceptual cognition -- most commonly, to verbal conceptual thought.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness."

blo'i gzhan-selmental exclusions of something else

Static implicative negation phenomena, including audio categories, meaning/object categories, and conceptually isolated items.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental exclusion; other-eliminator that is a mind."

blo-grosintelligence

The ability to discriminate between what is correct and what is incorrect, and between what is helpful and what is harmful.


J. Hopkins' translation: "intelligence; intelligent."

blos-byasintellectually derived

Descriptive of meditation with verbal thoughts based on conceptual schemes.

blo-sbyongattitude-training

A spiritual training in which one cleanses disturbing attitudes from one's mind and trains to replace them with constructive attitudes. Also called: cleansing of attitudes, mind-training, Lojong.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-training."

blo-sbyonglojong

See: attitude-training


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-training."

bonBon

The pre-Buddhist spiritual tradition of Tibet.

bon-poBonpo

A follower of the Bon tradition.

bral-'brasresult that is a state of being partedSkt: visamyogaphalam

A static state that is attained by means of effort, but which is neither produced by nor ripens from that effort.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect of separation."

bral-bapartingSkt: visamyoga

Also translated as: separation


J. Hopkins' translation: "separation; free from; lack; devoid."

brdalabel

A name applied to the knowable objects that the name signifies – whether or not those objects are validly knowable. Compare: name.


J. Hopkins' translation: "terminology; term."

brdar-btags-pa'i chos dkon-mchognominal Dharma Gem

Printed Dharma texts, representing the Dharma that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Dharma Gem.

brdar-btags-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchognominal Sangha Gem

Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic sangha (full or novice monks or nuns), representing the Sangha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Sangha Gem.

brdar-btags-pa'i dkon-mchognominal gem

Representations of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems, which themselves are not actual sources of safe direction, but which serve as a basis for showing respect to them.

brdar-btags-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchognominal Buddha Gem

A painting or statue of a Buddha, representing a Buddha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to an actual Buddha Gem.

brtensomething that is supported by something else

Something that rests upon or is contained within something else, for instance the people in relation to the house in which they live. Also translated as "what is supported" or simply as "supported."


J. Hopkins' translation: "depend; rely; resort to; support."

brten-pa'i dkyil-'khorsupported mandala

The set of Buddha-figures residing inside the immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system visualized in tantra practice.

brtse-baloving-kindness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one not only wishes others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one also acts towards others in a helpful manner.


J. Hopkins' translation: "noun: mercy; love; kindness verb: feel mercy; pity; love."

brtson-'grusjoyful perseveranceSkt: virya

(1) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to have zestful vigor for being constructive, without becoming lazy. With this mental factors, one takes joy in being constructive. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Theravada, see: "perseverance."


J. Hopkins' translation: "effort."

brtson-'grusperseveranceSkt: virya

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor to exert effort, constantly and courageously, in helping others and in being able to help. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Mahayana, see "joyful perseverance."


J. Hopkins' translation: "effort."

brtul-zhugstamed behavior

Ethical behavior with which one both restrains oneself from destructive actions and engages in constructive ones.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conduct; modes of conduct."

bsam-gtanmental stabilitySkt: dhyana

Single-pointed placement of the mind on any constructive focal object, without any mental wandering -- a stable state of mind that is not only free of flightiness and dullness, but is also not distracted by any disturbing emotion of the plane of sensory desires. In Mahayana, when conjoined with bodhichitta, a far-reaching attitude. Some translators render the term as "concentration."


J. Hopkins' translation: "concentration."

bsam-gtan dang-po'i dngos-gzhiactual state of the first level of mental stability

A state of mind attained on the basis of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha and which temporarily blocks all disturbing emotions and attitudes directed at phenomena on the plane of sensory desires (the "desire realm"). The various types of advanced awareness arise as a byproduct of the attainment of this state of mind. Also called: "actual state of the first dhyana."

bsam-pamotivating mental framework

A state of mind that accompanies a karmic urge or impulse and which is a cluster of three mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): distinguishing an object on which to focus the action, the motivating aim of what one intends to do with or to that object, and a motivating emotion or attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thinking."

bsam-pasincerity

Sincerity has two factors included in it: (1) lack of hypocrisy (g.yo-med) – not hiding our own faults, (2) lack of pretension (sgyu-med) – not pretending to have qualities that we do not have.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thinking."

bsdud-pa-las gyur-pa'i gzugsforms of physical phenomena that make up other things by amassing together

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are the invisible objects, such as atoms and subatomic particles, that make up visible objects.

bsdus-grvaset theorySkt: dura

Set theory has to do with the logical pervasions between two or more sets -- mutually exclusive, totally congruent, overlapping, etc. A set is a collection or a group of many items, like the set of all nonstatic phenomena.

bsgribs-pa'i lung ma-bstanobstructive unspecified phenomenonSkt: nivrta-avyakrta

A phenomenon that Buddha did not specify as being either constructive or destructive, and which hinders the attainment of liberation.

bsgrub-byed-kyi yan-lagcausal links that actualize

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the three links of craving, an obtainer, and further existence, which activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma in the moments preceding death so that the karmic results will actualize. Thus, they serve as the simultaneously acting conditions for the aggregates of a next rebirth.

bshes-gnyen bsten-parelating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy manner

Entrusting oneself, through mind and actions, to a fully qualified spiritual mentor. Also called: relying on a spiritual mentor, entrusting oneself to a spiritual mentor, whole-hearted commitment to a spiritual mentor. Often translated as: guru-devotion.

bskyed-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-buman-made result that is produced

Something material, such as a vase, a bruise, or a profit, that arises from someone's effort or actions, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.

bskyed-rimgeneration stage

The first stage of anuttarayoga practice, during which one uses the powers of imagination to generate oneself in the form of a Buddha-figure and performs a sadhana.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stage of generation."

bsngo-badedication prayerSkt: pranidhana

A prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal, in which the person making the prayer directs the positive force (merit) from a constructive action that he or she has done toward ripening into that attainment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "dedicate."

bsnyen-chengreat approximation retreat

A three-year, three-month retreat focusing exclusively on one Buddha-figure (deity) system, in which one recites tens of millions of mantras and makes millions of offerings in fire pujas.

bsnyen-sgrubapproximate and actualize oneself as a Buddha-figure

Intensive tantric meditation practice entailing visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure and recitation of the appropriate mantras.

bsod-namspositive karmic forceSkt: punya

The type of karmic force associated with a constructive action and which ripens intermittently into transitory happiness. Some translators render it as "merit." See: karmic force.


J. Hopkins' translation: "merit."

bsod-nams-kyi tshogsnetwork of positive forceSkt: punyasambhara

A constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the positive force on the mental continuum of a limited being, when dedicated with bodhichitta, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Form Corpus of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of positive force." Some translators render the term as "collection of merit."


J. Hopkins' translation: "accumulation of merit; collection of merit."

btags-chosreferent object

The validly knowable phenomena that the names and concepts for them, imputed on a basis for labeling, refer to.


J. Hopkins' translation: "designated phenomenon{N}; phenomenon imputed."

btags-donreferent thing

The actual "thing" referred to by a name or concept, corresponding to the names or concepts for something, and which is findable, establishing its own existence by its own power, on the side of the referent object of the name or concept. In Gelug, according to Prasangika it is nonexistent and according to lower tenet systems it is existent.


J. Hopkins' translation: "designated object."

btags-yodimputably knowable phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does rely on actual cognition of or by something else, specifically the object's basis for labeling.


J. Hopkins' translation: "imputed existence; imputed existent; imputedly existent."

btang-snyomsequanimitySkt: upeksha

(1) The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of having an equal attitude toward everyone. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the tenth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude with which one does not expect anything in return for one's help, being indifferent to pleasure and pain, and to any benefit or harm one might receive.


J. Hopkins' translation: "neutral feeling, equanimity."

btang-snyomsneutral feelingSkt: upeksha

That feeling which, when it arises, one neither wants to be parted from it, nor, when it stops, one wishes to meet it again.


J. Hopkins' translation: "neutral feeling, equanimity."

btang-snyoms tsammere equanimity

An equal attitude toward everyone that is devoid of attachment to loved ones, repulsion from enemies, and indifference toward strangers, developed in common in both Hinayana and Mahayana.

bya-grub ye-shesaccomplishing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that goes out to a cognitive object and which has the willingness to accomplish something with it, or to do something with it or to it, or to relate to it in some personal way. Also called: deep awareness to accomplish things.

bya-grub ye-shesawareness, accomplishing

See: accomplishing deep awareness

byams-paloveSkt: maitri

(1) The wish for someone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the ninth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude to work to bring about the welfare and happiness of others, even when doing so requires self-sacrifice.

byams-pa chen-pogreat loveSkt: mahamaitri

The wish for everyone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness.

byang-chubpurified stateSkt: bodhi

The state of a shravaka arhat, pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, in which the mental continuum of the person attaining this state has been purified of either the emotional obscurations or both the emotional and the cognitive obscurations.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[purified-realized]; enlightenment."

byang-chub-gyi semsbodhichittaSkt: bodhicitta

Usually used in the meaning of relative bodhichitta: A mind or heart focused first on the benefit of all limited beings and then on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, validly imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit others by means of that attainment. Alternative Tibetan: byang-sems.

byang-chub sems-dpa'bodhisattvaSkt: bodhisattva

Someone who has developed unlabored bodhichitta.

byang-sems 'phags-paarya bodhisattvaSkt: arya bodhisattva

A bodhisattva that has attained nonconceptual cognition of voidness. See also: bodhisattva.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bodhisattva superiors."

byang-sems sdom-pabodhisattva vows

The set of restraints from committing certain actions (eighteen root downfalls and forty-six faulty actions) that, if committed, would be detrimental to achieving enlightenment and benefiting all others.

Bye-brag smra-baVaibhashika

A Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert reflexive awareness and does assert external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Vaibhāṣhika, Great Exposition School."

byed-pa-poagent

The person who commits an action.


J. Hopkins' translation: "agent; doer."

byed-pa rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buresult that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of liking or wishing to do an action, in a particular moment, similar to what one has done in the past. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause in one's behavior" and "result that is similar to its cause in one's instinctive behavior."


J. Hopkins' translation: "functionally causally concordant effect."

byed-rgyuacting causeSkt: karanahetu

All phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "creative cause."

bying-bamental dullness

A mental factor (subsidiary awareness) faulting the appearance-making of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Some translators render the term as "sinking."


J. Hopkins' translation: "laxity."

byin-gyis rlabsinspirationSkt: adhishthana

(1) A transformation that someone or something confers, literally by means of a "brightening," into a state of heightened power and ability resembling the position or status of the person or thing that confers it. (2) In the meaning of "elevation," transformation of one's body, speech, and mind, or offering substances, into pure aspects, done during a tantric ritual. Some translators render the term as "blessing."

byin-rlabsresolutionSkt: adhisthana

One of the ten far-reaching attitudes in the Theravada tradition. An attitude of determination with which a bodhisattva never abandons what he or she needs to do in order to benefit others.

bzod-papatienceSkt: kshanti

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of not becoming angry at others' shortcomings, mistakes, or cruel deeds. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to be unperturbed by those who do harm and by suffering, so that one never becomes angry. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, patience becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "forbearance."

chags-paattachmentSkt: sanga

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses and does not wish to let go of it.

chags-pasticky attachmentSkt: sneha

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses, that clings to it like glue, and does not wish to let go.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attachment."

chags-pa med-padetachmentSkt: asanga

The constructive mental factor of bored disgust with and thus lack of longing desire for compulsive existence and objects of compulsive existence. Also translated as "nonattachment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-attachment; unattached."

ched-du brjod-paspecial versesSkt: udana

Praises that Buddha uttered with joy for the sake of the long life of his teachings, and not for the sake of specific individuals. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "saying; sayings; purposeful expressions."

chosdharmaSkt: dharma

(1) Preventive measures which, if one puts into practice or achieves, prevent the experience of future suffering. (2) Buddha's teachings. (3) Any phenomenon or "thing."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Phenomenon, attribute/quality, religion/practice."

chosphenomenonSkt: dharma

A validly knowable object that holds its own individual self-nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Phenomenon, attribute/quality, religion/practice."

chos-canproperty-possessor

A member of the set of phenomena possessing a certain property, such as voidness as its actual nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "subject/ substrata."

chos-dbyings ye-shesdeep awareness of realitySkt: dharmadhatu-jnana

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness of the superficial truth of something -- namely, awareness of what it is. When developed on the spiritual path, this deep awareness may also be of the deepest truth of something -- namely, its voidness. Also called: deep awareness of the sphere of reality.


J. Hopkins' translation: "exalted wisdom of the element of qualities; exalted wisdom of the sphere of reality; exalted wisdom of the nature of phenomena."

chos-kyi bdagimpossible "soul" of all phenomenonSkt: dharma-atman

An impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self of phenomena."

chos-kyi bdag-medlack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomenaSkt: dharma-anatman

The total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness of all phenomena" or "identitylessness of all phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "selflessness of phenomena."

chos-kyi sdom-pa bzhifour hallmarks of the Dharma

Four points which, if contained in a system of teachings, indicate that the system is a Buddhist one: (1) all affected (conditioned) phenomena are nonstatic (impermanent), (2) all tainted phenomena are problematic (suffering), (3) all phenomena are devoid and lacking an impossible "soul," while (4) a nirvana release is a pacification and something constructive. Also called "four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words."

chos-kyi skye-mchedcognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomena

All validly knowable phenomena, all of which may be validly cognized by mental consciousness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "phenomenon-sense-sphere."

chos-kyi skye-mched-pa'i gzugsforms of physical phenomena included (only) among the cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomena

Forms of physical phenomena that are not knowable by sensory consciousness, but are only knowable by mental consciousness. These include (1) those that make up other things by amassing together, (2) those existing in actual situations, (3) those arising from clearly taking them on, (4) totally imaginary forms, and (5) those arising from gaining control over the elements.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form for the mental consciousness."

chos-kyi spyanextrasensory eye of the Dharma

One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Gelug explanation, cognition that is able to understand the mental capacities of others, in order to be able to teach them appropriately. (2) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, a Buddha's omniscient awareness that possesses the ten forces that enable a Buddha to lead all beings to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "eye of doctrine."

chos-nyidactual natureSkt: dharmata

A synonym for voidness (emptiness) or, in some mahamudra and dzogchen systems, the nature of everything as the play of inseparable awareness and voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "final nature/real nature/noumenon."

chos-skuCorpus Encompassing EverythingSkt: dharmakaya

The omniscient mind of a Buddha


J. Hopkins' translation: "Truth Body/Body of Attributes."

chos-skyongDharma-protectorSkt: dharmapala

A class of forceful beings, tamed by Buddha or a spiritual lineage master such as Guru Rinpoche, and made to take an oath to protect the Dharma and its practitioners. They may be either ordinary worldly beings (non-aryas) or highly realized aryas. In some cases, they are emanations of a Buddha, appearing in the form of a Dharma-protector.

dad-pabelieving a fact to be trueSkt: shraddha

A constructive emotion that focuses on something existent and validly knowable, something with good qualities, or an actual potential, and considers it either existent or true, or considers a fact about it as true. Some translators render the term as "faith."


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith."

dag-pa'i snang-bapure appearance

An appearance of something as an enlightened mind makes it appear, namely in the form of a Buddha-figure or mandala and devoid of any of the four extremes of impossible existence.

dal-barespite

A temporary rest or a break from a state of no leisure for Dharma practice, such as the worst states of rebirth. Some translators render the term as a "freedom" or a "liberty."


J. Hopkins' translation: "leisure."

da-lta-bapresent-happening

The affirmation phenomenon of the occurrence of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "now; present; nowadays."

dam-pahallowed

Pure and worthy of the highest respect; sacred.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate."

dam-rdzasbonding substances

Substances, such as alcohol and meat, purified, transformed, and consecrated during a tantra ritual and offered to a Buddha-figure in order to maintain a close bond (close connection) with that figure, as one has promised to do.

dam-tshigbonding practiceSkt: samaya

A type of behavior or a state of mind, which, when practiced, maintains a close connection with either a certain tantra or a certain spiritual master. Also called: closely bonding practice, close bond.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[promise-word]; promise; pledge; vow."

dangs-ba'i dad-paclearheadedly believing a fact to be true

See: clearheaded belief in a fact

dbangempowermentSkt: abhishekha

A tantric ritual that activates and empowers Buddha-nature factors to grow so that, through repeated, sustained tantric practice, they will eventually transform into the Three Corpuses (Bodies) of a Buddha. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials, that will likewise grow in the same manner. The term is often translated as "initiation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "empowerment; initiation; consecration; power; force; control."

dbang-'byor-pa'i gzugsforms of physical phenomena arising from gaining control over the elements

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are actually emanated by the power of absorbed concentration.

dbang bzhi-pafourth empowerment

Also called: word empowerment (tshig-dbang)

dbang-gi 'bras-bucommanding results

Synonymous with dominating results.

dbang-pocognitive sensorSkt: indriya

The dominating condition that determines the type of cognition a way of being aware of something is. In the case of the five types of sensory cognition, it is the photosensitive cells of the eyes, the sound-sensitive cells of the ears, the smell-sensitive cells of the nose, the taste-sensitive cells of the tongue, and the physical-sensation-sensitive cells of the body. In the case of mental cognition, it is the immediately preceding moment of cognition. Some translators render the term as "sense power."


J. Hopkins' translation: "sense power."

dbu-maMadhyamakaSkt: madhyamaka

A Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert the true existence of anything. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "center; middle; middle way{N}; MAdhyamika [Proponent of the Middle Way]; Middle Way School."

dbu-ma-paMadhyamika

A follower of the Madhyamaka school of Indian Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Middle Way School, Mādhyamika."

dbu-ma rang-rgyud-paSvatantrika Madhyamaka

See: Svatantrika


J. Hopkins' translation: "Middle Way Autonomy School."

dbu-ma thal-'gyur-baPrasangika Madhyamaka

See: Prasangika

dbus-gnas-nyideven-mindedSkt: madhyasthata

A tranquil state of mind that stays in the middle with regard to being either happy or unhappy, in all circumstances, such as when meeting with or parting from friends. Literally, "a state of standing in the middle."

dbyangs-kyis bsnyad-pamelodic versesSkt: geya

One of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Verses that Buddha uttered during the course of and at the conclusion of his sutras. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of interpretable meaning.

dbyer-medinseparable

Two facts about the same attribute of an object are inseparable if, when one is the case, so is the other. The two facts may inseparably both be the case either naturally or made to be so through the power of meditation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "undifferentiated; undivided."

dbyingscognitive sphereSkt: dhatu

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive open space.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sphere/ sphere of reality."

de-bzhin gshegs-paThusly Gone OneSkt: tathagata

A epithet of a Buddha -- one who has gone to the goal of enlightenment through nonconceptual cognition of voidness, the very nature of reality (thusness).


J. Hopkins' translation: "One-Gone-Thus."

de-bzhin-nyidaccordant natureSkt: tathata

A synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "thusness."

de-kho-na-nyidvery nature of realitySkt: tattvam

A synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Suchness, reality."

de-kho-na-nyid mchod-paoffering of the very nature of reality

Offering of a nonconceptual cognition of voidness with a blissful awareness or of one's nonconceptual blissful cognition of voidness together with one's appearance as an illusory body.

de-lta-bu byung-baancient narrativesSkt: itivrttika

Stories from ancient times that Buddha told. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

de-ma-thag rkyenimmediately preceding conditionSkt: samanantarapratyaya

The immediately preceding moment of awareness, which produces the appearance-making and cognizing (clarity and awareness) of the next moment of awareness as its result.

de-nyidhow things are

Also called: thusness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "suchness."

dgag-panegation phenomenon

An item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the exclusion of something else, in which an object to be negated is explicitly precluded by the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon. Also translated as: "negation," "nullification," "refutation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "negative/negative phenomenon."

dge-'dunSanghaSkt: sangha

The literal meaning of the Sanskrit term is a "community"; the literal meaning of the Tibetan translation is "those intent on a constructive goal." Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic community: full or novice monks or nuns - the four need not necessarily be all from one group or one from each group - and who have unlabored renunciation and are intent on ridding themselves of disturbing emotions and attitudes and thus attaining liberation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spiritual community."

dge-baconstructiveSkt: kushala

States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into happiness to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "virtuous" is misleading for this term.


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtue, virtuous."

dge-ba'i bshes-gnyenspiritual mentorSkt: kalyanamitra

A Buddhist teacher who has had stable realizations, who embodies the teachings in the sense of having integrated them into his or her life, and who confers vows on disciples.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spiritual friend, virtuous spiritual friend, spiritual guide."

dge-ba'i rtsa-baroots of positive force

The network of positive force (collection of merit), described from the point of view of it serving as the "root" for one to grow into a Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtuous root."

dge-bshesgesheSkt: kalyanamitra

(1) In the Kadam tradition, a title given to a spiritual mentor and friend, especially those that are masters of attitude-training (lojong). (2) In the Gelug tradition, a title given to those who have completed the monastic education system.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ge-shay."

dGe-lugsGelug

One of the New Translation traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from the reforms made by Tsongkhapa.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ge-luk."

dGe-lugs-paGelugpa

A follower of the Gelug tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ge-luk-pa."

dge-rtsaroots of constructive force

See: roots of positive force


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtuous/wholesome root(s); roots of virtue."

dgra-bcom-paarhatSkt: arhat

A practitioner, of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva class, who has achieved a true stopping of the emotional obscurations and thus has attained liberation (nirvana). Also called a "liberated being." Some translators render the term as "foe-destroyer."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Foe Destroyer/Worthy One."

dkar-po chig-thubsingular sufficient white panacea

Also called: all-curing single white epanacea, single white remedy, self-sufficient white remedy

dkon-mchog gsumThree Rare and Supreme GemsSkt: triratna

The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. Also called "The Three Gems," "The Triple Gem," "The Three Jewels," and "The Three Jewels of Refuge."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Three Jewels."

dkon-mchog-gsum-la skyabs-su-'grotake safe direction from the Three Gems

To turn toward the direction indicated by the Three Rare and Supreme Gems (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and to put that safe direction in one's life. Some translators render this as "go for refuge to the Three Gems."

dkyil- 'khormandalaSkt: mandala

In general, a round symbol used to represent a meaning. Most often used to represent a world system.

dmigs-gtadfocal support

A findable, truly existent referent "thing," propping up the object of a cognition. Compare: referent thing.

dmigs-medwithout a referent aim

A state of mind, such as immeasurable compassion, that lacks focus on the three circles ('khor-gsum) involved -- the action itself (in the case of compassion, wishing all beings to be free from suffering), the object, and the agent -- existing in an impossible way. Also translated as: unaimed.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unobservability; boundlessness."

dmigs-rkyenfocal conditionSkt: alambanapratyaya

An external phenomenon that presents an aspect of itself to be an object of cognition, and thus serves as a condition giving rise to a sensory cognition of it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "observed-object condition."

dmigs-yulfocal object

An external object on which a cognition focuses and which serves as the focal condition of the cognition. Focal objects exist prior to the cognitions of them and have their own continuums different from those of the cognitions of them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "observed object; object of observation."

dngos-'galdichotomy

Two mutually exclusive sets form a dichotomy if all existent phenomena must be a member of either one or the other mutually exclusive set.


J. Hopkins' translation: "explicitly contradictory."

dngos-grubactual attainmentSkt: siddhi

A significant spiritual goal that one actually attains or, literally, "makes actual" or "makes real" on one's mental continuum. The ordinary actual attainments refer to extrasensory and extraphysical powers, while the supreme actual attainment refers to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "feat; accomplishment; yogic accomplishment; actual accomplishment; fact."

dngos-gzhiactual fundamental part

The main part of a text or practice, containing the actual discussion of the principal topic.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

dngos-gzhiactual state

The full definitional state of something, such as one of levels of mental constancy.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

dngos-mednonfunctional phenomenon

(1) An validly knowable, existent object that does not perform a function -- in other words, it does not produce a result -- namely, a static phenomenon. (2) A nonexistent object, such as an impossible way of existing.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-thing; that which is not a [functioning] thing; non-existent."

dngos-pofunctional phenomenon

(1) A validly knowable, existent object that performs a function -- in other words, it produces a result -- namely, a nonstatic phenomenon. (2) In the Vaibhashika system, all validly knowable, existent phenomenon, all of which at least perform the function of acting as an object for the valid cognition of them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thing/functioning thing/effective thing."

dngos-po brgyadeight sets of realizations

also translated as: eight phenomena.

dngos-rgyudirect cause

The phenomenon that actually produces its result, without need for any intermediary -- for example, a visible object is the direct cause for the seeing of it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual cause."

dngos-su rtogs-paexplicit apprehension

In the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object of the cognition arises. Compare: implicit apprehension.


J. Hopkins' translation: "explicitly realize; explicit realization."

dngos-su shes-padirect cognition

According to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the present moment of a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object. Compare: indirect cognition.

don-dam bden-padeepest true phenomenonSkt: paramartha

In the Hinayana tenet systems, a true phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a conventional (superficial, surface, relative, apparent) true phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate truth."

don-dam bden-padeepest truthSkt: paramartha

In the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a more superficial true fact about the same phenomenon. Some translators render this term as "ultimate truth."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate truth."

don-dam-padeepest level

The level of some phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by something more superficial about that phenomenon. Sometimes translated as "ultimate level" or "deepest ultimate level."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate, ultimate object, highest object."

don-dam-pa'i byang-chub-gyi semsdeepest bodhichitta

The deep awareness that has nonconceptual cognition of voidness.

don-dam-pa'i chos dkon-mchogdeepest Dharma Gem

The true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or a monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).

don-dam-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchogdeepest Sangha Gem

The true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).

don-dam-pa'i dkon-mchogdeepest level Precious Gems

The level of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are concealed by the apparent level gems.

don-dam-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchogdeepest Buddha Gem

A Buddha's Dharmakaya as a source of safe direction (refuge).

don-gcigtotally pervasive

Two sets, A and B, are totally pervasive if every element in set A is also a member of set B, and vice versa


J. Hopkins' translation: "mutually inclusive/equivalent."

don-gyi 'od-gsalactual clear light mind

A subtlest level of consciousness that has a nonconceptual, blissful cognition of voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual clear light/ exemplified clear light."

don-ldogconceptually isolated meaning

In Gelug, equivalent to the defining characteristic mark of a validly knowable phenomenon, which can only be distinguished in terms of a conceptually isolated item.


J. Hopkins' translation: "meaning isolate."

don rang-mtshan-gyi gzhan-selindividually characterized object exclusions of something else

In reference to an existent phenomenon "this," negation phenomena such as "nothing other than this" and "not that." (1) According to Gelug, they are nonstatic phenomena implicitly apprehended when a valid conceptual or nonconceptual cognition explicitly apprehends its involved object as "this." (2) According to non-Gelug, a static fact about "this" that is validly knowable only conceptually, separately from valid cognition of "this."


J. Hopkins' translation: "other-eliminator that is a factual specifically characterized phenomenon."

don-spyimeaning category

The conceptual category into which fit all significances (meanings) of an audio category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

don-spyimeaning/object category

The conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refers. These items are also what the audio category signifies (means).


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

don-spyiobject category

The conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refer.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

don-spyiobject mental synthesis

(1) The conceptual category of a commonsense object, such as a table, used when thinking of, verbalizing, imagining (visualizing), or remembering a commonsense object. (2) A specific commonsense object as a conceptual category into which fit all moments of anyone's mental or sensory cognition of any amount of parts of any of its sensibilia.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

dpa'-bovira

(spiritual hero)


J. Hopkins' translation: "hero; intrepid person; ShUra."

dpa'-movirini

(spiritual heroine)

dpe'i 'od-gsalmodel clear light mind

A subtle level of consciousness that has a blissful conceptual cognition of voidness, which is attained when the subtle energy-winds are partly dissolved in the central energy-channel. Also translated as "approximating clear light mind."


J. Hopkins' translation: "metaphoric clear light."

dpyad-sgomdiscerning meditation

A method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind, with which one focuses on an object and generates the desired insight, understanding, or state of mind about it, through using the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) and subtle discernment (scrutiny). The method may also entail applying a line reasoning that one has already understood and become convinced of its validity. Many translators render the term as "analytical meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "analytical meditation."

dpyod-pasubtle discernment

A subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that actively understands the fine details of the nature of something, having scrutinized them thoroughly. It does not imply verbal thinking, although it may be induced by verbally thinking. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "scrutiny," "analysis." and "discerning analysis."


J. Hopkins' translation: "analysis."

drag-poforceful

Using extremely strong actions or methods, such as yelling at someone or hitting someone, in order to make the person stop doing something harmful. Forceful methods are used only when all other methods to make the person stop have failed or are impossible in the situation. Some translators render the term as "wrathful," but this has an inappropriate connotation, since "wrathful," in English, is used for the Old Testament God, who, when people disobey Him, gets angry and punishes them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hard; heavy [=sra ba]; fierce; strong."

drang-donexplicit suggestive meaningSkt: neyartha

One of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It suggests or leads one on to the second meaning (the implicit suggested meaning), which is dissimilar to what is actually said on face value.


J. Hopkins' translation: "interpretable meaning{BJ 27.6}; interpretable object{N}; requiring interpretation; interpretable; meaning requiring interpretation."

drang-doninterpretable teachingSkt: neyartha

A passage in a sutra text that discusses any topic other than the most profound view of voidness, and which leads one on or points the way to the most profound view of voidness. Such passages require explanation, so that one does not confuse them as indicating the most profound view.


J. Hopkins' translation: "interpretable meaning{BJ 27.6}; interpretable object{N}; requiring interpretation; interpretable; meaning requiring interpretation."

dran-pamindfulnessSkt: smrti

(1) The subsidiary awareness (mental factor), similar to a mental glue, that keeps a mental hold on a cognitive object, so that it is not lost. (2) The recollection of something, with which the mind keeps a mental hold on a mental hologram that resembles and represents something previously cognized. The term is often rendered as "memory" or "remembering," but has nothing to do with the recording or storage of mental information.

dran-pa nyer-bzhag bzhifour close placements of mindfulnessSkt: smrtyupasthana

Meditation practices that focus on (a) the body, (b) feelings of levels of happiness, (c) mind, and (d) phenomena, with the subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) of mindfulness ("mental glue") and attention to them with a certain understanding. (1) In Theravada, one is attentive to (a) the breath as affecting the body, (b) feelings of levels of happiness and unhappiness as affecting the mind, (c) disturbing emotions as affecting the thoughts, and (d) the nature of the previous three as being nonstatic and lacking an impossible "soul." (2) In Mahayana, one is attentive to (a) the body as unclean and true suffering, (b) feelings of levels of happiness as in the nature of suffering, and clinging to them as a true cause of suffering, (c) the six kinds of primary consciousness as naturally free of all stains, so as to understand true stoppings, and (d) all mental factors in terms of which to get rid of and which to cultivate, so as to understand true pathway minds.

dri-mastain

Something that obscures the Buddha-nature factors, preventing them from being fully realized.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stain; taint; defilement; contamination."

drinkindness

A beneficial action that is of help to others.


J. Hopkins' translation: "kindness; grace."

drin-dranremembering kindness

Remembering the kindness of motherly love, remembering all the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers. The second of the six part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.

drin-gsorepaying kindness

Appreciating the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers and wishing to benefit them in return. The third of the seven part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.

dri-zathose who sustain themselves on fragrancesSkt: gandharva

(1) A class of divine beings (gods) on the plane of sensory desires that live on fragrances and are musicians. Also translated as "heavenly musicians." (2) Beings in the state of bardo existence inbetween death and rebirth onto the plane of sensory desires. Such beings live on either pleasant fragrances during fortunate eons or unpleasant odors during unfortunate eons.


J. Hopkins' translation: "scent eater; odor eater; the musicians of Indra, ruled by DhRtarastra, who live in the region of the air and the heavenly waters; their special duty is to guard the heavenly soma, which the gods obtain through their intervention."

dustimeSkt: kala

An interval imputed or measured in the continuum of the occurrence of a sequence of cause and effect. Since time is conceptually imputable, time is a function of and therefore relative to the mind that conceptually imputes it.

dus-kyi kun-slongcontemporaneous motivating aim

The motivating aim or intention that accompanies the impulse to start and to continue an action.

dvang-ba'i dad-paclearheaded belief in a fact

A constructive emotion that is clear about a fact and, like a water purifier, clears the mind of disturbing emotions and attitudes about the object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of clarity."

dvangslucidity

A quality of a well-concentrated mind with which the mind remains fresh in each moment.

ga'u-maamulet box tradition

A tradition of mahamudra meditation transmitted in the Shangpa Kagyu school.

gang-zagpersonSkt: pudgala

An individual being, including those from any of the six realms of samsaric existence, as well as arhats and Buddhas. A noncongruent affecting variable, synonymous with a conventional "me."

gang-zag-kyi bdagimpossible "soul" of a personSkt: pudgala-atman

Something totally nonexistent, findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable.

gang-zag-kyi bdag-medlack of an impossible soul of a personSkt: pudgala-anatman

The total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. Often translated by others as "selflessness of a person" or "identitylessness of a person."

gces-zhing pham-pa'i byams-pacherishing concerned love

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which, not only does one wish others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one values the welfare of others highly and would feel sad if anything bad happened to them.

gcigmonad

An undifferentiated, partless whole, either the size of an atom or the size of the universe, asserted by non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy as descriptive of the atman, the "soul" of a person.


J. Hopkins' translation: "one; same; oneness; unitary; single; singular phenomenon."

gdags-gzhibasis for labeling

A phenomenon on which another phenomenon is mentally labeled. Also translated as "basis for imputation" or "basis for designation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis of designation."

gdams-ngagguideline instructions

Beneficial practical advice concerning spiritual practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "instruction, preceptual instruction."

gleng-bzhiethical narrativesSkt: nidana

Rules, codified by Buddha for those who are ordained, concerning which actions constitute a breach of their vows. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

glo-bur-gyi dri-mafleeting stain

An emotional or cognitive obscuration that temporarily obscures the realization of Buddha-nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "adventitious defilement/stain."

gnadkey points

The most important main points of a topic.

gnas-chamental abiding

The aspect of a cognition that describes the degree to which attention remains on the focal object. Also translated as "mental placement," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mental fixation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "factor of stability."

gnas-lugsabiding nature

The lasting, enduring nature of all phenomena; the voidness of all phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mode of subsistence."

gnas-skabs-kyi skyabs-gnasprovisional source of safe direction

The aryas with incomplete sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.

gnyis-mednondual

(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the absence (the voidness) of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which everything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-duality; non-dual; non-dualistic."

gnyis-med rgyudnondual tantra

A division of anuttarayoga tantra, specified only in the non-Gelug schools, in which there is equal emphasis on practices for generating the physical bodies of a Buddha and practices for generating the mind of a Buddha.

gnyis-snangdualistic appearance-making

(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the mental activity of giving rise to an appearance of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which anything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhayamaka, the mental activity of giving rise, within a cognition, to an appearance of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, the mental activity of giving rise to an appearance, within a cognition, of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources. Also called "dual appearance-making" and "discordant appearance-making."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dualistic appearance."

gnyis-snangdualistic appearances

The appearances that dualistic appearance-making gives rise to. (1) In Gelug Prasangika, an appearance of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which anything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, an appearance of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, an appearance of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources. Also called "dual appearances" and "discordant appearances."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dualistic appearance."

gnyug-maprimordial state

The state of having, with no beginning, been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. Descriptive of the clear light mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fundamental."

gnyug-semsprimordial mind

Awareness that, with no beginning, has been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. A synonym for "clear light mind."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fundamental mind."

gong-ma'i spyivertical mental synthesis

A collection or mental synthesis that extends over time, such as a human body over a lifetime.

grub-mtha'tenet systemSkt: siddhanta

A set of principles or assertions of a particular traditional Indian school of philosophy or of astronomical calculations.


J. Hopkins' translation: "tenets."

grub-mtha’systems of tenets

See: tenet system

gsalclarity

As a defining characteristic of mind, the ability, mental activity, or event of making cognitive objects arise -- or giving rise to cognitive objects -- so that they can be cognized. According to the Gelug tradition, a mental hologram of the cognitive object need not even arise in the cognition, since the object may be implicitly cognized. Clarity is not some sort of light in one's head that has varying intensity and illuminates objects that are already present. Nor does it have anything to do with an object of cognition being in focus or being understood. Moreover, giving rise to a cognitive object has no implication of passivity or lack of responsibility on the one hand, or conscious will on the other. As an event, clarity just naturally happens every moment of every mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear; bright; light; predicate [misspelling of bsal?]{BJ}."

gsal-bain focus

The appearance of something as being sharp and clear, not blurry.


J. Hopkins' translation: "instance; manifestation; predicate [misspelling of bsal ba?]{BJ}; clarifier; clear{D1}; clearly."

gsang-baenigmaticSkt: guhya

Also translated as: secret, hidden


J. Hopkins' translation: "secret."

gsang-ba'i dkyil-'khorsecret mandala

The offering of a blissful awareness, or of a nonconceptual blissful awareness of voidness with a clear-light mind. Also called: hidden mandala.

gsang-mchodhidden offering

An offering of one's blissful awareness or of one's blissful awareness of voidness, visualized in the form of an offering goddess.

gsang-sngagshidden mantraSkt: guhyamantra

Synonymous with "mantra."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mantra; secret mantra."

gSar-maSarma

See: New Translation

gser-skyemsgolden libation

(1) An offering of a liquid, most commonly alcohol, made usually to a Dharma protector and ideally offered in a golden bowl. (2) The ritual that accompanies this offering.

gsos-'debsactivate

To cause a karmic tendency to become a manifest karmic impulse that will give its result in the next moment. Also translated as "arouse."

gsos-'debsarouse

The process through which a disturbing emotion or attitude brings on the arising of a karmic impulse. Also translated as "activate."

gsung-rab yan-lag bcu-gnyistwelve scriptural categories

The twelve classes of Buddha's scriptural (verbal) teachings divided according to a textual point of view -- namely, (1) expositions on themes of practice, (2) melodic verses, (3) revelatory accounts, (4) metered verses, (5) special verses, (6) ethical narratives, (7) illustrative accounts, (8) ancient narratives, (9) past life accounts, (10) epic presentations, (11) fabulous accounts, and (12) decisive explications.

gtan-la dbab-paascertainment

A decisive cognition of a cognitive object; decisively knowing what an object of cognition is or how it exists. Also translated as "decisive awareness" and "decisive cognition."

gtan-la phab-padecisive explicationsSkt: upadesha

Precise indications of the meaning of the works in The Basket of Sutras by specifying the individual and general definitions of things. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

gter-materma

See: treasure text


J. Hopkins' translation: "[Nying-ma] buried texts."

gter-matreasure text

Texts planted by Indian or Tibetan masters, either in a physical location, such as inside a pillar of a temple, or in the minds of disciples and hidden there for safekeeping during times that were not conducive for their practice. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan term "terma."


J. Hopkins' translation: "[Nying-ma] buried texts."

gti-mugnaivetySkt: moha

A subcategory of unawareness. The unawareness of behavioral cause and effect or of reality that accompanies only destructive states of mind or behavior. One of the three poisonous emotions.


J. Hopkins' translation: "obscuration."

gti-mug med-palack of naivetySkt: amoha

The discriminating awareness that is aware of the individual details concerning behavioral cause and effect or concerning reality, and which acts as the opponent for naivety about them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-bewilderment; non-ignorance."

gtso-semsprincipal awareness

Within a cognition, an awareness that consists of the composite of a primary consciousness and its accompanying set of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The principal awareness is the way of being aware of the object of the cognition that is prominent and which characterizes the type of cognition that it is occurring -- for example, relative bodhichitta and the deep awareness of total absorption on voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "main mind."

gus-paappreciation

Valuing something highly, usually the kindness of someone. Often used in the context of appreciating the kindness of one's spiritual mentor. Sometimes translated as "respect."


J. Hopkins' translation: "respect; devotion; humility; be intent on."

gzhal-byacomprehensible phenomena

(1) Phenomena that can be apprehended, which means correctly and decisively cognized. (2) Phenomena that can be validly cognized and understood. Synonymous with validly knowable phenomena (shes-bya).


J. Hopkins' translation: "object of comprehension."

gzhal-yas khangimmeasurably magnificent palace

A palace visualized in tantra practice as part of the supporting mandala. Each architectural feature of the palace represents one or another realization gained along the tantra path, and inside the palace reside one or more Buddha-figures.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[measure-lacking-house]; inestimable mansion; fabulous mansion."

gzhan-dbangdependent phenomenonSkt: paratantra

A validly knowable object that arises dependently on causes and conditions. All nonstatic phenomena. Often translated literally as "other-powered phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "[other-power]; other powered (phenomena); other powered nature; having the influence of another; that which is under the influence of what is other; the dependent; other-powered; other-powered [nature]; dependent nature; dependent phenomenon."

gzhan gces-par 'dzin-pacherishing others

The attitude with which one considers others as the most precious and important ones; and has affection for and takes care of mainly others.

gzhan-selexclusions of something else

Phenomena specified in terms of the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon explicitly precluding an object to be negated. Synonymous with negation phenomena, they include both implicative and nonimplicative negation phenomena. (1) According to Gelug, they may be either static or nonstatic. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are all static phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "other exclusion; other-eliminator; exclusion-of-the-other."

gzhan-sems shes-pa'i mngon-shesadvanced awareness of knowing other's minds

Cognition of others' thoughts and states of mind. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance of knowing other's minds."

gzhan-stongother-voidness

The natural, beginningless absence from the clear light level of mental activity of "other" levels of mental activity, which are all limited by fleeting stains.


J. Hopkins' translation: "emptiness-of-other; emptiness of the other."

gzhibasis level

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something - for instance, the level of Buddha-nature -- that occurs in general, whether or not one has achieved some attainment on the Buddhist spiritual path.


J. Hopkins' translation: "base/foundation."

gzhi'i rig-pabasis rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of it being a type of Buddha-nature or working basis for attaining enlightenment.

gzhi-ldogbases for conceptually isolated items

In Gelug, equivalent to individually characterized object exclusions of something else, which serve as the bases for imputation of the corresponding conceptually isolated items. For instance, the nonstatic negation phenomenon "nothing other than 'this,'" implicitly apprehended when explicitly apprehending "this" and which serves as the basis for imputation of the static negation phenomenon "nothing other than this," which is the mental representation of "nothing other than 'this'" in the conceptual cognition of "this."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis-isolate, illustration-isolate, illustration simpliciter."

gzhi-mthuncommon locus

A common locus of two sets of phenomena is an item that is a member of both sets. Sometimes translated as "common denominator."

gzhi-snang-gi rig-paappearance-making basis rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its aspect of spontaneously establishing appearances. Synonymous with the term "effulgent rigpa."

gzugsforms of physical phenomenaSkt: rupa

Nonstatic phenomena that can either (1) transform into another form of physical phenomenon when two or more of them come into contact with each other, such as water and earth which can transform into mud, or (2) be known as what they are by analyzing their directional parts, such as the sight of a vase seen in a dream. Forms of physical phenomena include the nonstatic phenomena of forms and eye sensors, sounds and ear sensors, smells and nose sensors, tastes and tongue sensors, phyiscal sensations and body sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Equivalent to the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form."

gzugssightsSkt: rupa

Nonstatic phenomena that can be explicitly cognized by eye consciousness -- namely, colors and shapes. Equivalent to "forms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes." One of the eleven types of forms of physical phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form."

gzugs-bsnyanmental derivativeSkt: pratibimba

(A) In Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, a fully transparent appearing object, which is a mental aspect, similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity, through which that external entity is directly cognized also as an appearing object of the cognition. (2) In conceptual cognition, a static conceptual category that is mentally constructed from all individual objective entities that fit into it and thus is a semitransparent, static, metaphysical entity. It is the appearing object through which a fully transparent mental representation of a specific objective entity is cognized. (B) In non-Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, the opaque, directly cognized appearing object, which is a mental aspect similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity that the cognition indirectly cognizes as its focal object, but not as an additional appearing object. (2) In conceptual cognition, a conceptually isolated item, an opaque metaphysical entity that stands for the mentally synthesized commonsense object and category in the cognition and which is the appearing object of the cognition.

gzugs-khamsplane of ethereal formsSkt: rupadhatu

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for subtle forms of physical phenomena. Usually translated by others as "form realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Form Realm."

gzugs-kyi phung-poaggregate of forms of physical phenomenaSkt: rupa-skandha

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of all types of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, physical sensations, physical sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Any of these can be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of forms."


J. Hopkins' translation: "form aggregate."

gzugs-kyi skye-mchedcognitive stimulators that are sights

Forms of physical phenomena that may be cognized by either visual or mental consciousness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sense-sphere of form."

gzugs-med khamsplane of formless beingsSkt: arupadhatu

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings lack any gross body. Usually translated by others as "formless realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Formless Realm."

gzugs-skuCorpus of FormsSkt: rupakaya

A network of forms in which a Buddha appears in order to benefit others. It includes both the subtle forms of a Corpus of Full Use and the grosser forms of a Corpus of Emanations, Also called: Corpus of Enlightening Forms, Form Body, Body of Forms.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Form Body."

gzung-'dzinconsciousness that takes objects and objects taken by consciousness

Within a cognition, the consciousness and cognitive object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehended-object and apprehending-subject."

ka-dagprimal purity

The essential nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which refers to its being pure of all stains, without a beginning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "essential purity."

Kar-ma bka'-brgyudKarma Kagyu

One of the four major Dagpo Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhsim deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa, in this case the First Karmapa.

kha-'donrecitation practice

In tantra, the meditation practice with which one recites a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings.

khamsplane

See: three planes of samsaric existence


J. Hopkins' translation: "basic constituent/constituent."

khams-gsumthree planes of samsaric existenceSkt: tridhatu

A threefold division of samsaric rebirth states: the planes of (1) sensory desires, (2) ethereal forms, and (3) formless beings. Sometimes called "the three realms."


J. Hopkins' translation: "three realms; the three realms [i.e., desire realm ('dod khams, kAmadhAtu), form realm (gzugs khams, rUpadhAtu), and formless realm (gzugs med khams, arUpyadhAtu)]."

kha-na ma-tho-bauncommendable actionSkt: avadya

An action that ripens into the experience of suffering by the person who commits it or into a hindrance to his or her spiritual practice. An action that cannot be spoken about with praise.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unseemliness; fault; blemish; blame."

khong-khroangerSkt: kroddha

A root disturbing emotion, aimed at another limited being, one's own suffering, or situations entailing suffering, and which is impatient with them and wishes to get rid of them, such as by damaging or hurting them, or by striking out against them. It is based on regarding its object as unattractive or repulsive by its very nature.

khriddiscourse

An oral teaching on a spiritual topic, often concerning tantra.


J. Hopkins' translation: "lead; lead through; guide as noun: leader; instruction."

khro-boforceful deitySkt: kroddha

An emanation of a Buddha in a form of great strength, usually surrounded by flames representing deep awareness, and terrifying, so as to chase away disturbing emotions, interferences, and other harm. Often translated by others as "wrathful deity," although there is no connotation here of "wrath" as in "the wrath of God." Although the Sanskrit and Tibetan terms, here, mean literally "angry," this does not refer to anger as a disturbing emotion, but rather to the strong force of anger to get rid of something detrimental to spiritual well-being and progress.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrathful."

khyabpervasive

"x" is pervasive with "y" if, whenever "x" is the case, so is "y". Used in such formulations as "If "x" is the case, then it is pervasive that "y" is the case."


J. Hopkins' translation: "entail; pervade; fill; embrace; cover over."

khyab-papervasion

The intersection of two sets of phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "pervasion; entailment; fill; pervade; penetrate; cover over."

khyab-par 'du-byed-kyi sdug-bsngalall-pervasively affecting suffering

The suffering that comes simply from having tainted aggregates that serve as the basis for experiencing the suffering of suffering and the suffering of change. Such suffering is all-pervasive since it affects every moment of samsaric experience.

klongcognitive open space

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive sphere.


J. Hopkins' translation: "expanse; sphere."

klong-sdelongdey

See: open space division

klong-sdeopen space division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from the oral teachings of the translator Vairochana, that emphasizes the cognitive open space aspect of pure awareness as the basis for all. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "longdey."

kun-'byung bden-patrue originSkt: samudaya-satya

Also translated as: true causes


J. Hopkins' translation: "true origins."

kun-'groever-functioning subsidiary awareness

According to Asanga, a set of five subsidiary awarenesses that accompany every moment of cognition: feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, an urge, contacting awareness, and paying attention or taking to mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omnipresent; all-pervading; omnipresent factor; omnipresent mental factor."

kun-'gro'i rgyudriving causeSkt: sarvatragohetu

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that generate other subsequent disturbing emotions and attitudes in the same plane of samsaric existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omnipresent cause."

kun-btagstotally conceptional phenomenaSkt: parikalpita

(1) In the context of the Chittamatra tenet-system, all static phenomena other than the various types of voidness, true stoppings, and nirvana, plus all non-existent phenomena. (2) In the context of the Madhyamaka tenet-system, all non-existent phenomena, especially true existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "imputational factor, artificial."

kun-btags-pa'i gzugstotally imaginary forms of physical phenomena

Forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which appear in certain mental states, such as the sensory objects appearing in dreams and the conceptually implied objects in visualizations and imaginings.

kun-dajasmine flower dropsSkt: kunda

Drops of white bodhichitta; drops of subtle creative energy.


J. Hopkins' translation: "kunda; kunda [transliteration of Sanskrit word for jasmine]; jasmine."

kun-dkris bzhifour binding factors

Factors which, when they accompany someone's acting in breach of a vow, bind that person to the full karmic result, in the sense of guaranteeing that the full karmic result will follow.

kun-gzhibasis for allSkt: alaya

A synonym for rigpa (pure awareness), used primarily in treasure texts of the mind division.


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis-of-all."

kun-gzhi rnam-shesall-encompassing foundation consciousnessSkt: alayavijnana

An unspecified, nonobstructive, individual consciousness that underlies all cognition, cognizes the same objects as the cognitions it underlies, but is a nondetermining cognition of what appears to it and lacks clarity of its objects. It carries the karmic legacies of karma and the mental impressions of memories, in the sense that they are imputed on it. It is also translated as "foundation consciousness" and, by some translators, as "storehouse consciousness." According to Gelug, asserted only by the Chittamatra system; according to non-Gelug, assserted by both the Chittamatra and Madhyamaka systems.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-basis-of-all."

kun-gzhi ye-shesdeep awareness alaya

In the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for "mind-itself": the pure aspect of mind that is an aspect of Buddha-nature.

kun-mkhyenomniscient awareness

A Buddha's unceasing nonconceptual cognition simultaneously of all validly knowable phenomena and their voidnesses -- in other words, of the two truths about all knowable phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omniscient."

kun-rdzob bden-pasuperficial true phenomenonSkt: samvrtisatya

In the Hinayana tenet systems, a true phenomenon that veils or conceals a deeper true phenomenon. Also called: relative true phenomenon, conventional true phenomenon, apparent true phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conventional truth/obscurational truth."

kun-rdzob bden-pasuperficial truthSkt: samvrtisatya

In the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that veils or conceals a deeper true fact about the same phenomenon. Also called: relative truth, conventional truth, apparent truth, surface truth.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conventional truth/obscurational truth."

kun-rdzob-gyi byang-chub-gyi semsconventional bodhichitta

A mind or heart focused first on the benefit of all limited beings and then on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit others by means of that attainment.

kun-rdzob-pa'i chos dkon-mchogapparent Dharma Gem

The twelve textual categories of teachings proclaimed by a Buddha's enlightening speech, as a source of safe direction.

kun-rdzob-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchogapparent Sangha Gem

The individual person of any arya, whether lay or monastic, as a source of safe direction.

kun-rdzob-pa'i dkon-mchogapparent level Precious Gems

The level of Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are apparent to limited beings and which conceal a deeper level gem.

kun-rdzob-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchogapparent Buddha Gem

The Corpus of Forms of a Buddha, as a source of safe direction.

kun-shes rnam-shesspecific-awareness alaya

In the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for alayavijnana. See: all-encompassing foundation for all.

kun-slongmotivating aim

Synonymous with intention. See: intention.


J. Hopkins' translation: "motivation; ask; beg; collect; gather; raise; cause to rise; inspire; excite; arouse; urge on."

lampathway levelSkt: marga

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of it in the context of someone engaged in the practices for attaining enlightenment. In some usages, the level of a Mahayana arya with a seeing or accustoming pathway mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "path."

lampathway mindSkt: marga

A level or state of mind that acts or functions as a pathway toward liberation or enlightenment. Some translators render this term as "path," but it refers to mental states, not to a series of spiritual practices. Also called: pathway of mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "path."

lam-bdentrue pathway mindSkt: marga-satya

Also called: true path


J. Hopkins' translation: "true path; true path{N}; truth of the path; true paths."

lam-lngafive bodhisattva pathway minds

Also called: five paths

lam-rimlam-rim

Graded path; graded stages of the path; graded stage of motivation; graded stages of pathway minds. A course of training in the Mahayana sutra teachings through which one makes progress by developing graded stages of motivation, which act as pathway minds leading to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stages of the path."

laskarmaSkt: karma

(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, equivalent to a subcategory of the mental factor (subsidiary awareness), an urge. It is the mental factor that brings the mind in the direction of a specific physical, verbal, or mental action. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, with respect to mental karmic actions, it is the mental factor of the urge that brings the mind in the direction of that action. With respect to physical or verbal karmic actions, it is (a) the revealing form of the physical impulse of the physical action or the sound of the words of the verbal action, plus (b) the nonrevealing form of the subtle invisible "vibration" of the action, which continues during and after the action. Some translators render the term "karma" as "action." (3) A general term used loosely for behavioral cause and effect. Also called: karmic impulse.


J. Hopkins' translation: "action."

las-'brasbehavioral cause and effect

The principles of karma, whereby certain actions produce certain effects. The cause is one's behavior – how one acts, speaks, and thinks – and the effect is what one experiences. Behavioral cause and effect is about the connection between one's behavior and what one experiences as a result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect(s) of action(s); action(s) and effect(s)."

las-kyi rlungwinds of karma

In the Kalachakra system, the subtle energy-winds that carry the impulses of karma -- either the karmic impulses that draw one into actions or the karmic impulses with which one carries out physical or verbal actions.

las-rungserviceability retreat

An intensive tantric meditation practice, done over many meditation sessions, during which one performs the sadhana and recites the mantra of a Buddha-figure ten thousand, one hundred thousand, or many hundreds of thousands of times, depending on the number of syllables in the mantra. When completed and finished off with the appropriate fire puja, this intensive practice makes the mind fit to be used (fit to be put into service) for more advanced tantric practices with that Buddha-figure.

ldan-min 'du-byednoncongruent affecting variable

One of the three types of nonstatic phenomena -- those nonstatic phenomena that do not share five things in common with the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses of the cognition in which they occur, and which are neither forms of physical phenomena nor ways of being aware of something. Sometimes translated as "nonstatic abstractions." See: five congruent features.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-associated compositional factors."

ldan-pa'i 'du-byedcongruent affecting variable

Ways of being aware of something that share five things in common with the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses of the cognition in which they occur. See: five congruent features.

ldog-paconceptually isolated item

The type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition and which represents the actual involved objects of the conceptual cognition. They are static phenomena, equivalent to conceptual representations. (1) According to Gelug, they are fully transparent static phenomena that are different from semitransparent conceptual categories. Equivalent to "items conceptually isolated by themselves" and "items conceptually isolated by categories." Also called "distinguishers" or "isolates."(2) Accordant non-Gelug, they are equivalent to semitransparent conceptual categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "isolate/conceptually isolatable phenomenon."

len-paobtainerSkt: upadana

A set of four disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes: (1) obtainer desire, (2) an obtainer deluded outlook, (3) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (4) asserting one's identity, and which, when occurring at the time of death, constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.


J. Hopkins' translation: "grasping."

lhadivine beingSkt: deva

A limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."


J. Hopkins' translation: "god."

lha'i mig-gi mngon-shesadvanced awareness of the divine eye

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, cognition of the different effects of karma on different beings, such as their future rebirths. (2) According to Gelug, cognition of gross (obvious) forms and subtle forms, including those at great distances in space and time.

lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-shesadvanced awareness of the divine ear

Cognition that is able to hear sounds at any distance and to understand them, regardless of language. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

lha'i spyanextrasensory divine eye

Cognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).

lhag-bcas-kyi mya-ngan 'dasnirvana with residueSkt: sopadhishesha-nirvana

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that a shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, attains during his lifetime and which lasts only so long as the person is alive. This is so called because the person still has left a residue of tainted aggregates. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the same as asserted by the Hinayana systems, but in reference only to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state either during subsequent attainment (post-meditation) periods, when meditating on something other than voidness, or when not meditating at all. In reference to Buddhas, their Corpuses of Form.

lhag-bsamexceptional resolveSkt: adhyashaya

The full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."


J. Hopkins' translation: "unusual attitude."

lhag-bsamexceptional sincerity

Exceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).


J. Hopkins' translation: "unusual attitude."

lhag-med mya-ngan 'dasnirvana without residueSkt: nirupadhishesha-nirvana

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats, or a Buddha, attains immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. No longer having a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuum extinguishes, like a spent candle. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the state that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats attain immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. Although they no longer have a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuums now go on in a purified form. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state during total absorption on voidness, when there is no appearance-making of truly established existence. In reference to Buddhas, their Deep Awareness Dharmakayas.

lhag-mthongexceptionally perceptive state of mindSkt: vipashyana

A state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight."


J. Hopkins' translation: "special insight."

lha ma-yinwould-be divineSkt: asura

A class of limited beings characerized by extreme jealousy toward the divine beings, with whom they continually fight. Also translated as "quasi-divine beings," "anti-gods," or simply as "asuras."


J. Hopkins' translation: "demigod."

lhan-cig 'byung-ba'i rgyusimultaneously arising causeSkt: sahabhuhetu

A cause that arises simultaneously with its results, such as the elements that make up a material object.

lhan-cig byed-pa'i rkyensimultaneously acting conditionSkt: sahakaripratyaya

An item that must exist prior to the arising of something and which assists in making the arising happen, but which does not transform into what arises, for instance water for a sprout.

lhan-skyesautomatically arisingSkt: sahaja

Naturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

lhan-skyesco-arisingSkt: sahaja

Arising simultaneously with each moment of experience, for example a blissful awareness itself or a blissful awareness of voidness, attained with complete stage practice of anuttarayogatantra.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

lhan-skyessimultaneously arisingSkt: sahaja

Two items simultaneously arise if, when one of them arises or happens, the other does also, at the same time. The two items may arise simultaneously either naturally or through the power of meditation. Also called: innate.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

lha-yuldivine realm

A place where divine beings (gods) dwell. Also called a "heaven."

lhun-grubspontaneously establishing appearances

The functional nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which is that it automatically, without any effort, gives rise to pure appearances.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spontaneity."

lhun-grub sbubs-kyi rig-parigpa of all-embracing spontaneous presence

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its resultant level as the Dharmakaya of a Buddha.

lkog-gyurobscure phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that cannot be apprehended through the force of personal experience, but can be apprehended through the force of a line of reasoning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "subliminal, hidden, hidden phenomenon."

log-'tshowrong livelihood

A dishonest means of earning a livelihood or procuring offerings.

log-ltaattitude, distorted antagonistic

See: distorted antagonistic thinking


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

log-ltadistorted antagonistic thinking

The action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

log-ltadistorted outlook

The disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

log-shesdistorted cognition

A way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong consciousness."

longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i skuCorpus of Full UseSkt: sambhogakaya

(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Complete Enjoyment Body; Enjoyment Body."

lta-baoutlook

A way of regarding and understanding objects, for instance as "me" and "mine."


J. Hopkins' translation: "view."

lta-baview

In the description of a Buddhist system in terms of the view of reality, a way of meditating, and way of behaving that it espouses, the main way for regarding and understanding reality. See also: outlook.

lta-ba bka'-btags-gyi phyag-rgya-bzhifour sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words

See: four hallmarks of the Dharma

lta-ba mchog-tu 'dzin-paholding a deluded outlook as supreme

(1) According to Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards as supreme any one of the three deluded outlooks -- a deluded outlook of a transitory network, an extreme outlook, or a distorted outlook -- and the samsara-perpetuating aggregates based on which the deluded outlook is produced. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the disturbing attitude that regards the samsara-perpetuating aggregates, based on which any of the three above-mentioned deluded outlooks is produced, with the discordant attention that they are totally clean by nature or a source of true happiness.

lta-ba ngan-pa drug-cu re-gnyissixty-two wrong views

A set of sixty-two incorrect positions regarding the past, present and future of the self, the universe, and so on, propounded by the eighteen non-Buddhist extremeists and refuted in Buddhism. Sometimes translated by others as the sixty-two bad views.

lta-ba nye-bar len-paobtainer deluded outlook

A set of three disturbing deluded outlooks on life that constitute the second of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) a distorted outlook, (2) an extreme outlook, (3) holding a deluded outlook as supreme.

lta-ba nyon-mongs-candeluded outlook

One of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflicted view."

lta-min nyon-mongsdisturbing emotions without an outlook on life

Among the disturbing emotions and attitudes, those that do not regard and understand their objects in a certain way, for instance as "me" or "mine." Abbreviated as "disturbing emotions," in contrast to "disturbing attitudes," which is used for a disturbing deluded outlook on life.

lta-sgom-spyod gsumview of reality, way of meditating, and way of behaving

A way to describe a Buddhist system that specifies it in terms of its main way for regarding and understanding reality, its main topic of meditation, and its main manner of acting in the world.

lungoral transmission

A ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony insures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them need to understand their meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "scripture; oral transmission; passage; precept; injunction; spiritual instruction."

lung-bstan-parevelatory accountsSkt: vyakarana

One of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Buddha's revelations of what has happened in the past or prophesies of what will occur in the future. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of definitive meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "prophesy; prophesied{BJ 8.3}; taught in scripture; scriptural teaching."

lung ma-bstanunspecified phenomenonSkt: avyakrta

A phenomenon that Buddha did not specify as being either constructive or destructive. Also called "ethically neutral."


J. Hopkins' translation: "not indicated in scripture; not prophesied; neutral."

lus-canembodied beingSkt: dehin

A being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."


J. Hopkins' translation: "the embodied."

lus-dkyilbody mandala

A network of Buddha-figures arranged inside the body of a Buddha-figure.

lus phra-mosubtle body

Within the gross body of humans, the invisible system of energy-winds, energy-channels, energy-nodes (chakras), and creative energy-drops.

lus shin-tu phra-mosubtlest body

The subtlest life-supporting energy-wind that accompanies each moment of subtlest mind.

ma-'ong-panot-yet-happening

The future occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon.

ma-bsgribs-pa'i lung ma-bstannonobstructive unspecified phenomenonSkt: anivrta-avyakrta

A phenomenon that Buddha did not specify as being either constructive or destructive, and which does not hinder the attainment of liberation.

ma-dag-pa'i snang-baimpure appearance

An appearance of something as a nonenlightened mind makes it appear, namely in only a mundane form and with true existence.

ma-ha yo-gamahayoga

Within the Nyingma classification scheme of nine vehicles of mind, the class of tantra leading to dzogchen practice but with the main emphasis and detail on generation stage practice.

man-ngagquintessence teachingsSkt: upadesha

Teachings, either oral or written, that present the essential, most profound points of a more extensive topic.


J. Hopkins' translation: "quintessential instruction."

man-ngag sdequintessence teachings division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from texts buried by either Guru Rinpoche or Vimalamitra, that emphasizes pure awareness being primally pure. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "menngag-dey." Equivalent to the heart essence division."

ma-rig kun-brtagsdoctrinally based unawareness

The mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Also called: doctrinally based ignorance.

ma-rig-paunawarenessSkt: avidya

(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, not knowing. (2) According to Dharmakirti, knowing in an inverted (incorrect) manner. In both cases, unawareness is of either behavioral cause and effect, or of the lack of an impossible "soul" or voidness. Translators often render the term as "ignorance."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ignorance."

ma-rig-pa'i yan-laglink of unawarenessSkt: avidya-anga

The first of the twelve links of dependent arising. Both doctrinally based and automatically arising forms of not knowing how persons exist. Some translators render the term as the "link of ignorance."

ma-rigs lhan-skyesautomatically arising unawareness

The mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Others often translate it as "automatically arising ignorance" or "innate ignorance."

mar-shesmother-awareness

The recognition of all beings as having at some time been one's mother. The first of the seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cognize as mother."

ma-yin dgagimplicative negation phenomenon

An exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as "affirming negation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "affirming negative phenomenon."

ma-yin-pa-las log-panothing-other-than

An implicative negation phenomenon that leaves behind in its wake what is left when one excludes or eliminates everything that is not a specific object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "opposite from not being; opposite from non-; non-non."

mchedlight diffusion

also translated as: increase, red appearance

mched-palight-diffusion

One of the three subtle appearance-making minds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "increase."

mchod-paoffering

Something presented, with respect and the intention to bring happiness and benefit, to someone else.


J. Hopkins' translation: "offering; offer; revere; honor; please through offering; worship."

mchod-paoffering ritualSkt: puja

A tantra ceremony in which specially consecrated offerings are made to honor one's tantric master, inseparable from a Buddha-figure.


J. Hopkins' translation: "offering; offer; revere; honor; please through offering; worship."

mchod-rtenstupaSkt: stupa

A monument within which are kept the relics of a great Buddhist master. Translated as a reliquary monument.


J. Hopkins' translation: "reliquary; basis for worship."

mdosutraSkt: sutra

(1) Texts by Shakyamuni Buddha, both Hinayana and Mahayana, that discuss themes of practice.(2) Within the context of the Three Baskets (Tripitaka), the texts of Buddha that especially concern the training in higher concentration. (3) Within the context of Buddha's teachings divided into sutra and tantra, the division that does not entail visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure. (3) Within the context of the twelve scriptural categories, the texts that present what Buddha had to say in a brief and condensed format. Also called: expositions on themes of practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sUtra; discourse; short sentence; axiom; scripture."

mdo'i gsang-lamhidden path of sutra

The mahamudra teachings concealed in the Mahayana sutras and passed down in lineage from Maitripa to Marpa to Milarepa to Gampopa.

mdo'i phyag-chensutra mahamudra

Meditations on the nature of the mind with regard to only gross and subtle minds -- in other words, sensory and mental consciousness -- and not with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.

mDo-sde-paSautrantika

A Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that asserts the true existence of both reflexive awareness and external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Sūtra School, Sautrāntika."

mDo-sde spyod-pa'i dbu-ma rang-rgyud-paSautrantika-Svatantrika

According to Gelug, a subdivision of the Svatantrika Madhyamaka tenet system that does not assert reflexive awareness, but does assert external phenomena as having existence established by their individual defining characteristic marks.


J. Hopkins' translation: "SUtra Autonomy Middle Way School."

mdun-bskyedfront-generation

The part of a self-initiation in which one generates in front of oneself the supported and supporting mandalas from which one will receive the full empowerment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generation in front."

mdzad-paenlightening deeds

According to Mahayana, a set of twelve actions or deeds in the life of a Buddha, with which a Buddha demonstrates to all limited beings the way to achieve enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "verb: do; use{BJ 34.1}; honorific for byed pa; honorific form of address noun: action; act; deed."

med-dgagnonimplicative negation phenomenon

An exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they do not leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as a "nonaffirming negation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-affirming negation, nonaffirming negative phenomenon."

med-dgag-gi gzhan-selnonimplicative negation exclusions of something else

Synonymous with nonimplicative negation phenomena, and thus include voidnesses, spaces, and other absences.


J. Hopkins' translation: "other-eliminator that is a non-affirming negative."

med-panonexistents

Things that cannot be validly known.


J. Hopkins' translation: "nonexistent."

med-snangappearance-making of non-true existence

According to the Nyingma school, the aspect of a limited being's sensory or nonconceptual mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of objects of cognition without making them appear to be truly existent "this"s or "that"s, in the sense in which Madhyamaka defines true existence.

med-snangappearances of non-true existence

In the Nyingma system, mental holograms of objects of cognition, which do not make them appear as if they were truly existent "this"s or "that"s. This occurs only with sensory and nonconceptual mental cognition.

me-long lta-bu'i ye-shesmirror-like deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that takes in all the information about an object of cognition. Also called: deep awareness that is like a mirror.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mirror-like wisdom."

mi-'gyur rdo-rje'i skuImmutable Vajra Corpus

In some Kagyu mahamudra systems, synonymous with "Vajra Corpus" in the meaning of the unchanging nature of the other four Corpuses of a Buddha.

mi-bde-baunhappinessSkt: du:kha (duhkha)

That feeling which, when it arises, one wants to be parted from it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unhappiness; difficult."

mi-bslu-banonfallacious

Not incorrect.


J. Hopkins' translation: "inevitable; [not-deceive]; incontrovertible; ineluctible; undeceived."

mi-dge-badestructiveSkt: akushala

States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-virtue, non-virtuous."

mig-gi spyod-yul-du 'gyur-ba'i gzugsforms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes

Equivalent to sights. See: sights.

mi-gnas-pa'i mya-ngan 'dasnonabiding nirvanaSkt: apratisthita-nirvana

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting only so long as he is alive. In this state, a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems, including Gelug Prasangika, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting forever, in which a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue.

mingname

A combination of sounds that are assigned a meaning.

ming 'dogs-pamental labeling

To impute (project, superimpose), with conceptual cognition, an audio category (such as the word or name "table") or a meaning/object category (such as a "table" as an individual object) onto a basis (such as four legs and a flat board on top of them). Also translated as "imputation."

ming-dang gzugs-kyi yan-laglink of nameable mental faculties with or without gross formSkt: namarupa-anga

The fourth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The four mental aggregates -- consciousness, feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, and other affecting variables -- some of which are merely potentials -- together with the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena during a rebirth on the plane of sensory desires or the plane of ethereal forms, or without this aggregate during a rebirth on the plane of formless beings, during the period of time in the development of a foetus from the moment of conception up until the moment just before the cognitive faculties of seeing, hearing, and so on are differentiated.

mi-rtag-panonstaticnessSkt: anitya

The noncongruent affecting variable of changing from moment to moment, under the influence of causes and circumstances. Sometimes translated as "impermanence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "impermanence."

mi-rtag-panonstatic phenomenonSkt: anitya

Phenomena that are affected and supported by causes and circumstances and, consequently, change from moment to moment, and which produce effects. Their streams of continuity may have a beginning and an end, a beginning and no end, no beginning but an end, or no beginning and no end. Some translators render the term as "impermanent phenomena." They include forms of physical phenomena, ways of being aware of something, and noncongruent affecting variables, which are neither of the two.


J. Hopkins' translation: "impermanence."

mi-rtag-pa phra-mosubtle impermanence

A nonstatic phenomenon's drawing closer each moment to its ultimate end, like a time bomb, based on the fact that the cause for the phenomenon's final disintegration or end is its coming into being, its arising.

mi-rtag-pa rags-pagross impermanence

The final destruction or disintegration of a nonstatic phenomenon.

mi-shes sgribobscurations of not knowing

Mental blocks that come from not knowing the Dharma in general or specifically not knowing about the emotional and cognitive obscurations. These mental blocks prevent the attainment of liberation and enlightenment.

mi-slob lampathway mind needing no further trainingSkt: ashaiksha-marga

The level of mind of shravaka arhats, pratyekabuddha arhats, and Buddhas, with which they have attained their respective purified states (bodhi) of liberation or enlightenment, and which require no further training in order to attain that purified state. Other translators sometimes render this term as "path of no learning."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of no more learning."

mi-srid-painvalid phenomenon

A phenomenon that cannot be validly known now. It may be either an existent phenomenon (such as a no-longer happening or a not-yet-happening one) or a nonexistent phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "not not occur{BJ 20.7}; impossible."

mngon-'dod-kyi dad-pabelief in a fact with an aspiration

A constructive emotion that considers true both a fact about something and a wish one holds about that object, such as that one can attain a positive goal and that one will attain it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of wishing [to attain]."

mngon-byang-gi skuCorpus of Manifest EnlightenmentSkt: abhisambhodhikaya

According to some dzogchen systems, the appearance-making aspect of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure appearance. In other words, the appearance-making aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

mngon-gyurobvious phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that can be cognized by valid nonconceptual straightforward cognition. Also defined as a validly knowable phenomenon that be apprehended through the force of personal experience.


J. Hopkins' translation: "manifest phenomenon."

mngon-par grub-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lagresultant links of what is actualized

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the two links of conception and aging and dying in a future rebirth thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.

mngon-par skabs yod-pa'i gzugsforms of physical phenomena existing in actual situations

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are spaces that are in between objects and either too large or too small to be seen, such as the space in between astronomical bodies or in between atoms.

mngon-par ‘du-byed med-palack of an action’s affecting variables

The voidness or total lack of true existence of the three affecting variables (three circles) involved with any action: an act to be done, an agent and an action that occurs.

mngon-rtogsantecedent practice for realization

A visualization practice in which one imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure, for which one has received empowerment, and which one does as a method for actualizing oneself as the figure. It is "antecedent" in the sense of being a meditation practice undertaken both before and as a condition for being able to actualize oneself as the Buddha-figure. Synonymous with "sadhana."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear realization/clear realizer."

mngon-shesadvanced awarenessSkt: abhijna

Nonconceptual straightforward cognition of places, times, and distances that are obscure phenomena and of situations that are extremely obscure phenomena. A general term for both the five types of advanced awareness and the six extrasensory eyes, both of which are gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Sometimes also translated as "heightened awareness" or "extrasensory perception."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance."

mngon-sumbare cognitionSkt: pratyaksha

Cognition of a cognitive object without that cognition being through the medium of a concept, universal, or category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "direct perception."

mngon-sumstraightforward cognitionSkt: pratyaksha

In the Gelug Prasangika system, cognition of an object, which occurs without relying on a line of reasoning in the moment immediately prior to it. Straightforward cognition may be either conceptual or nonconceptual.


J. Hopkins' translation: "direct perception."

mngon-sum tshad-mavalid bare cognitionSkt: pratyakshapramana

Bare cognition that is fresh and nonfallacious. See: bare cognition.

mngon-sum tshad-mavalid straightforward cognitionSkt: pratyakshapramana

Straightforward cognition that is nonfallacious. See: straightforward cognition.

mnyam-bzhagtotal absorptionSkt: samahita

A state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like space. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "meditative equipoise."


J. Hopkins' translation: "meditative equipoise."

mnyam-nyid ye-shesequalizing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that is aware of several items as belonging equally to the same category, or as fitting into the same pattern. Also called: deep awareness of the equality of things.

mos-pafirm conviction

(1) According to Asanga, the mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that focuses on a fact that one has validly ascertained to be like this and not like that, and which makes one's belief that a fact is true so firm that others' arguments or opinions will not dissuade one. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the term means "regard": the mental factor that takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.


J. Hopkins' translation: "belief."

mthar-'dzin-pa'i lta-baextreme outlookSkt: antagrahadrshti

The disturbing attitude that regards one's five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist or nihilistic way. (1) According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook that views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives. (2) According to Tsongkhapa, a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional "me" and considers it either as having a truly existent identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives.


J. Hopkins' translation: "view holding to an extreme."

mthar-thugultimate level

The final, most profound level of something. Sometimes also translated as "deepest level" or "ultimate deepest level."


J. Hopkins' translation: "[end-to-meet] final; complete."

mthar-thug-gi skyabs-gnasultimate source of safe direction

The Buddhas, as the only ones with full sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.

mthar-thug theg-paultimate vehicles of mind

According to the tenets of the Chittamatra Followers of Scripture, three vehicles of mind that lead to three different final goals -- shravaka arhatship, pratyekabuddha arhatship, and Buddhahood -- which, once one has been attained, do not allow for the person who has attained it to achieve one of the other two goals. Thus, shravaka arhats and pratyekabuddha arhats cannot attain enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "final vehicle."

mthong-lamseeing pathway mind

The level of mind of arya sharavakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they first attain a joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and with which they rid themselves of one or both sets of doctrinally based obscurations. Often translated as "path of seeing."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of seeing."

mtshan bzang-po gsum-cu rtsa-gnyisthirty-two excellent signs

Also translated as: thirty-two major marks

mtshan-ma med-palack of a sign

The voidness or total lack of truly existent causes for any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any sign of truly existent causes from which a phenomenon arose.


J. Hopkins' translation: "signlessness."

mtshan-zhabsMaster Debate Partner

The title held by a highly educated attendant of an incarnate lama (tulku) that attends all the lessons that the lama receives and afterwards debates with the lama to ensure that he or she has understood the lesson correctly. In the case of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, there are seven master debate partners, one from each of the colleges of Drepung, Sera, and Ganden Monasteries. Sometimes also translated as "Assistant Tutor."

mtshungs-ldancongruent

The relationship between ways of being aware of something in the same cognition, in which two or more of these ways share five things in common. Compare: congruent affecting variables.


J. Hopkins' translation: "having/possessing association; associational."

mtshungs-ldan-gyi rgyucongruent causeSkt: samprayuktahetu

A cause that shares five things in common with its result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "associational cause."

mtshungs-ldan lngafive congruent features

Five things shared in common by the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses within a cognition. (1) According to Vasubandhu, they share the same reliance, object, mental aspect, time, and natal sources having the same slant. (2) According to Asanga, natal source, focal aspect, essential nature, time, and plane.

mtshungs-ldan lngasharing five congruent factors

Subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that share five things in common with the primary consciousness of the cognition in which they occur. (1) According to Vasubandhu: reliance, object, mental aspect, time, and natal source. (2) According to Asanga: natal source, focal aspect, essential nature, time, and plane and bhumi-level of mind.

mtshungs-ldan med-panoncongruent

The relationship between nonstatic components of a cognition, in which two or more of them do not share five things in common. See: five congruent features. See also: noncongruent affecting variables.

mu-bzhitetralemma

The relationship between two sets, A and B, is a tetralemma if there are four possibilities. There are phenomena that are members of (1) both set A and set B, (2) neither set A nor set B, (3) only set A, but not set B, or (4) only set B, but not set A.


J. Hopkins' translation: "four possibilities."

mu-gsumtrilemma

The relationship between two sets, A and B, is a trilemma if there are three possibilities. There are phenomena that are members of (1) both set A and set B, (2) neither set A, nor set B, or only set A, but not set B. There are no phenomena that are members of set B that are not also members of set A. In other words, all elements of set A are also members of set B, but not all elements of set B are elements of set A.


J. Hopkins' translation: "three possibilities; three possibilities/permutations."

mu-stegs-panon-Buddhist extremistSkt: tirthika

A follower of a non-Buddhist Indian school of philosophy that asserts either an eternalist position of an unchanging static soul (atman) of a person or a nihilist position that denies the continuity of a person after death and/or the workings of karmic cause and effect.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Forder{N}."

mya-ngan-'dasnirvanaSkt: nirvana

An extinguished state of release -- either an acquired one, in which all samsaric sufferings and their causes have been removed, or a naturally occurring one, in which all stains of impossible existence have always been removed. The Tibetan term means, literally, "a state beyond sorrow."


J. Hopkins' translation: "nirvANa; liberation; liberated."

myong-ba rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buresult that corresponds to its cause in one's experience

The experience of a situation in which something similar to one's previous action happens back to oneself. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause on one's experience."


J. Hopkins' translation: "experientially causally concordant effect."

nang-gi dkyil-'khorinner mandala

A world-system represented by parts of the human body and used as an object of offering.

nang-mchodinner offering

An offering made of the flesh of various animals and various bodily fluids and wastes, representing either the five tainted aggregates and five bodily elements or the ten energy-winds, and which are specially "elevated" and transformed into pure nectar.

ngar-'dzinself-preoccupation

An attitude of thinking only about oneself, as if one were the only one in the world, and not thinking about anyone else; narcissism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the conception as/of I; conception of [an inherently existent] I."

nges-'byungrenunciationSkt: naishkramya

(1) The definite determination to be free of samsara and to gain liberation, and with which one is willing to give up true suffering and true causes. Also translated as "determination to be free." (2) In Theravada, the mental factor to give up all attachment to worldly possessions, social status, and even one's body. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thought definitely to leave cyclic existence."

nges-dondefinitive teachingSkt: nitartha

A passage in a sutra text that discusses the most profound view of voidness, and to which all other passages in all other sutra texts eventually lead or point. Such passages do not need to be explained as indicating anything more profound.


J. Hopkins' translation: "definitive meaning."

nges-donimplicit suggested meaningSkt: nitartha

One of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the meaning that is dissimilar to the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It is the meaning suggested by the literal (explicit suggestive) meaning and to which one is led by that literal meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "definitive meaning."

nges-padecisively determine

To know with certainty what something is, as opposed to what it is not, or how something exists, as opposed to how it does not exist. Also called: determine, ascertain.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ascertainment, definiteness."

ngo-boessential nature

The general type of phenomenon that something is -- for instance, a sight, a sound, and so on.


J. Hopkins' translation: "entity."

ngo-bo'i rig-paessence rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of it being primally pure and serving as the open space within which effulgent rigpa functions.

ngo-bo gcigsame essential nature

The relationship between two facts about the same attribute of a phenomenon. In a sense, the two facts are referring to the same phenomenon from two points of view. The two facts may be naturally inseparable, such as the two truths about the phenomenon, or they may constitute a joined inseparability arising from the power of meditation, such as a blissful awareness and an awareness of voidness. Some translators render the term as "one by nature."


J. Hopkins' translation: "one entity; same entity."

ngo-bo-nyid skuCorpus of Essential NatureSkt: svabhavakaya

(1) In the Gelug non-Kalachakra system, the voidness of a Buddha's omniscient mind and its state of being parted from the two sets of obscurations. (2) In the Gelug Kalachakra system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind. (3) In the Non-Gelug systems, the inseparability of all the Corpuses of a Buddha - equivalent to the inseparability of the two truths. Also called: Body of Essential Nature, Nature Body.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nature Body, Nature Truth Body."

ngo-tsha med-pano sense of moral self-dignity

See: no moral self-dignity


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-shame."

ngo-tsha shes-pamoral self-dignitySkt: hri

As defined by Asanga, the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how one's actions reflect on oneself.


J. Hopkins' translation: "shame."

nyamsboon experience

In mahamudra meditation, an experience of bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality, and bareness that arises as a bonus result of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha. With this experience, the meditator still has a dualistic sense of there being the meditator on the one side and, on the other, these four as things to be meditated on or experienced.


J. Hopkins' translation: "visionary experience."

nyan-thosshravakaSkt: shravaka

Literally, "listeners" to Buddha's teachings - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being) of either the shravaka or pratyekabuddha class. They practice, based on having listened to Buddha's teachings. Some translators render the term as "hearer."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Hearer."

nyan-thos 'phags-paarya shravakaSkt: arya shravaka

A shravaka that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: shravaka.

nyan-thos dgra-bcomshravaka arhatSkt: shravaka arhat

A shravaka that has attained liberation. See also: shravaka.

nye-ba'i rgyuimmediate causes

The causes that are very close in time to bringing about a result.

nye-brgyudnear lineage

The lineage of a teaching that did not begin with Buddha himself, but began with an Indian or Tibetan master, usually through a pure vision.

nye-nyonauxiliary disturbing emotionsSkt: upaklesha

A set of twenty disturbing emotions that derive from one of the three poisonous emotions of longing desire, hostility, or naivety. See: disturbing emotions and attitudes.


J. Hopkins' translation: "secondary afflictions."

nyer-len-gyi phung-poobtaining aggregates

Aggregate factors of a limited being that include the causes that will obtain for that being further samsaric rebirth.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appropriated aggregates."

nyer-len-gyi rgyuobtaining causeSkt: upadanahetu

The cause from which a result is obtained and which transforms into the result. For example, a seed is the obtaining cause for a sprout, and a network of positive force (a collection of merit) is the obtaining cause for a Corpus of Forms (Form Body) of a Buddha. Some translators render the term as "material cause," but this term does not refer to the physical elements that make up something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "substantial cause."

nyer-len-gyi yan-laglink of an obtainerSkt: upadana-anga

The ninth link in the twelve links of dependent arising. The set of four obtainer disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes, any one of which, together with craving, activates throwing karma at the time of death and thus brings about the "obtaining" of a future samsaric rebirth. For the list of the four, see: obtainer. Most other translators render the term as "link of grasping."

nyer-thobapproximating vacuum

See: threshold


J. Hopkins' translation: "near attainment; near-attainment."

nyer-thobthreshold

Also translated as: near attainment, black appearance


J. Hopkins' translation: "near attainment; near-attainment."

nyes-byasfaulty actions

A set of forty-six actions that one vows to avoid and which, if committed, would be detrimental to one's practice of either one of the six far-reaching attitudes or to one's benefiting others. Also called: secondary bodhisattva vows.


J. Hopkins' translation: "misdeed."

nyon-mongsdisturbing emotion or attitudeSkt: klesha

A subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that, when it arises, causes oneself to lose peace of mind and incapacitates oneself so that one loses self-control. An indication that one is experiencing a disturbing emotion or attitude is that it makes oneself and/or others feel uncomfortable. Some translators render this term as "afflictive emotions" or "emotional afflictions."


J. Hopkins' translation: "affliction, afflictive emotion."

nyon-mongs kun-brtagsdoctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudes

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that arise based on having been taught and having accepted a non-Buddhist Indian tenet system or a less sophisticated Indian Buddhist tenet system.

nyon-mongs lhan-skyesautomatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that arise on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate afflictions; innate afflictive emotion."

nyon-sgribemotional obscurationsSkt: kleshavarana

Fleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing phenomena without accompanying disturbing emotions or attitudes. They include the disturbing emotions and attitudes, as well as their tendencies (seeds), and prevent the attainment of liberation from samsara, Also translated as "obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes"and "obscurations preventing liberation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflictive obstruction."

nyon-yiddeluded awareness

A primary consciousness that is aimed at the alayavijnana in the Chittamatra system, or at the alaya for habits in the dzogchen system, and grasps at it to be the "me" to be refuted.


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflicted mind."

phan-semsbenevolence

The mental factor of wishing to benefit others, wishing others well. Often translated by others as "altruism."

pha-rol-tu phyin-pafar-reaching attitudeSkt: paramita

A mental factor that brings one to the far shore of samsara, either to liberation or to enlightenment. There are either six or ten far-reaching attitudes. Also called "perfection." Theravada and Mahayana give slightly different lists of these. According to Mahayana, the six are the far-reaching attitudes of (1) generosity, (2) ethical self-discipline, (3) patience, (4) joyful perseverance, (5) mental stability, and (6) discriminating awareness (wisdom). The Mahayana list of ten adds the far-reaching attitudes of (7) skill in means, (8) aspirational prayer, (9) strengthening, and (10) deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "perfection."

pho-baphowa

Also called: transference of consciousness.

phrag-dogjealousySkt: irshya

A disturbing emotion that focuses on other peoples' accomplishments – such as their good qualities, possessions, or success – and is the inability to bear their accomplishments, due to excessive attachment to one's own gain or to the respect one receives. Also translated as "envy."

phung-poaggregateSkt: skandha

A network of many items, all of which are nonstatic phenomena. See also: aggregate factors of experience.

phung-poaggregate factors of experienceSkt: skandha

The five networks (five aggregates) that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aggregate."

phung-po lngafive aggregate factorsSkt: pancaskandha

The five networks that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that could make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being: the aggregates of (1) forms of physical phenomena, (2) feelings of levels of happiness, (3) distinguishing, (4) other affecting variables, and (5) primary consciousnesses.


J. Hopkins' translation: "five aggregates."

phyag-rgya chen-pomahamudraSkt: mahamudra

Literally, "the great seal," a Mahayana meditation practice that focuses on the nature of the mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "great seal."

phyi'i dkyil-'khorouter mandala

A round, flat-bottomed bowl, held bottom side up, with three mounds of grain, placed one atop the other on its surface and contained within progressively smaller concentric metal rings, and crowned with an ornamental diadem. It is used as an offering to a spiritual master in request for a teaching, the conferring of a set of vows, and for the conferring of a tantric empowerment. It is also used as an offering of appreciation at the conclusion of these three occasions. It is also offered 100,000 times as a preliminary practice for building up positive force for success in the practice of tantra.

phyi'i mchod-paouter offerings

Offerings of specially consecrated external objects such as water, flowers, incense, and so on.

phyi-donexternal phenomenonSkt: bahyartha

A nonstatic phenomenon that arises from a natal source different from the natal source of the consciousness that cognizes it -- namely, from a natal source that is not connected with the mental continuum of the individual who cognizes it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "external object; external object{N}."

rang bces-par 'dzin-paself-cherishing

The attitude with which one considers oneself as the most important being and has affection for and takes care of only oneself.

rang-byung ye-shesself-arising deep awareness

In Nyingma, the aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that automatically arises with awareness of its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with reflexive deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-arisen pristine wisdom."

rang-bzhinfunctional nature

The nature of a phenomenon defined in terms of the function that the phenomenon performs.


J. Hopkins' translation: "nature/inherent existence/inherent nature."

rang-bzhinself-nature

Something on the side of an object or phenomenon that (1) establishes the existence, in general, of the object or phenomenon and (2) establishes, as well, what the object or phenomenon is. A self-nature may do this either by its own power alone, or by its own power in conjunction with mental labeling. The term may also be translated as "self-establishing nature."


J. Hopkins' translation: "nature/inherent existence/inherent nature."

rang-bzhin dbyer-mednatural inseparability

The relationship between two items, in which when one is the case or is occurring, then automatically so is the other.

rang-bzhin gnas-rigsnaturally abiding family-traits

(1) In the Chittamatra system, the seeds that, without beginning, are imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain one of the three purified states. (2) In the Madhyamaka systems, the voidnesses imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being.


J. Hopkins' translation: "natural lineage."

rang-bzhin-gyi dri-maself-established stain

Something, the existence of which is established by its own power, independently of anything else, and which obscures the realization of Buddha-nature on one's mental continuum. This refers to an impossible manner of existence of the mind, and does not exist at all.


J. Hopkins' translation: "natural defilements."

rang-bzhin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-banaturally uncommendable action

A negative action which, because it is destructive by nature, ripens into the experience of suffering by anyone who commits it.

rang-bzhin-gyi mya-ngan 'dasnatural nirvana

Equivalent to voidness (emptiness), the natural state of all phenomena being released from impossible ways of existing. Asserted only by the Mahayana tenet systems.

rang-bzhin-gyis grub-paexistence established by self-nature

Existence of something established or proven by the fact that the referent object of the imputation of it can be found upon searching for it. For example, the existence of a table established or proven by the fact that when one searches for the object that the mental label "table" refers to, one can find the object, a "table." Also translated as "self-established existence," it is often translated by others as "inherent existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "inherent existence, inherently established."

rang-gi mtshan-nyidindividual defining characteristic markSkt: svalakshana

Something findable on the side of an object that establishes the identity or features of that object and which serves as the basis for that object being labeled by the names, words, and concepts for it, as well as for its qualities.


J. Hopkins' translation: "own-character, specific character, specifically characterized phenomenon."

rang-grolautomatically releases itself in its own place

The quality of a conceptual thought or cognition that it ceases or dissolves simultaneously with its arisal, without any effort required to make it cease. Also called: automatically liberates itself in its own place.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-release."

rang-ldogitems conceptually isolated by themselves

In Gelug, a synonym for a conceptually isolated item, namely one that distinguishes a specific phenomenon in and of itself.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-isolate."

rang-mtshanobjective entitiesSkt: svalakshana

In the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their not being merely imputed by conceptual cognition. They include all nonstatic phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all nonstatic phenomena and are deepest true phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include not only all nonstatic superficial true phenomena, but also the static deepest true phenomena of voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug tradition, the appearing objects of only valid nonconceptual cognitions, although they are what actually appears and can be validly cognized in both valid nonconceptual and conceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid nonconceptual cognition. Also translated as "individually characterized phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "specifically characterized phenomenon."

rang-ngoown face

The manner of existence and good qualities of pure awareness (rig-pa) as can be cognized by reflexive deep awareness.

rang-ngo shes-paawareness of its own face

The nonconceptual cognition, by rigpa (pure awareness), of its own nature.

rang-rgyalpratyekabuddhaSkt: pratyekabuddha

Literally, "self-realizers" or "self-evolvers" - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being). They live during dark ages when the teachings of a Buddha are no longer available. They do not study with Buddhist spiritual teachers, because there are none at such times, and they teach others only subtly, through gestures, since people are not receptive. Living either singly ("like a rhinoceros") or in small groups, they must rely on their instincts from previous lives to recall and master the Dharma. Some translators render the term as "solitary Buddhas."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Solitary Realizer."

rang-rgyal 'phags-paarya pratyekabuddhaSkt: arya prtatyekabuddha

A pratyekabuddha that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: pratyekabuddha.

rang-rgyal dgra-bcompratyekabuddha arhatSkt: pratyekabuddha arhat

A pratyekabuddha that has attained liberation. See also: pratyekabuddha.

rang-rgyud-paSvatantrika

A subdivision of the Madhyamaka school within the Indian Buddhist tenet systems that refutes truly established existence by relying on lines of reasoning the members of which have existence established from their own sides. Gelug adds to this definition that it also asserts that all phenomena lack existence established by an essential nature, but nevertheless conventionally have existence established by their individual defining characteristic marks.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Autonomy School, Svātantrika."

rang-rigreflexive awareness

(1) The cognitive faculty within a cognition, asserted in the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, that takes as its cognitive object the consciousness within the cognition that it is part of. It also cognizes the validity or invalidity of the cognition that it is part of, and accounts for the ability to recall the cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug schools, this cognitive faculty becomes reflexive deep awareness -- that part of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes the two truths of that nonconceptual cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-knowing."

rang-rig ye-shesreflexive deep awareness

(1) In Kagyu and Sakya, that aspect of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes its own two-truth nature. (2) In Nyingma, that aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that cognizes its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with self-arising deep awareness.

rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yodself-sufficiently knowable

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.

rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yodself-sufficiently knowable phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.

rang-snangreflexive appearance

An appearance of a cognitive object that arises automatically from a person's clear light mind itself. Such an appearance may be either impure (with an appearance of truly established existence) or pure (without such an appearance).

rang-stongself-voidness

The absence of any phenomenon existing, by "self"-nature, in an impossible manner.


J. Hopkins' translation: "emptiness of self."

ras-bris-kyi dkyil-'khorcloth mandala

A two-dimensional representation, painted on cloth, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.

rdo-rje-i skuVajra CorpusSkt: vajrakaya

In some dzogchen systems, the voidness factor of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure awareness (rigpa); the unchanging nature of the other corpuses of a Buddha. Also called Vajra Body.

rdo-rje slob-dpontantric masterSkt: vajracarya

A spiritual mentor who confers on disciples tantric vows. According to some commentaries, a spiritual mentor who confers on disciples empowerments and subsequent permissions from any of the classes of tantra.


J. Hopkins' translation: "vajra master."

rdo-rje theg-paVajrayanaSkt: vajrayana

The Diamond-strong Vehicle of Mind, within Mahayana, that makes use of the tantra methods. Synonymous with "Mantrayana" and "Tantrayana."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Vajra Vehicle."

rdul-phran-gyi dkyil-'khorpowdered sand mandala

A two-dimensional representation, made of powdered colored minerals, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.

rdzasnatal sourceSkt: dravya

That which gives rise to something, such as a womb for a baby or an oven for a loaf of bread.


J. Hopkins' translation: "substantial entity."

rdzogs-byed-kyi lascompleting karma

A mental urge or impulse having a relatively weak accompanying motivation and therefore having the strength to ripen, as its result, into only the circumstances that will complete the conditions of a future rebirth.

rdzogs-chendzogchen

A Mahayana system of practice, found in the Nyingma, Bon, Karma Kagyu, Drugpa Kagyu, and Drigung Kagyu traditions, that entails accessing rigpa, one's own pure awareness, and realizing that it is complete with all good qualities. Translated as "the great completeness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Great Completeness."

rdzogs-rimcomplete stageSkt: sampannakrama

(1) The second stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice, in which everything is now complete for engaging in the practices that act as the immediate causes for reaching enlightenment. These practices entail working with the chakras, channels, and winds of the subtle body. (2) In some non-Gelug texts, nonconceptual meditation on the voidness of the visualizations generated during the first stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice. This meditation on a nondenumerable ultimate phenomenon is done simultaneously with the visualizations, on the same stage of practice, and makes the practice of visualization complete. Many translators render this term as "completion stage."


J. Hopkins' translation: "stage of completion."

rdzu-'phrulextraphysical emanationsSkt: rddhi

Physical bodies having abilities that are beyond the usual capacity of the body -- such as the ability to run great distances at an incredible speed, to fly, to increase or decrease in size, to multiply, to walk on water, to pass beneath the earth, and so on -- which are produced (emanated) from karma, recitation of mantra, the power of specially consecrated substances, or the power of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "[deceive-magic]; magical emanation; magical power; magical illusion; miracle."

rdzu-'phrul-gyi mngon-shesadvanced awareness for extraphysical emanation

Cognition that is able to produce many different simultaneous emanations that are any one of three types: (1) physical emanations made of the five elements of earth, water, fire, wind, and space, (2) verbal emanations - speaking in such a way that various people can understand the words in their own languages and at their own levels of understanding, or (3) mental emanations of thoughts and levels of mind, such as awareness of many levels of meaning of a Dharma passage. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

reg-pacontacting awarenessSkt: sparsha

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that differentiates that the object of a cognition is pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.


J. Hopkins' translation: "contact."

reg-pa'i yan-laglink of contacting awarenessSkt: sparsha-anga

The sixth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of contacting awareness during the period of time in the development of a foetus when the distinguishing aggregate and such other affecting variables as contacting awareness are functioning, but the feeling aggregate is not yet functioning. During this period, one experiences contacting awareness of objects as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, but does not feel happy, unhappy, or neutral in response to this.

rga-shiaging and dying

In a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aging and/or death."

rga-shi'i yan-laglink of aging and dyingSkt: jara-marana-anga

The twelfth of the twelve links of dependent arsing. In a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.

rgod-paflightiness of mind

The mental factor with which the mind wanders to an object of attraction, due to desire for it or attachment, and which faults the mental abiding of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Sometimes translated as "mental agitation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "excitement."

rgyal-baTriumphant OneSkt: jina

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has triumphed over the emotional and cognitive obscurations. Some translators render the term as "Victorious One."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conqueror; victor; epithet of Buddha."

rgyanfiligreeSkt: alamkara

A piece of jewelry made of fine, intricately intertwined wires. A word used in the titles of many Buddhist texts to indicate that the subject matter is presented in a manner resembling a filigree, in which the various topics are intricately intertwined, resulting in a beautiful, elegant presentation of the material. Usually translated by others as "ornament."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ornament."

rgyas-'gyur-gyi rigsevolving family-traits

(1) In the Chittamatra system, the tendencies (seeds) that, newly gained by listening, contemplating and meditating on Buddha's teachings, are imputable on the basis of the stained minds of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain arya pathway minds. (2) In the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka system, the factors, imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being, that are fit to become the essential nature of a deep awareness Dharmakaya. (3) In the Prasangika-Madhyamaka system, the factors imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being that are fit to become the essential natures of a Corpus of Forms and a deep awareness Dharmakaya of a Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "developmental lineage."

rgyas-pastimulating others' good qualities

Also translated as "increase."


J. Hopkins' translation: "verb: extend; fill; spread; increase; further adjective: extensive; broad; wide; full."

rgyucauseSkt: hetu

A nonstatic phenomenon able to bring about the production or arising of something.

rgyu-'bras man-ngag bdunseven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta

One of the two methods for developing a bodhichitta aim. Based on the development of equanimity, (1) mother-awareness, (2) remembering kindness, (3) repaying kindness, (4) love, (5) compassion, (6) exceptional resolve, (7) a bodhichitta aim. The first six, developed consecutively, function as the causes for the seventh as the result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "seven cause-and-effect quintessential instructions."

rgyu'i kun-slongcausal motivating aim

What someone intends or aims to do just before starting to do something and which causes the person to do it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "causal motivation."

rgyu'i rkyencausal conditionsSkt: hetupratyaya

All the causes that have the power to produce a specific result.

rgyu'i skyabs-'grocausal taking of safe direction

A taking of safe direction (refuge) in which the sources of that safe direction are the persons or phenomena that act as causes for one's our own attainments of the Three Gems, namely the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha already attained by others. Synonymous with "mere taking of safe direction."

rgyudtantraSkt: tantra

(1) An everlasting stream of continuity. On the causal level, the mental continuum, with its various aspects of Buddha-nature. On the pathway level, the continuity of practices involving Buddha-figures. On the resultant level, the continuity of the various corpuses or bodies of a Buddha. (2) The texts that discuss the above topics.


J. Hopkins' translation: "continuum."

rgyu-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-laglink of loaded consciousness at the time of the cause

The first phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. The first part of the third link of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness.

rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buresult that corresponds to its causeSkt: nishyandaphalam

A result that in some way resembles its cause, either in the wish to repeat its causal action or in the experience of something happening back to one that resembles what one did.


J. Hopkins' translation: "causally concordant effect."

rgyunstream of continuity

A succession of moments of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "continuation; continuum; mental continuum; life continuum; stream; continuity."

rig-gnas lngafive major fields of knowledge

The major topics of study in the ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries: (1) art and craftsmanship, (2) medicine, (3) languages and grammar, (4) logic, and (5) inner or exceptional self-knowledge

rig-papure awareness

In the dozgchen system, the subtlest level of awareness, which is totally untainted by any of the fleeting stains of mental obscurations. It is devoid of all grosser levels of awareness and yet permeates all of them, and it spontaneously establishes pure appearances. Often left untranslated as "rigpa."


J. Hopkins' translation: "intrinsic awareness; knower."

rigs-'dra'I rgyusimilar family causeSkt: sajatiyakaranam

A cause that is in the same family or category of phenomenon as is the result. For example, a model of a vase is the similar family cause for a vase that one is now making.

rigs-nges-pa'i byang-semsbodhisattva arhats of definite lineage

Bodhisattvas who have been definite about their lineage as bodhisattvas from before attaining arhatship and thus who have attained arhatship as bodhisattvas and not as shravakas or pratyekabuddhas before developing bodhichitta.

rigs-pa bzhifour axioms

The four axioms for examining a Dharma teaching in order to accept its validity: (1) dependency, (2) functionality, (3) establishment by reason, and (4) the nature of things.

rigs-spyikind mental synthesis

The type of phenomenon that a specific individual item is an instance of, such as "a table" imputed on a specific instance of something having legs and a flat surface. This is equivalent to the conventional identity of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "type generality; type-generality."

ring-brgyuddistant lineage

The lineage of a teaching that began with Buddha himself.

rjes-dpaginferential cognitionSkt: anumana

A valid conceptual way of cognizing an obscure object through reliance on a correct line of reasoning as its basis.


J. Hopkins' translation: "inference, inferential cognition."

rjes-snangsubsequent permission

A tantric ritual for a specific Buddha-figure, received in order to strengthen further the Buddha-nature factors that were previously activated with a full empowerment. Usually called by its Tibetan name, "jenang."

rjes-thobsubsequent attainment

A state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like an illusion. It is attained only upon rising from total absorption on space-like voidness and may occur either while still in meditation or after arising from meditation. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "subsequent realization." Other translators often render the term as "post-meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "state subsequent to meditative equipoise, attainment subsequent [to meditative equipoise]."

rkyenconditionSkt: pratyaya

A nonstatic phenomenon that helps shape the conventional identity of something that is produced or arises from causes.

rlungenergy-windSkt: prana

Also called: energy-wind breaths


J. Hopkins' translation: "wind."

rlung phra-mosubtle energy-winds

Subtle forms of energy that move within the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which are the "mount" (the physical basis) for consciousness, either in nonconceptual or conceptual cognition, transporting it through the subtle body. Through anuttarayoga complete stage practices, one can cause them to enter, abide, and dissolve in the central energy-channel and thereby make manifest the subtlest clear light mind.

rmad-du byung-bafabulous accountsSkt: adbhutadharma

Descriptions of such marvelous, wondrous things as the wisdom, extra-physical powers and saintly deeds of the Buddhas, pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers), and shravakas (listeners). One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "marvelous."

rmongs-chadumbfoundedness

In the dzogchen system, a nominal disturbing attitude, equivalent to automatically arising unawareness regarding phenomena, which obscures rigpa's (pure awareness's) knowing its own nature. Some translators render it as "bedazzlement" or "stupidity," but it has nothing to do with intelligence.

rmongs-pabewilderment

A naive state of mind of not know what is happening.


J. Hopkins' translation: "obscuration; delusion; confusion; ignorance; dullness."

rmugs-pafoggy-mindedness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly.


J. Hopkins' translation: "lethargy."

rNal-'byor spyod-paYogachara

Another name for the Chittamatra school of Indian Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Yogāchāra."

rNal-'byor spyod-pa'i dbu-ma rang-rgyud-paYogachara-Svatantrika

According to Gelug, a subdivision of the Svatantrika Madhyamaka tenet system that does not assert extermal phenomena, but which does assert reflexive awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "YogAcara-SvAtantrika-MAdhyamika; Yogic Autonomy Middle Way School."

rnam-'phrulmiraculous emanationsSkt: vikurvana

(1) In mahamudra and dzogchen texts, a descriptive synonym for the mental aspects (mental appearances, mental holograms) that are produced by the clarity aspect of the mind and which are directly cognized by conceptual or nonconceptual cognition. (2) A synonym for extraphysical emanations.

rnam-g.yengmental wandering

A subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mind to lose concentration and to go on and on, uncontrollably from one object to another, due to any reason.


J. Hopkins' translation: "distraction."

rnam-grangs ma-yin-pa'I don-damnondenumerable ultimate phenomenon

Voidnesses that are validly cognized nonconceptually. They are "nondenumerable" in the sense that they cannot be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts, thus they are voidnesses that are "beyond words and beyond concepts."

rnam-grangs-pa'I don-damdenumerable ultimate phenomenon

Voidnesses that are validly cognized conceptually. They are "denumerable" in the sense that they can be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts.

rnam-pamental aspectSkt: akara

A nonstatic mental hologram, asserted by all Indian Buddhist tenet systems other than Vaibhashika, that is a likeness of an object of cognition, and which both conceptual and nonconceptual mental activity produces in order to cognize the object; the "mental shape" of the appearing object of a cognition. (1) According to Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika, they are fully transparent so that through them, one directly cognizes external objects. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are opaque and thus allow only indirect cognition of external objects.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aspect, subjective aspect, representation."

rnam-par rig-byed-kyi gzugsrevealing formSkt: vijnaptirupa

A form of physical phenomenon, asserted in the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that shows (reveals) the motivation behind it, and which may be a constructive, destructive or unspecified phenomenon. Examples are the shape of one's body when performing an action, the sound of the words when one speaks, the expression on someone's face, and so on. In general, such a phenomenon may be either one of the five sensory objects or one of the five sensory cognitive sensors.

rnam-par rig-byed ma-yin-pa'i gzugsnonrevealing formSkt: avijnaptirupa

A subtle form of physical phenomenon, asserted only by the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that is caused by a strong constructive or destructive motivation, but which does not show ("reveal") that motivation. Such a phenomenon is part of a mental continuum, but is not felt on that continuum; it does not degenerate from moment to moment; it can only be an object of mental cognition; and it must be either constructive or destructive. Examples are vows and one aspect of karmic impulses.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-revelatory form."

rnam-shesconsciousnessSkt: vijnana

A class of ways of being aware of something that cognizes merely the essential nature of its object, such as its being a sight, a sound, a mental object, etc. Consciousness may be either sensory or mental, and there are either six or eight types. The term has nothing to do with the Western concept of conscious versus unconscious.

rnam-shesdividing consciousness

A consciousness that makes dualistic appearances, dividing a moment of experience into an appearance of independently existing consciousness (subject) and object. It is a Kagyu/Nyingma explanation. The Tibetan is rnam-shes, the same as the usual word for consciousness. It is defined like this only in some very special places.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

rnam-shesprimary consciousnessSkt: vijnana

Within a cognition of an object, the awareness of merely the essential nature of the object that the cognition focuses on. Primary consciousness has the identity-nature of being an individualizing awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

rnam-shesspecific awarenessSkt: vijnana

In the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that is aware of the specific type of awareness of an object that has arisen and the specific object that it is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the details that have arisen and one is aware of in a cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

rnam-shes-kyi phung-poaggregate of primary consciousnessesSkt: vijnana-skandha

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of mental consciousness or of any of the five types of sensory consciousness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. It also includes the network of all instances of deluded awareness and all-encompassing foundation consciousness in those systems that assert these two. Also called: "aggregate of consciousness."

rnam-shes-kyi yan-laglink of loaded consciousnessSkt: vijnana-anga

The third of the twelve links of dependent arising. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma, both during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. and during the future lifetime produced by that throwing karma.

rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-buripened resultSkt: vipakaphalam

A nonobstructive unspecified item conjoined with the mental continuum of a limited being, such as the body, consciousness, and feelings of happiness and unhappiness, and which comes from a ripening cause that was also conjoined with his or her mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fruitional effect."

rnam-smin-gyi rgyuripening causeSkt: vipakahetu

A destructive or tainted constructive phenomenon that, unless one has rid one's mental continuum forever of craving, has the power to produce the nonobstructive unspecified items contained in the five aggregate factors of future rebirth states, such as the body, the types of consciousness, and the feelings.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fruitional cause."

rNying-maNyingma

The Old Translation Period tradition of Tibetan Buddhism deriving from Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma."

rNying-maOld Translation

An adjective referring to (1) the period of the first transmission of the Dharma from India to Tibet, (2) the Nyingma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism founded during this period, (3) a text translated during this period.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma."

rNying-ma-paNyingmapa

A follower of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma-ba (Old Translation) Order."

rtag-pastaticnessSkt: nitya

The noncongruent affecting variable of not changing from moment to moment. Sometimes translated as "permanence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "permanent phenomenon; permanence."

rtag-pastatic phenomenonSkt: nitya

Phenomena that are unaffected by causes and circumstances and, consequently, do not change from moment to moment and do not produce any effects. Somewhat similar to unchanging facts, they are imputed about some validly knowable phenomenon and only exist and can be validly known so long as the basis for their imputation lasts. Sometimes translated as "static abstractions." Some translators render the term as "permanent phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "permanent phenomenon; permanence."

rtensomething that supports something else

Something that serves as the foundation or container for something else, for instance a house in relation to the people living inside it. Also translated as "what supports" or simply as "support."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis/support."

rtensupport

(1) An individual defining characteristic mark findable on the side of a knowable object, upon which a word or label for the object is set. (2) See: "something that supports something else."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis/support."

rten-'breldependent arising tradition

The dependent arising tradition transmitted in Drugpa Kagyu.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[depend-connect]; dependent-arising; interdependence."

rten-'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyistwelve links of dependent arising

The twelve-part mechanism whereby the existence of all samsaric phenomena, especially those of future rebirth, are established by reliance on unawareness: (1) unawareness, (2) affecting impulses, (3) loaded consciousness, (4) nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, (5) stimulators of cognition, (6) contacting awareness, (7) feeling a level of happiness, (8) craving, (9) an obtainer, (10) further existence, (11) conception, and (12) aging and dying.


J. Hopkins' translation: "twelve branches of dependent arising."

rten-cing 'brel-bar 'byung-badependent arisingSkt: pratityasamutpada

The reliance of something on something other than itself for establishing its existence. (1) The reliance of all samsaric phenomena on unawareness for establishing their existence; (2) the reliance of all functional, nonstatic phenomena on causes and conditions for establishing their existence; (3) the reliance of both static and nonstatic phenomena on their parts for establishing their existence; (4) the reliance of all phenomena on mental labeling for establishing their existence. Also translated as "dependent origination."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dependent-arising."

rten-pa'i dkyil-'khorsupporting mandala

The immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system, together with the environment around it, visualized in tantra practice.

rtog-bcasconceptual

Together with a concept.

rtog-med shes-panonconceptual cognition

Cognition of an object, without that cognition being through the medium of a universal, a category, or a mental label.

rtog-paconcept

A general term for a universal, a category, or a mental label. A concept of something need not be verbal. For example, one has a concept of what a pretty face looks like, what one's mother looks like, what a good soup tastes like, what a properly tuned guitar sounds like, what a valid line of reasoning is, what one plus one equals, and so on.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

rtog-paconceptual cognition

The cognition of an object through the medium of a metaphysical entity, namely a universal, a category, or a mental label. Conceptual cognition imputes (mentally labels) a metaphysical entity on the object that the mental aspect it assumes resembles, and mixes and confuses the two.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

rtog-pagross detection

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that investigates something roughly, such as detecting if there are mistakes on a page. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "investigation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

rtogs-paapprehend

To cognitively take an object of cognition both correctly and decisively.


J. Hopkins' translation: "realization."

rtogs-parealization

A stable, correct understanding of some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, which brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it. Compare: "attainment".

rtogs-pastable realization

In mahamudra meditation, the state of mind in which the meditator has nonconceptual bare cognition of there being no dualism of meditator and meditation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "realization."

rtogs-par brjod-paillustrative accountsSkt: avadana

Teachings of Buddha given with examples for ease of comprehension by the listener. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

rton-pa bzhifour placements of confidence

Don’t place your confidence on the person, place it on his or her teachings; don’t place your confidence on his or her words, place it on their meanings; don’t place your confidence on their interpretable meanings, place it on their definitive meanings; (to understand them) don’t place your confidence on your dividing consciousness, place it on your deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "four reliances{N}."

rtsa-ba'i bla-maroot guru

The spiritual teacher that inspires one the most, such that his or her inspiration serves as the root giving sustenance to one's spiritual growth.

rtsal-gyi rig-paeffulgent rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its aspect of spontaneously establishing appearances. Synonymous with the term "appearance-making basis rigpa."

rtsa-ltungroot downfall

A transgression of a root bodhisattva or root tantric vow, which, if it is a full transgression, acts as a root for falling to rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.

rtsol-bcaslabored

A state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated by working oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.

rtsol-medunlabored

A state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated instantly without needing to work oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.

rtsol-med byang-semsunlabored bodhichitta

A bodhichitta aim that arises automatically and effortlessly, without need to build up to it through steps or by relying on lines of reasoning.

sabhumi-mindSkt: bhumi

A level of mind of an arya bodhisattva with either a seeing or an accustoming pathway mind. Some translators render the term as "bodhisattva stage" or simply as "stage" or "ground."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ground/earth."

sa-bcuten levels of highly realized mindsSkt: dasha-bhumi

also translated as: ten bhumi minds


J. Hopkins' translation: "ten grounds."

sa-bonkarmic legacySkt: bija

A general term for all karmic aftermath that ripen into a result intermittently -- namely, karmic potentials and karmic tendencies.


J. Hopkins' translation: "seed."

sa-bonkarmic tendencySkt: bija

A type of karmic aftermath that is ethically neutral (unspecified as being either constructive or destructive), which is imputable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result only intermittently. Literally, a "karmic seed."


J. Hopkins' translation: "seed."

sa-bon-gyi ngo-bor gyur-bakarmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency

A synonym for "karmic potential."

sangs-rgyasBuddhaSkt: buddha

A fully enlightened being; someone who has totally eliminated, forever, from his or her mental continuum both the emotional and cognitive obscurations.

sangs-rgyas-kyi rigsBuddha-nature

Literally: Buddha caste-trait, Buddha family-trait. A factor imputable on the stained mind of a limited being (sentient being) that transforms into or allows for the attainment of enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Buddha lineage."

sangs-rgyas-kyi zhingBuddha-fieldSkt: Buddhakshetra

A non-samsaric realm in which the circumstances are the most conducive for uninterrupted intense spiritual practice for gaining Buddhahood. It is a field in the sense of being a place in which one can grow or develop a tremendous amount of positive force (merit). It is synonymous with a pure-land.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Buddha field."

Sar-maNew Translation

An adjective referring to (1) the period of the second transmission of the Dharma from India to Tibet, (2) one of the traditions of Tibetan Buddhism founded during this period -- namely, Kagyu, Sakya, Kadam or Gelug, (3) a text translated during this period.

sbom-pothick actions

A set of eight actions that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: secondary tantric vows.


J. Hopkins' translation: "gross contravention."

sbyin-pagenerositySkt: dana

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of wishing to give material things to all beings, so that they may be happy, without investigating whether or not they are worthy to receive them. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to wish to give to others all that is one's own – one's body, material wealth, and the roots of one's constructive actions. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. Also translated as "giving."


J. Hopkins' translation: "donation; verb: give; bestow; present noun: giving; gift; present; alms."

sbyin-sregfire-puja

A tantric ritual, performed mostly upon completion of a mantra-recitation retreat of a Buddha-figure for which one has received an empowerment, during which one tosses into a fire a large number of specific substances, accompanied by elaborate visualizations. It is mostly performed in order to purify any mistakes one has made during the retreat.


J. Hopkins' translation: "burnt offering."

sbyor-ba bzhifour sets of applied realizations

Also translated as: four yogas

sbyor-bcas dbyer-medjoined inseparability

The relationship between two items that do not naturally occur simultaneously and inseparably, but are made to do so through the power of meditation. Once the attainments of both are joined, then whenever one is the case or is occurring, so is the other.

sbyor-lamapplying pathway mindSkt: prayogamarga

The level of mind of shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas with which they apply the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, focused conceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and which they gained with a building-up pathway mind, to gaining a nonconceptual focus on voidness. Other translators often render this term as "path of preparation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of preparation."

sdig-panegative karmic forceSkt: papa

The type of karmic force associated with a destructive action and which ripens intermittently into unhappiness and the suffering of problems and pain. Also called: "negative karmic potential." Some translators render it as "sin." See: karmic force.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sin; moral wrong-doing; scorpion."

sdom-pavowSkt: samvara

(1) In the Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Madhyamaka schools other than Gelug Prasangika, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to restrain from a certain type of detrimental behavior, which, during a specific ceremony, one has formally promised to restrain from. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug-Prasangika systems, a non-revealing form on a person's mental continuum that performs the same function as in (1) by shaping one's behavior.


J. Hopkins' translation: "vow/discipline."

sdug-bsngal-bamiserable phenomenaSkt: du:kha (duhkha)

One of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.


J. Hopkins' translation: "miserable{N}; suffering."

sdug-bsngal-gyi sdug bsnalsuffering of suffering

The suffering of gross pain or unhappiness.

sel-baexclude

to eliminate


J. Hopkins' translation: "exclusion [=gzhan sel]; clear away; remove; throw off; eliminate; avoid."

semsmindSkt: chitta

The cognitive activity of merely giving rise to an appearance or mental hologram of something knowable and cognitively engaging with it.

semssem

All levels of awareness (levels of mind) that are tainted with the fleeting stains of the emotional and cognitive obscurations. All levels of awareness other than rigpa. Translated as "limited awareness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind."

sems-byungsubsidiary awarenessSkt: caitika

A way of cognizing an object that accompanies a primary consciousness, sharing five things in common with that consciousness, and which qualifies or helps with the cognition of the object. Also called "mental factor."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental factor."

sems-canlimited beingSkt: sattva

A being still having limited awareness. Any being other than a Buddha. Often rendered as "sentient being."


J. Hopkins' translation: "sentient being."

sems-nyidmind-itself

In the Kagyu and Nyingma systems, the deepest nature of the mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "intrinsic mind."

sems-pamental urgeSkt: cetana

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mental activity to face an object or to go in its direction. In general, it moves a mental continuum to cognitively take an object. It is equivalent to mental karma and, according to Sautrantika, Chittamatra, Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, and the non-Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka schools, it is equivalent to physical and verbal karmas as well.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attention/intention/intentionality/will."

sems phra-mosubtle mind

Mental consciousness, both conceptual and nonconceptual.

sems-rgyudmental continuumSkt: santana

The stream of continuity of mental activity (mind, awareness) of an individual being, which has no beginning, which continues even into Buddhahood, and, according to Mahayana, has no end. According to the Hinayana tenets, it comes to an end when an arhat or Buddha dies at the end of the lifetime in which the person attains liberation or enlightenment. Also called a "mind-stream."

sems-sdemind division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from the Indian texts translated into Tibetan by Vairochana, that emphasizes pure awareness as the basis for all. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "semdey."

sems-sdesemdey

See: mind division

sems shin-tu phra-mosubtlest mind

See: clear light awareness

Sems-tsam-paChittamatra

A Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert external phenomena, but which does assert the true existence of dependent phenomena. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism; the Mind-Only School.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Chittamātra/Mind-Only School."

sgommeditationSkt: bhavana

The repeated practice of generating and focusing on a beneficial state of mind in order to build it up as a habit.


J. Hopkins' translation: "1. meditate; meditation; cultivate; cultivation; 2. analytical meditation."

sgom-lamaccustoming pathway mindSkt: bhavanamarga

The level of mind of arya shravakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they accustom themselves to the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and thereby rid themselves of either one or both sets of automatically arising obscurations. Other translators usually render it as "path of meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of meditation."

sgrasoundSkt: shabda

An object explicitly cognized by ear consciousness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sound/term."

sgra-spyiaudio category

The conceptual category of the sound of a word or name, in which the sound of all individual pronunciations of the word or name fit, regardless of the voice, volume, or pronunciation with which it is spoken.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sound generality."

sgribobscurationSkt: avarana

A fleeting stain that temporarily "covers" or accompanies mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing objects without suffering or other limitations. Some translators render the term as "obstacle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "obstruct; defile; obstruction; defilement."

sgrib-pa lngafive obscurations

A set of five mental factors that prevent the attainment of the three higher trainings, in ethical self-discipline, absorbed concentration, and discriminating awareness. According to Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend, (1) flightiness of mind and regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) indecisive wavering, (4) intentions toward sensory objects, and (5) malice. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, (1) regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) sleepiness, (4) flightiness of mind, and (5) indecisive wavering. Also called: five obstacles.

sgro-'dogsinterpolation

The projection or superimposition, onto an object, of a quality or a conventional or ultimate identity that it doesn't have. For instance, to superimpose true existence onto the conventionally existent "me." Literally, the term means "sticking feathers on to something." Some translators render it as "exaggeration," but it is not the exaggeration of something present. Rather, it is the adding of something that is not there, as if it were present.


J. Hopkins' translation: "superimposition; exaggeration; reification; overestimation; that which superimposes/exaggerates/ reifies/overestimates."

sgrub-paaccomplishment

The attainment of a spiritual goal.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

sgrub-paactualize

To attain a spiritual goal. To make the attainment of a spiritual goal really (actually) happen. Also translated as "attain" and "attainment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

sgrub-paaffirmation phenomenon

An item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the establishment of something, without an object to be negated being explicitly precluded by the sounds that express it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

sgrub-thabssadhanaSkt: sadhana

Literally, a method of actualization, namely a meditation method for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. Performing a sadhana entails recitation of a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings. Synonymous with "self-generation" and "antecedent practice for realization."


J. Hopkins' translation: "means of achievement."

sha'i spyanextrasensory flesh eye

Cognition that is able to see great distances without obstruction, to see through solid objects such as walls, to see in all directions at the same time, and so on. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "fleshly eye."

shakya'i thub-paShakyamuniSkt: Shakyamuni

The Able One of the Shakya Clan, the Sage of the Shakya Clan, an epithet of Buddha

shar-badawn

A verb used for the arising of a cognitive appearance on a mental continuum, in analogy with the sun rising at dawn, except that the cognitive appearance is not already existing somewhere hidden in the mind in some unconscious manner and then comes up to consciousness when it dawns. Also translated as "to arise."


J. Hopkins' translation: "appear/manifest/dawn."

shes-byavalidly knowable phenomena

Phenomena that can be the objects of valid cognition. Synonymous with "existents."


J. Hopkins' translation: "object of knowledge."

shes-bzhinalertnessSkt: samprajanya

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that checks the condition of mindfulness's mental hold on the object of focus. It sees if the mental hold has been lost or is too weak or too tight due to flightiness of mind or mental dullness. It is more, however, than just reflexive awareness or implicit apprehension, which merely notices what is happening with the meditation. It resembles an alarm system to trigger a response with restoring attention to correct any faults.


J. Hopkins' translation: "introspection."

shes-pacognition

(1) The act of cognizing or knowing something, but without necessarily knowing what it is or what it means. It may be either valid or invalid, conceptual or nonconceptual . This is the most general term for knowing something. (2) The "package" of a primary consciousness, its accompanying mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses), and the cognitive object shared by all of them. According to some systems, a cognition also includes reflexive awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

shes-paways of being aware of something

One of the three kinds of nonstatic phenomena -- all types of mental activity cognizing an object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

shes-pa mngon-gyur-bamanifest cognition

A cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, both to the person and to the consciousness of the manifest cognition. Both the person and the manifest consciousness cognitively take it _ both cognize or "know" it. See also: subliminal cognition.

shes-rabdiscriminating awarenessSkt: prajna

The mental factor that decisively discriminates between what is correct and what is incorrect, or between what is helpful and what is harmful, or between what is appropriate or what is inappropriate, or between what is reality and what is not reality. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wisdom."

shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pafar-reaching discriminating awarenessSkt: prajnaparamita

The discriminating awareness of voidness that is conjoined with a bodhichitta aim. Most translators render it as "perfection of wisdom." Compare: discriminating awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Perfection of Wisdom."

shes-rab-kyi spyanextrasensory eye of discriminating awareness

Cognition that is able to "see" voidness nonconceptually. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana)..


J. Hopkins' translation: "eye of wisdom."

shes-sgribcognitive obscurationsSkt: jneyavarana

Fleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from simultaneously cognizing the two truths about all phenomena. Also translated as "obscurations about all knowables" and "obscurations preventing omniscience."


J. Hopkins' translation: "obstructions to omniscience."

shin-sbyangssense of fitness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling totally fit to do something, and which is both exhilarating and blissful, physically and mentally, but in a nondisturbing way.


J. Hopkins' translation: "pliancy."

shin-tu lkog-gyurextremely obscure phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that can be apprehended through authoritative texts or speech, such as the enlightening words of the Buddha, or that can be apprehended through the words of persons who are valid sources of information.


J. Hopkins' translation: "very hidden phenomenon."

shin-tu rgyas-paepic presentationsSkt: vaipulya

Presentations of the vast and profound aspects of such topics as the six far-reaching attitudes (six perfections) and ten arya bodhisattva levels of bhumi-mind (ten bhumis) of The Basket of the Mahayana or Bodhisattva Sutras. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Very Extensive [Sūtras]."

shugs-la rtogs-paimplicit apprehension

In the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object itself does not arise; only a cognitive appearance of the basis for imputation of the involved object arises. Compare: explicit apprehension.

shugs-la shes-paindirect cognition

According to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object, which no longer exists. Compare: direct cognition.

skad-cigmomentSkt: kshana

The smallest unit of time.


J. Hopkins' translation: "moment; instant; period."

skad-cigphase

The first part of a process, especially one in meditation, which may last a variable length of time.


J. Hopkins' translation: "moment; instant; period."

skal-mnyam-gyi rgyuequal status cause

Causes for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena as they are -- either in the same ethical category or on the same plane of existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cause of equal lot; cause of similar lot."

skuCorpus of a BuddhaSkt: kaya

A network of enlightening features or aspects of a Buddha, such as those of a Buddha's body, speech, or mind, which are attained with enlightenment and which help to lead others to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "body (hon.); image; statue."

sku-bzhiFour Corpuses of a Buddha

(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), and (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha.

sku-gnyisTwo Corpuses of a Buddha

(1) A Corpus of Forms (Rupakaya) and (2) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.

sku-gsumThree Corpuses of a BuddhaSkt: trikaya

(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), and (3) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the three exalted bodies [of a Buddha."

sku-lngaFive Corpuses of a Buddha

(I) In some presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha (Svabhavakaya), and Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya) of a Buddha. (II) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and Corpus of Great Bliss (Mahasukhakaya) of a Buddha. (III) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and (5) Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence of a Buddha. (IV) In yet other systems, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya), and (5) Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment (Abhisambhodhikaya) of a Buddha.

skur-'debsrepudiation

A conceptual denial of something that is true or is present.


J. Hopkins' translation: "deprecation; depreciation; denial; underestimation."

skyab-'gro tsam-pa-bamere taking of safe direction

Synonymous with "causal taking of safe direction."

skyabssafe directionSkt: sharana

A direction that one puts in one's life that will protect one from true suffering and its true causes, and, when one reaches the goal of this direction, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "refuge."


J. Hopkins' translation: "refuge."

skyabs-'grotake safe direction

To put a direction in one's life, which, when one goes in it, protects one from true suffering and its true causes and which, when one reaches its endpoint, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "take refuge," but it has no connotation of merely opening up and passively receiving protection.

skyabs-'gro khyad-par-baspecial taking of safe direction

Synonym for "resultant taking of safe direction."

skyabs-yulobjects that indicate a safe direction

A general term for the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

skye-baconception

(1) The moment when the consciousness of a bardo being enters its next rebirth. In the case of rebirth as a human or an animal, the moment in which it enters the sperm and egg of its next parents. (2) See: concept.


J. Hopkins' translation: "birth."

skye-ba'i yan-laglink of conceptionSkt: jaty-anga

The eleventh of the twelve links of dependent arising, equivalent to the first moment of the link of nameable mental faculties with or without gross form. The moment when the consciousness of a bardo being enters its next rebirth. In the case of rebirth as a human or an animal, the moment in which it enters the sperm and egg of its next parents.

skye-mchedstimulators of cognitionSkt: ayatana

The focal conditions and dominating conditions that give rise to the six types of cognition -- namely, the cognitive objects and cognitive sensors of each of the six cognitive faculties. In the case of the five sensory faculties, the objects and sensors are forms of physical phenomena, such as sights and photosensitive cells. In the case of the mental faculty, the objects may be any validly knowable phenomenon, while the sensors are the immediately preceding moments of mental cognition. Usually counted as the twelve stimulators of cognition, but in the list of the twelve links of dependent arising, referred to as the six stimulators of cognition, in which case the two cognitive stimulators of each cognitive faculty are counted as one.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sense-sphere,sphere."

skye-mched bcu-gnyistwelve stimulators of cognitionSkt: dvadasha ayatana

The twelve classes of nonstatic phenomena that serve as focal and dominating conditions for the six types of cognition -- namely, (1) sights, (2) eye sensors, (3) sounds, (4) ear sensors, (5) smells, (6) nose sensors, (7) tastes, (8) tongue sensors, (9) physical sensations, (10) body sensors, (11) (all) phenomena, and (12) mnd sensors.

skye-mched-kyi yan-laglink of stimulators of cognitionSkt: ayatana-anga

The fifth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The stimulators of cognition during the period of time in the development of a fetus from when the six different stimulators of cognition are differentiated up until but just before the aggregate of distinguishing is differentiated.

skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-buman-made resultSkt: purushakaraphalam

A result that arises as the direct result of the effort of a limited being, but which does not ripen from karma.


J. Hopkins' translation: "personally made effect."

skyes-pa'i rabspast life accountsSkt: jataka

Accounts of the difficult ascetic practices that Buddha performed in his previous lives while engaging in the conduct of the bodhisattvas. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "life stories; discourses on [Buddha's previous] births."

skye-sridconception existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience conception. It lasts only one moment. Some translators render the term as "birth existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "birth-state."

smin-paripenSkt: vipaka

(1) A karmic cause developing or growing to the point at which it can bear fruit, which means produce its result. This is ripening in its definitional sense. (2) A karmic causal factor on a mental continuum exhausting and finishing its presence there as it produces its fruit.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ripen; mature; fructify; maturation; ripening; matured; ripened."

smin-paripeningSkt: vipaka

The process whereby a karmic cause gives rise to its result. See: ripen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ripen; mature; fructify; maturation; ripening; matured; ripened."

smon-lamaspirational prayerSkt: pranidhana

(1) A prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal. (2) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, a special discriminating awareness concerning phenomena toward which to aspire. This discriminating awareness is in connection with the aspiration never to be parted from a bodhichitta aim in all one's lifetimes and for the continuity of one's far-reaching activities for benefiting all beings never to be broken.

smon-pa med-palack of a hope

The voidness or total lack of truly existent results of any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any truly existent results that one could hope for from a phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wishlessness{N}."

smon-semsaspiring bodhichitta

A mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual future enlightenment, is accompanied by the aspiration or wish to attain that enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attitude of aspiration [to full enlightenment]; aspirational mind of enlightenment."

smon-sems dam-bca'-canpledged state of aspiring bodhichitta

The advanced level of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the bais of the Buddha-nature factors oon one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit all beings by means of it, and then pledges never to give up this bodhichitta aim until one reaches that enlightenment. Abbreviated as: pledged aspiring bodhichitta.

smon-sems smon-pa-tsammerely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

The initial state of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own future enlightenment and merely has the intention to attain it and to benefit all beings by means of it. Also called: the mere state of aspiring bodhichitta.

snangappearance congealment

Also translated as: appearance, white appearance


J. Hopkins' translation: "to appear; perceive; light; illuminate; appearance."

snang-baappearance

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which arises in the mind. Also called "cognitive appearance."

snang-baappearance-congealing

One of the three subtle appearance-making minds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

snang-baappearance-making

The aspect of mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of an object of cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

snang-bacognitive arising

A cognitive appearance that has arisen on a mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

snang-baconceptual representation

The static conceptually isolated items that are the type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition. (1) According to Gelug, they represent the actual involved object of the conceptual cognition, for instance of a table, and are fully transparent so that, through them, one directly cognizes the fully transparent mental aspect (the mental hologram of a table) and, through that, an external phenomenon (the table) as the involved object. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are the categories, such as a commonsense table, that are the appearing objects of conceptual cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

snang-bamental representation

Something that appears in a conceptual cognition. (1) In Gelug, a static, fully transparent conceptually isolated item through which the cognition cognizes the external object that the hologram resembles; equivalent to a mental aspect. (2) In non-Gelug, a static, partially transparent mentally synthesized commonsense object and category through which the cognition cognizes a conceptually isolated item (a mental aspect) that stands for a commonsense object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

snang-la ma-nges-panondetermining cognition

A cognition of an object, in which (a) the involved object is an objective entity, (b) a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the involved object arises, but (c) there is no ascertainment (certainty, decisiveness) of what the involved object is or that the cognition of it has occurred. Also called: inattentive cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness to which an object appears but is not ascertained."

snang-yulappearing object

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which a cognition gives rise to. Equivalent to the cognitively taken object. Sometimes used interchangeably with "mental aspect," and sometimes differentiated from "mental aspect" in the sense that a cognition takes on the "mental aspect" of its appearing object.

sna-thung spu-sud-kyi nges-'byungshort-lived all-excited renunciation

The enthusiastic and fanatic giving up of everything worldly, often based on blind faith that an external source will save us.

sngagsmantraSkt: mantra

Sets of syllables and, often, additional Sanskrit words and phrases, all of which represent enlightening speech and which, when repeated, protect the mind from destructive states. While repeating the mantras of a Buddha-figure, one imagines having the abilities to communicate perfectly to everyone the complete means for eliminating suffering and reaching enlightenment. Mantras shape the breath, and consequently the subtle energy-winds, enabling one to bring the winds under control for use in meditation practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spell; mantra; general word for tantra."

sngags-btusmantra-gathering

A tantric ritual for giving disciples confidence in the accuracy of a mantra, in which the vowels and consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet are written with colored powder in a grid on the surface of a metal mirror and the tantric master reads out, one by one, the grid location of the consonant and vowel for each syllable of the main mantra. After each specification of the consonant and vowel of a syllable, an assistant takes some colored powder from the mirror and uses it to write the syllable on the surface of another metal mirror.

sngags-kyi phyag-chenmantra mahamudra

Meditations on the nature of the mind with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.

sngon-'gropreliminary practices

Practices, such as prostration, usually repeated 100,000 times, done as a method to build up positive force and cleanse negative force so as to have more success in tantra practice. Also called "ngondro."

sngon-dus-kyi srid-papredeath existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after conception until the moment immediately before death.


J. Hopkins' translation: "prior state [from the second moment until death; usually the longest of the four states]."

sngon-gnas rjes-dran-gyi mngon-shesadvanced awareness of recollection of past situations

Cognition of past lives. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

snying-po'i phyag-chenessence mahamudra

A pathway of mahamudra practice concerning the nature of the mind in which specially qualified disciples receive the inspiration of the realizations all the lineage masters through receiving a vajra deep awareness empowerment and thereby achieve realization of mind-itself, equivalent to a seeing pathway mind. As "those for whom it happens all at once," they achieve enlightenment simultaneously with this realization. Also known as "the singular sufficient white panacea."

snying-rjecompassionSkt: karuna

The wish for someone to be free from suffering and from the causes for suffering.

snying-rje chen-pogreat compassionSkt: mahakaruna

The wish for everyone to be free from suffering and from the causes for suffering.

snying-thigheart essence division

Another name for the quintessence teachings division of treasure texts, and for the texts contained in this division.

snying-thigheart essence teachings

Teachings emphasizing the primal purity aspect of pure awareness.

so-mafresh and clean

Arising anew in each moment without being stained by any mental constructs -- descriptive of pure awareness (rig-pa) in the dzogchen systems.

sor-rtog ye-shesindividualizing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that singles out an object and is aware of it as a unique, individual item. Also called: deep awareness of the individuality of things.

so-so'i skye-boordinary being

A limited being who has not yet attained the state of an arya. In other words, someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths.


J. Hopkins' translation: "common being."

so-thar sdom-papratimoksha vowsSkt: pratimokshasamvara

The vows of either a layman or laywoman, a novice or full monk, or a provisional, novice, or full nun. The ethical self-discipline of keeping them purely provides the basis for the individual being keeping them to attain liberation from samsara.

spong-bariddanceSkt: hani

A static state in which an emotional obscuration or a cognitive obscuration has been removed forever from a mental continuum. Equivalent to a true stopping (true cessation). Translated by others as "abandonment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "abandon; eliminate; give up; dispel; abandonment{N}."

spro-bazestful vigorSkt: utsaha

The mental factor of taking joy and pleasure in being constructive, which accompanies joyful perseverance.


J. Hopkins' translation: "elaborate; spread out; spread; go out; proceed; be enthusiastic for."

spros-bralstate parted from mental fabrication

The state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs.


J. Hopkins' translation: "free from elaborations{N}."

spros-pamental fabricationSkt: prapanca

An appearance of truly established existence that mental activity in a conceptual cognition produces and projects due to the habits of grasping for truly established existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "proliferation."

sprul-skuCorpus of EmanationsSkt: nirmanakaya

The network of grosser forms, which are emanations of a Buddha's Corpus of Full Use, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach ordinary beings with the karma to be able to meet with them. Also translated sometimes as "Emanation Body."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Emanation Body."

spyicategory

A phenomenon shared in common by the individuals on which it is imputed. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." For a fuller definition, see: conceptual category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

spyiconceptual category

(1) A general term for both audio categories and meaning/object categories. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." (2) A set to which individual items sharing a common defining characteristic belong. It is mentally constructed (mentally fabricated) by a mental synthesis of individual items that are instances of it, or by a mental synthesis of the spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts on which it is imputed (labeled). Sometimes translated as "mental synthesis" or just "synthesis."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

spyimental synthesis

The imputation of a conceptual category in which the bases for imputation are the individual sensibilia of a commonsense object, the parts of any of the sensibilia of a commonsense object, the moments in the continuum of a commonsense object, or items sharing a common defining characteristic. Synonymous with "conceptual category" and "category."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

spyi-ldogitems conceptually isolated by categories

In Gelug, a synonym for a conceptually isolated item, namely one that distinguishes a specific phenomenon in terms of its conceptual identity.


J. Hopkins' translation: "general-isolate."

spyi-mtshanmetaphysical entitiesSkt: samanyalakshana

In the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their being merely imputed by conceptual cognition and which are superficial (relative, conventional) true phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all static phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include all static phenomena other than voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug system, they are the appearing objects of only conceptual cognitions, although they are not the actual cognitive appearances in those cognitions. They may be validly cognized not only by valid conceptual cognition, but also implicitly by valid nonconceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid conceptual cognition. Also translated as "generally characterized phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generally characterized phenomenon."

sred-pacravingSkt: trshna

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a strong longing desire to experience something in the future that one may or may not be experiencing at present. The Sanskrit term means, literally, "thirst."


J. Hopkins' translation: "attachment."

sred-pa'i yan-laglink of cravingSkt: trshna-anga

The eighth of the twelve links of dependent arising, one of the mental factors that activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma at the time of death. The three types of craving that occur at the time of death: (1) craving in relation to what is desirable, (2) craving because of fear, (3) craving in relation to further existence.

srid-pacompulsive existence

Existence under the control of karma and disturbing emotions and attitudes. Synonym for uncontrollably recurring existence, samsara.


J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

srid-pafurther existenceSkt: bhava

See: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence


J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

srid-pavalid phenomenon

A phenomenon that is validly knowalble now.


J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

srid-pa'i yan-laglink of further existenceSkt: bhava-anga

The tenth of the twelve links of dependent arising. A karmic impulse, brought on by craving and an obtainer disturbing emotion or attitude, that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling that throwing karma to ripen into the bardo existence, conception existence, predeath existence, and death existence of a next rebirth.

srid-sredcraving in relation to further existence

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire for a neutral feeling, which one is experiencing, to continue surviving and not degenerate. (2) A strong longing desire for one's own body composed of five aggregates to continue surviving as a basis for craving in relation to what is desirable and craving because of fear. (3) Holding on to objects of the future.

stobsstrengtheningSkt: bala

The special discriminating awareness employed for expanding one's discriminating awareness and not letting it be crushed by countering factors, such as attachment to anything. One of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes (ten perfections).


J. Hopkins' translation: "power."

stongdevoid

Totally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic, whether that characteristic is a possibly existing one or an impossible one.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thousand; 1,000; empty; empty of; vacuity."

stongtotally devoid

Totally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic that is impossible for anything to possess, because that characteristic does not exist at all.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thousand; 1,000; empty; empty of; vacuity."

stong-gzugsdevoid form

A form of physical phenomenon that is devoid of atoms and is the natural play of the clear light mind or of pure awareness (rigpa). Discussed in both Kalachakra and dzogchen, advanced practice enables devoid forms to become the cause for the Form Bodies of a Buddha.

stong-nyid rtogs-parealize voidness

To gain a stable, correct understanding of voidness, either conceptually or nonconceptually, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it.

stong-pastarkness

The quality of something standing out sharply and dramatically in its appearance, without anything adorning it (like a rock mountain in a desert, totally devoid of any vegetation); the quality of being barren.


J. Hopkins' translation: "empty."

stong-pa-nyidvoidnessSkt: shunyata

An absence of an impossible way of existing. The impossible way of existing has never existed at all. Translators often render the term as "emptiness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "emptiness."

stong-sangbare absence

The natural state of being without concepts or conceptual cognition, which is the natural state or nature of awareness (mind). Also translated as "bareness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear emptiness; [empty-pure]."

thabs-mkhasskill in meansSkt: upayakaushalya

The special discriminating awareness concerning the most effective and appropriate internal methods for actualizing the Buddha's teachings and the most effective and appropriate external methods for making limited beings ripe for attaining liberation and enlightenment. In Mahayana, when conjoined with a bodhichitta, the seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes.


J. Hopkins' translation: "skill in means/skillful means."

thad-ka'i spyihorizontal mental synthesis

A kind mental synthesis that extends over many instances of the same type of phenomenon, such as many tables.

thal-'gyur-baPrasangika

A subdivision of the Madhyamaka school within the Indian Buddhist tenet systems that uses absurd conclusions to bring about valid inferential cognition of something to be proven or established. Gelug adds to this definition that it also asserts that all phenomena lack existence established by an essential nature and even conventionally lack existence established by their individual defining characteristic marks.


J. Hopkins' translation: "PrAsaGgika; Consequentialist."

tha-mal 'du-'dziordinary commotion

The emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to the eight transitory things in life: praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly.

tha-mal-gyi shes-panormal awareness

In the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for clear light mind, which is "normal" in the sense that it is the primordial, natural state that has always been the case.

Thams-cad yod-pa smra-baSarvastivada

One of the eighteen divisions of the Hinayana tradition of Buddhism and within which Vaibhashika and Sautrantika are subdivisions.

thar-paliberationSkt: moksha

The state of an arhat; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of true suffering and the true origins of suffering, and thus a true stopping of samsara; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of the emotional obscurations.

tha-snyadconventionSkt: vyavahara

A word or phrase, agreed upon by a society or an individual, and used in speech and thought to refer to something.

tha-snyad spyod-yulconventional commonsense object

Literally: conventional objects that one actually experiences when one cognizes them. An object of ordinary experience to which a word or concept refers, and which endures over time and extends over the sensibilia of one or more senses.

theg-chenMahayanaSkt: mahayana

Literally, a "Vast Vehicle of Mind" - levels or states of mind that, with a vast motivation of bodhichitta, employ vast methods for reach the vast goal of enlightenment. Some translators render the term as "Greater Vehicle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Great Vehicle/Mahāyāna."

theg-dmanHinayanaSkt: hinayana

Literally, a "Modest Vehicle of Mind" -- levels and states of mind with a modest motivation - renunciation - and, with modest methods, lead to the modest goal of liberation. Some translators render the term as "Lesser Vehicle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Lesser Vehicle/Hīnayāna."

theg-pavehicle of mindSkt: yana

A level of state of mind that acts as either (1) a vehicle for bringing one to the spiritual goal of either liberation or enlightenment, or (2) the resultant goal of liberation or enlightenment to which one is brought.


J. Hopkins' translation: "vehicle."

the-tshomsindecisive wavering

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that entertains two opinions about what is true – in other words, wavering between accepting or rejecting what is true. One of the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes. Sometimes translated as "doubt."

thig-lecreative energy-dropsSkt: bindu

Subtle forms of pure essence, found in the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which, through anuttarayoga complete stage practice, can function as the seed for generating of a blissful awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "drop."

thob-paacquirement

The obtainment or gain of something, such as a vow or a spiritual attainment, imputable on the mental continuum of the one who has gained it. An acquirement or acquiring of something is a noncongruent affecting variable -- a nonstatic phenomenon that is neither a form of material phenomena nor a way of being aware of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "acquisition; attainment; to attain; obtainer."

thob-pa'i mya-ngan 'dasacquired nirvana

States of release from all samsaric sufferings and their true causes, which are attained through the power of meditation.

thob-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-buman-made result that is an attainment

The reaching of a goal as the result of someone's effort, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.

thod-rgalleap-ahead

The practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "leaps ahead" from the attainment of break-through, and during which effulgent rigpa gives rises to and cognizes itself as a rainbow body. During this stage, effulgent rigpa becomes increasingly more prominent, while essence rigpa is also prominently maintained. This stage is equivalent to an accustoming pathway of mind (path of meditation).


J. Hopkins' translation: "Leap-over."

thos-palisteningSkt: shruta

At the time when the Buddhist teachings were only available in oral form, hearing the recitation of the teachings. Nowadays, also reading the teachings. By means of listening to the teachings, one learns about them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hearing."

thregs-chodbreak-through

The practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "breaks through" the level of limited mind (sems) and both recognizes and accesses essence rigpa, thereby attaining a seeing pathway of mind (path of seeing) and becoming an arya.

thub-paAble OneSkt: muni

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has been able to reach the goal of enlightenment and is able to benefit all beings as much as is possible.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Subduer; Silent One [epithet for Buddha]; short for ShAkyamuni, conqueror [over the afflictions]."

thugs-rjeresponsiveness

The influencing nature of pure awareness (rigpa) - namely, that it responds to others effortlessly and spontaneously with compassionate communication. See: responsive awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "compassion."

Thun-drug rnal-'byorSix-Session Yoga

In Gelug, a practice, recited six times daily, required of those who have received an anuttarayoga empowerment, through which they keep the nineteen closely bonding practices for the five Buddha-families.

thun-mong ma-yin-pa'i btang-snyomuncommon equanimity

The mental factor of an equal attitude toward everyone, with which one has no feelings of close or far in the thoughts or actions involved in benefiting and helping all limited beings and eliminating their problems. The type of equanimity developed specifically in Mahayana in the context of equalizing and exchanging one's attitudes about self and other, and not taught in common with Hinayana. Also called "distinguished equanimity."

ting-nge-'dzinabsorbed concentrationSkt: samadhi

Perfect concentration fully absorbed or sunk into an object of focus.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stabilization, meditative stabilization."

ting-nge-'dzinmental fixationSkt: samadhi

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of maintaining mental placement on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Also called "mentally fixating" and "concentration," it accompanies all cognitions and varies in intensity from very weak to very strong. When perfected, it becomes "absorbed concentration."


J. Hopkins' translation: "stabilization, meditative stabilization."

ting-nge-'dzin-gyi mchod-paofferings of absorbed concentration

Offerings made of various aspects of one's Dharma practice, visualized in the form of the outer offerings. Also called: offerings of samadhi.

tsammere

Only this, without anything more.


J. Hopkins' translation: "only."

tshad-mavalid cognitionSkt: pramana

(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a fresh, nonfallacious cognition. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a nonfallacious cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "valid cognition, prime cognition, epistemology and logic."

tshad-mininvalid cognition

(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a cognition that is not fresh, or one that is fallacious, or one that is both not fresh and fallacious. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a fallacious cognition.

tshigs-su bcad-pametered versesSkt: gatha

Two-to-six-lined verses composed by Buddha. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "verses; stanza."

tshogsritual bountiful feast

A specially consecrated torma offered to one's tantric master, inseparable from the Buddha-figure, during a tantra ceremonial round of offering.


J. Hopkins' translation: "collection; stock; assembly; gathering; group; accumulation; community."

tshogstsog

(1) Equivalent to "ceremonial round of offering a ritual feast." (2) The food offerings presented at a ceremonial round of offering a ritual feast.


J. Hopkins' translation: "collection; stock; assembly; gathering; group; accumulation; community."

tshogs-'khorceremonial round of offering a ritual feastSkt: ganacakra

A tantra ritual, part of a puja, in which specially consecrated offerings, usually including a torma, are made to one's spiritual master inseparable from a Buddha-figure. In anuttarayoga tantra, the offerings include consecrated alcohol and meat. Often refered to by the Tibetan "tsog."

tshogs-lambuilding-up pathway mindSkt: sambharamarga

The level of mind with which shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas build up, among other good qualities, the joined pair of a stilled and settled state of mind (shamatha) and an exceptionally perceptive state of mind (vipashyana) focused conceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths. It only pertains to shravakas and pratyekabuddhas once they have attained an unlabored determination to be free, or to bodhisattvas once, in addition, they have attained unlabored bodhichitta. Others often render this term as "path of accumulation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of accumulation."

tshogs-shingbountiful field

A bountiful field for growing positive force, and that is shortened to bountiful field. It is usually translated as merit-field by others. Bountiful here means that it gives abundant crop.

tshogs-spyicollection mental synthesis

A whole imputed on spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts.


J. Hopkins' translation: "collection generality; collection-generality."

tshor-bafeeling a level of happinessSkt: vedana

One of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The subsidiary awareness that accompanies each moment of sensory or mental cognition of a limited being before attaining liberation and with which that being experiences the ripenings of its own karma in the form of something within the spectrum of extreme unhappiness, through neutral, to extreme happiness. Also called "feeling."


J. Hopkins' translation: "feeling."

tshor-ba'i phung-poaggregate of feelings of levels of happinessSkt: vedana-skandha

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling a level of happiness or unhappiness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of feelings." See: feeling a level of happiness.

tshor-ba'i yan-laglink of feeling a level of happinessSkt: vedana-anga

The seventh of the twelve links of dependent arising. The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling a level of happiness starting at the time in the development of a foetus, and continuing for the rest of that lifetime, during which the person experiences happiness in response to pleasant contacting awareness, unhappiness in response to unpleasant contacting awareness, and a neutral feeling in response to neutral contacting awareness.

tshul-bcas yid-byedpaying attention in a concordant manner

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object and considers it in a way that accords with its actuality. Also called "correct consideration."

tshul-khrimsethical self-disciplineSkt: shila

(1) In Theravada, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to avoid doing any harm to others, by keeping one's vows, free from anger or ill-will even if others harm one. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge to safeguard the actions of one's body, speech, and mind, which comes from having turned one's mind away from any wish to cause harm to others and from the disturbing and destructive mental factors that had motivated one to harm others. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[system-law]; ethics; morality."

tshul-khrims-dang brtul-zhugs mchog-tu 'dzin-paholding deluded morality or conduct as supreme

The disturbing attitude that regards as purified, liberated, and definitely delivered some deluded morality, some deluded conduct, and the samsara-perpetuating aggregate factors that give rise to the deluded morality and conduct.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conception of ethics and modes of conduct as supreme."

tshul-min yid-byedpaying attention in a discordant manner

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object and considers it in a way that does not accord with its actuality, such as considering something nonstatic to be static. Also called "incorrect consideration."

yang-dag-par blangs-pa-las byung-ba'i gzugsforms of physical phenomenon arising from clearly taking them on

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are acquired on a mental continuum, such as the nonrevealing forms of vows and of karmic actions.

yang-srid sgrub-pa'i laskarmic impulse for further existence

A karmic impulse that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling the aftermath to ripen into a next rebirth. Abbreviated as "further existence."

yan-lag-gi dam-tshigauxiliary bonding practices

A set of nine practices and attitudes that, during an anuttarayoga tantra empowerment, one pledges to maintain in order to keep a close connection with tantra practice.

yan-lag-gi sbom-poauxiliary thick actions

A set of actions, in addition to the eight thick actions, that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: auxiliary secondary tantric vows.

ye-don kun-gzhiprimordial deepest alaya

In the dzogchen system, a synonym for basis rigpa. The source of all appearances of samsara and nirvana.

ye-shesdeep awarenessSkt: jnana

(1) In the context of the five types of deep awareness, a type of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. It is "deep" in the sense that it is a fundamental way in which the mind works and has always been there, primordially, with no beginning and no end. (2) When contrasted with "discriminating awareness" (Tib. shes-rab) in the non-Gelug usage of the term, the principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the deepest truth of something (its inseparable voidness and appearance), beyond all words and concepts. (3) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, when contrasted with "discriminating awareness," principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the two truths of something. (4) In the context of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness, in the Gelug usage, either the principal awareness that explicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness (deepest truth) during total absorption or the principal awareness that implicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness during subsequent attainment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "exalted wisdom/wisdom/pristine wisdom."

ye-shes 'phrin-las skuCorpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence

In some dzogchen systems, the spontaneous, effortless positive influence that a Buddha's omniscient mind exerts on others. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence. Some translators render the term as "Wisdom Activity Body."

ye-shes chos-skuCorpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing EverythingSkt: jnana-dharmakaya

The deep awareness aspect of a Buddha's mind, which is equally aware of the two truths simultaneously, without any break. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything, Deep Awareness Dharmakaya. Some translators render this term as "Wisdom Dharmakaya."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Wisdom Truth Body."

ye-shes-kyi spyanextrasensory eye of deep awareness

A Buddha's omniscient awareness that is able to "see" the two truths about all phenomena. One of the five types of extrasensory eyes, possessed only by Buddhas.

ye-shes-kyi tshogsnetwork of deep awarenessSkt: jnanasambhara

A constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the moments of conceptual or nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths or of voidness, on the mental continuum of a limited being, when followed by a bodhichitta dedication, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Dharmakaya of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of deep awareness." Some translators render the term as "collection of wisdom" or "collection of insight."


J. Hopkins' translation: "accumulation of wisdom; collection of wisdom."

ye-shes lngafive types of deep awareness

Five types of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The five are (1) mirror-like, (2) equalizing, (3) individualizing, and (4) accomplishing deep awareness, and (5) deep awareness of reality. Some translators render this term as "five Buddha-wisdoms." Compare: "deep awareness" (1).

yidgeneral awareness

In the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that gives rise to and is aware of the appearing (the arising in general) of an awareness of an object and an object that one is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the general features of an entire sensory or mental field that one cognizes, so that one gets an overview.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Intellect/mentality."

yid-'ong byams-paheartwarming love

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one has a feeling of closeness and warmth toward anyone one meets.

yi-dagsclutching ghostSkt: preta

One of the three worse rebirth states, characterized by the suffering of being unable to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, and caused primarily by miserliness. Translated by most others as "hungry ghost," which is a literal rendering of the Chinese translation for the term, adopted by the Chinese in reference to the spirits of departed ancestors that suffered when not presented with regular offerings of food.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ghost; preta; hungry ghost."

yi-damBuddha-figureSkt: ishtadevata

An emanated form of a Buddha, often with multiple faces, arms, and legs, which tantric practitioners visualize themselves as. This is done in order to create a close bond with the figure so as to be able to attain enlightenment, in the form of that figure, through such practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[mind-firm]; personal deity; tutelary deity; promise; vow; one who has a vow; deity."

yid-byed bral-bastate parted from taking to mind

The state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs -- in other words, equivalent to the state parted from mental fabrication.

yid-ches-kyi dad-pabelief in a fact based on reason

A constructive emotion that considers a fact about something to be true, based on having thought, with logic, about the reasons that prove it. Also called "confident belief."


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of conviction."

yid-ches-kyi dad-pabelieving a fact to be true based on reason

See: belief in a fact based on reason


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of conviction."

yid-kyi rang-bzhin gyi gzugsforms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind

The type of subtle phenomena that the body of an arhat in a pure land is: although still included among cognitive stimulators that are forms of physical phenomena, they are visible only to the eye consciousness of arhats in pure lands. Although they are not ways of being aware of anything, their functional nature is similar to that of forms of physical phenomena that can be known only by mental consciousness. Synonymous with "mental bodies."

yid-kyi rnam-shesmental consciousnessSkt: manovijnana

A primary consciousness that can take any existent phenomenon as its object and which relies on merely the previous moment of cognition as its dominating condition and not on any physical sensors.

yid-la byed-paattentionSkt: manasi

The ever-functioning mental factor that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object. The cognitive engagement may be merely to pay some level of attention to the object (strong or weak), or to focus on the object in a certain way (painstakingly, effortlessly, etc.), or to consider the object in a certain way (concordantly or discordantly). Also called: paying attention, consideration, take to mind, taking to mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental engagement/taking to mind/mental contemplation."

yid-la byed-pataking to mind

See: attention


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental engagement/taking to mind/mental contemplation."

yid-lusmental body

The type of body that arhats in pure lands have. See: forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind.

yod-paexistents

Validly knowable phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "existent."

yongs-grubthoroughly established phenomenaSkt: parinishpanna

(1) In the context of the Mahayana tenet system, a synonym for deepest truths. Specifically, in the Chittamatra system, the various voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvana. (2) In the Buddhist medical system, hereditary, congenital diseases; genetic disorders.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thoroughly established phenomenon; thoroughly established [nature]."

yon-tangood qualitiesSkt: guna

Helpful aspects or beneficial talents of a person that are corrections of inadequacies.


J. Hopkins' translation: "good qualities; good quality; virtue; attainment; quality."

yul-can-gyi 'od-gsalcognitive clear light

Clear light awareness that cognizes voidness as its object.

yul-gyi 'od-gsalobject clear light

Voidness as the object cognized by clear light awareness.

zag-bcastaintedSkt: sashrava

Something that derives from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is related in some way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. According to Vasubandhu, they give rise to further tainted phenomena; while according to Asanga, only some do that. Also translated as "mixed with confusion. Some translators render this term as "contaminated."


J. Hopkins' translation: "contaminated."

zag-bcas kyi phung-potainted aggregates

The five aggregate factors of experience that derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or are related in some with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Some translators render the term as "contaminated aggregates."

zag-meduntaintedSkt: anashrava

Something that does not derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is not related in any way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Also translated as "unmixed with confusion" or "dissociated from confusion." Many translators render this term as "uncontaminated."


J. Hopkins' translation: "uncontaminated."

zag-med-kyi phung-pountainted aggregates

Aggregate factors of someone's experience that do not include the causes that will obtain for that being any further samsaric rebirths.

zag-pa zad-pa'i mngon-shesadvanced awareness of the depletion of tainted factors

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Cognition of one's own state of being rid forever of the emotional obscurations preventing liberation from samsara.

zang-thalall-permeating

The quality of rigpa (pure awareness) that it interpenetrates and pervades all instances of limited awareness (sem) without obstruction, in the same manner as oil permeates sesame seeds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unhindered."

zang-zingupsetting

A way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with craving for one's own tainted, obtainer aggregate factors of experience.


J. Hopkins' translation: "things; objects; disarranged; confused; various things."

zang-zing med-panonupsetting

A way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with an arya's total absorption on voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-object; not disarranged; unconfused; non-thing."

zhal-gdamsguideline teachings

Honorific for guideline instructions. See: guideline instructions.

zhal-lungpersonal instructions

Advice on how to practice meditation, emphasizing the quintessential points.

zhen-paconceptually cling

In the context of a conceptual cognition, a category's implying an actual object that corresponds to it, as if the category were attached to that "conceptually implied object." Also translated as "conceptually imply."


J. Hopkins' translation: "adherence; determination; conception; attachment."

zhen-yulconceptualized object

The object about which a conceptual cognition gives rise to a universal, a category, or a mental label through which to think of it. Literally, the object on which a concept clings. Also called: implied object or conceptually implied object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceived object."

zhe-sdanghostilitySkt: dvesha

A subcategory of anger: anger directed primarily, although not exclusively, at limited beings. One of the three poisonous emotions and attitudes. See: anger.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hatred."

zhe-sdang med-paimperturbabilitySkt: advesha

The constructive mental factor of not wishing to cause harm in response to limited beings (sentient beings), one's own suffering, or situations entailing suffering that may arise from either of the two or which may simply be the situations in which the suffering occurs. Sometimes translated as "non-anger."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-hatred."

zhi-gnasstilled and settled state of mindSkt: shamatha

A state of mind, attained through meditation, in which the mind is stilled of all mental flightiness and mental dullness, is settled down on an object and remains there, and is accompanied by an exhilarating sense of fitness. Also called a "serenely stilled and settled state of mind," "shamatha." Some translators render the term as "calm abiding" or "mental quiescence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "calm abiding."

zhi-gnaszhinay

See: stilled and settled state of mind


J. Hopkins' translation: "calm abiding."

zhig-papreviously-having-perished

The past occurrence of something, equivalent to the no-longer-happening of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."


J. Hopkins' translation: "destroy; disintegrate; perish; disintegratedness."

zung-'breljoined pair

A pair of items, joined inseparably, in which the initial attainment of one of the items occurs before the initial attainment of the other.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[two-connect]; noun: unification; union verb: unify; unite."

zung-'jugunified pairSkt: yuganaddha

A pair of items, joined inseparably, in which the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously. Sometimes used as a general term whether the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously or sequentially.


J. Hopkins' translation: "union."

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