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Home > Glossary > Glossary English Terms

English Glossary of Buddhist Terms

This glossary is only a partial list of technical terms found on the pages of the website. From time to time, as work progresses on the glossary project, new terms will be added to the list. Sanskrit equivalents for Tibetan terms have been provided only for select terms and all diacritical marks for transliterated Sanskrit have been omitted, for ease of display on all browsers.

Choose one of the letters below to see the glossary entries that start with this letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z everything

EnglishDefinitionTibetan / Sanskrit
abandonment

See: riddance

Abhisambodhikaya

See: Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment

abiding nature

The lasting, enduring nature of all phenomena; the voidness of all phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mode of subsistence."

Tib: gnas-lugs
abiding traits

See: naturally abiding family-traits

Able One

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has been able to reach the goal of enlightenment and is able to benefit all beings as much as is possible.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Subduer; Silent One [epithet for Buddha]; short for ShAkyamuni, conqueror [over the afflictions]."

Tib: thub-pa
Skt: muni
Able Sage

See: Able One

absence, absolute

See: absolute absence

absence, bare

See: bare absence

absolute absence

The absence of something impossible; the absence of something that has never existed and never can exist.

absolute nullification

The refutation of the possibility that something could exist.

absorbed concentration

Perfect concentration fully absorbed or sunk into an object of focus.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stabilization, meditative stabilization."

Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
absorption, total

See: total absorption

absorption on voidness, clear light

See: clear light absorption on voidness

abstraction, nonstatic

See: noncongruent affecting variable

abstraction, static

See: static phenomenon

access clear light mental activity

Through advanced meditation practices of the anuttarayoga tantra complete stage, to reach the clear light level of mind -- in the sense of stopping the grosser levels of mind so that the mind operates only on the underlying clear light level, which is the subtlest level of mental activity, and which has been operating with no beginning -- and then both to recognize this subtlest level of mind for what it is and utilize it for cognizing objects.

access rigpa

Through special methods used by a dzogchen master in a personal interaction with a fully prepared dzogchen practitioner, the practitioner reaching the rigpa (pure awareness) level of mind -- in the sense of making the exclusive focus of attention this underlying subtlest, untainted level of mental activity, which has been operating with no beginning -- and then both recognizing rigpa for what it is and making use of its natural properties.

accomplished

See: highly accomplished

accomplishing awareness

See: accomplishing deep awareness

accomplishing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that goes out to a cognitive object and which has the willingness to accomplish something with it, or to do something with it or to it, or to relate to it in some personal way. Also called: deep awareness to accomplish things.

Tib: bya-grub ye-shes
accomplishment

The attainment of a spiritual goal.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
accordant nature

A synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "thusness."

Tib: de-bzhin-nyid
Skt: tathata
accounts, fabulous

See: fabulous accounts

accounts, illustrative

See: illustrative accounts

accounts, past life

See: past life accounts

accounts, revelatory

See: revelatory accounts

accustoming pathway mind

The level of mind of arya shravakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they accustom themselves to the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and thereby rid themselves of either one or both sets of automatically arising obscurations. Other translators usually render it as "path of meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of meditation."

Tib: sgom-lam
Skt: bhavanamarga
acquired nirvana

States of release from all samsaric sufferings and their true causes, which are attained through the power of meditation.

Tib: thob-pa'i mya-ngan 'das
acquirement

The obtainment or gain of something, such as a vow or a spiritual attainment, imputable on the mental continuum of the one who has gained it. An acquirement or acquiring of something is a noncongruent affecting variable -- a nonstatic phenomenon that is neither a form of material phenomena nor a way of being aware of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "acquisition; attainment; to attain; obtainer."

Tib: thob-pa
acquisition

See: acquirement

acting cause

All phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "creative cause."

Tib: byed-rgyu
Skt: karanahetu
action, faulty

See: faulty actions

action, karmic

See: karmic action

action, naturally destructive uncommendable

See: naturally uncommendable action

action, naturally uncommendable

See: naturally uncommendable action

action, prohibited uncommendable

See: prohibited uncommendable action

action, thick

See: thick actions

action, uncommendable

See: uncommendable action

activate

To cause a karmic tendency to become a manifest karmic impulse that will give its result in the next moment. Also translated as "arouse."

Tib: gsos-'debs
actual attainment

A significant spiritual goal that one actually attains or, literally, "makes actual" or "makes real" on one's mental continuum. The ordinary actual attainments refer to extrasensory and extraphysical powers, while the supreme actual attainment refers to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "feat; accomplishment; yogic accomplishment; actual accomplishment; fact."

Tib: dngos-grub
Skt: siddhi
actual clear light mind

A subtlest level of consciousness that has a nonconceptual, blissful cognition of voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual clear light/ exemplified clear light."

Tib: don-gyi 'od-gsal
actual fundamental part

The main part of a text or practice, containing the actual discussion of the principal topic.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

Tib: dngos-gzhi
actuality

See: actual nature

actualization

See: actualize

actualize

To attain a spiritual goal. To make the attainment of a spiritual goal really (actually) happen. Also translated as "attain" and "attainment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
actual nature

A synonym for voidness (emptiness) or, in some mahamudra and dzogchen systems, the nature of everything as the play of inseparable awareness and voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "final nature/real nature/noumenon."

Tib: chos-nyid
Skt: dharmata
actual state

The full definitional state of something, such as one of levels of mental constancy.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

Tib: dngos-gzhi
actual state of the first dhyana

See: actual state of the first level of mental stability

actual state of the first level of mental stability

A state of mind attained on the basis of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha and which temporarily blocks all disturbing emotions and attitudes directed at phenomena on the plane of sensory desires (the "desire realm"). The various types of advanced awareness arise as a byproduct of the attainment of this state of mind. Also called: "actual state of the first dhyana."

Tib: bsam-gtan dang-po'i dngos-gzhi
advanced awareness

Nonconceptual straightforward cognition of places, times, and distances that are obscure phenomena and of situations that are extremely obscure phenomena. A general term for both the five types of advanced awareness and the six extrasensory eyes, both of which are gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Sometimes also translated as "heightened awareness" or "extrasensory perception."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance."

Tib: mngon-shes
Skt: abhijna
advanced awareness for extraphysical emanation

Cognition that is able to produce many different simultaneous emanations that are any one of three types: (1) physical emanations made of the five elements of earth, water, fire, wind, and space, (2) verbal emanations - speaking in such a way that various people can understand the words in their own languages and at their own levels of understanding, or (3) mental emanations of thoughts and levels of mind, such as awareness of many levels of meaning of a Dharma passage. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: rdzu-'phrul-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of knowing other's minds

Cognition of others' thoughts and states of mind. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance of knowing other's minds."

Tib: gzhan-sems shes-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of recollection of past situations

Cognition of past lives. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: sngon-gnas rjes-dran-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the depletion of tainted factors

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Cognition of one's own state of being rid forever of the emotional obscurations preventing liberation from samsara.

Tib: zag-pa zad-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine ear

Cognition that is able to hear sounds at any distance and to understand them, regardless of language. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine eye

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, cognition of the different effects of karma on different beings, such as their future rebirths. (2) According to Gelug, cognition of gross (obvious) forms and subtle forms, including those at great distances in space and time.

Tib: lha'i mig-gi mngon-shes
affected

To be influenced by or conditioned by causes and conditions.

affected phenomenon

A phenomenon that arises because of the influence of causes and conditions, and which changes because of constantly being influenced by causes and conditions. This refers to all nonstatic phenomena. Translators often render the term as "conditioned phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional phenomena."

Tib: 'dus-byas-kyi chos
Skt: samskrtadharma
affecting

To influence or condition other things so that it contributes to causing effects to happen.

affecting impulses

See: link of affecting impulses

affecting impulses, link of

See: link of affecting impulses

affecting variable

A phenomenon that continually changes (a nonstatic phenomenon) and which influences other nonstatic phenomenon to arise, in the sense that it contributes to causing them to happen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional factor."

Tib: 'du-byed
Skt: samskara
affecting variables, aggregate of other

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

affirmation

See: affirmation phenomenon

affirmation phenomenon

An item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the establishment of something, without an object to be negated being explicitly precluded by the sounds that express it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
affirmingly known phenomenon

See: affirmation phenomenon

affirming negation

See: implicative negation phenomenon

affliction, emotional

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

aftermath

See: karmic aftermath

aftermath, karmic

See: karmic aftermath

agent

The person who commits an action.


J. Hopkins' translation: "agent; doer."

Tib: byed-pa-po
aggregate

A network of many items, all of which are nonstatic phenomena. See also: aggregate factors of experience.

Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate factors of experience

The five networks (five aggregates) that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aggregate."

Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate of consciousness

See: aggregate of primary consciousnesses

aggregate of distinguishing

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of distinguishing that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of recognition." See: distinguishing.

Tib: 'du-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: samjna-skandha
aggregate of feelings

See: aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness

aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling a level of happiness or unhappiness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of feelings." See: feeling a level of happiness.

Tib: tshor-ba'i phung-po
Skt: vedana-skandha
aggregate of forms

See: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena

aggregate of forms of physical phenomena

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of all types of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, physical sensations, physical sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Any of these can be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of forms."


J. Hopkins' translation: "form aggregate."

Tib: gzugs-kyi phung-po
Skt: rupa-skandha
aggregate of karmic formations

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

aggregate of other affecting variables

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors), other than feelings of levels of happiness and distinguishing, as well as all instances of noncongruent affecting variables, that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of volitions" or "aggregate of karmic formations."

Tib: 'du-byed-kyi phung-po
Skt: samskara-skandha
aggregate of primary consciousnesses

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of mental consciousness or of any of the five types of sensory consciousness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. It also includes the network of all instances of deluded awareness and all-encompassing foundation consciousness in those systems that assert these two. Also called: "aggregate of consciousness."

Tib: rnam-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: vijnana-skandha
aggregate of recognition

See: aggregate of distinguishing

aggregate of volitions

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

aggregates, obtaining

See: obtaining aggregates

aggregates, tainted

See: tainted aggregates

aggregates, untainted

See: untainted aggregates

aging and dying

In a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aging and/or death."

Tib: rga-shi
aging and dying, link of

See: link of aging and dying

aim, causal motivating

See: causal motivating aim

aim, contemporaneous motivating

See: contemporaneous motivating aim

aim, motivating

See: motivating aim

alaya

See: basis for all

alaya, deep-awareness

See: deep awareness alaya

alaya, primordial deepest

See: primordial deepest alaya

alaya, specific-awareness

See: specific-awareness alaya

alaya for habits

In the dzogchen system, foundational awareness for the habits of grasping for truly established existence, for karma, and for memories. The type of limited awareness that basis rigpa functions as, when it is mixed with dumbfoundedness.

Tib: bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhi
alayavijnana

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

alertness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that checks the condition of mindfulness's mental hold on the object of focus. It sees if the mental hold has been lost or is too weak or too tight due to flightiness of mind or mental dullness. It is more, however, than just reflexive awareness or implicit apprehension, which merely notices what is happening with the meditation. It resembles an alarm system to trigger a response with restoring attention to correct any faults.


J. Hopkins' translation: "introspection."

Tib: shes-bzhin
Skt: samprajanya
all-encompassing

Including everything within its domain.

all-encompassing foundation consciousness

An unspecified, nonobstructive, individual consciousness that underlies all cognition, cognizes the same objects as the cognitions it underlies, but is a nondetermining cognition of what appears to it and lacks clarity of its objects. It carries the karmic legacies of karma and the mental impressions of memories, in the sense that they are imputed on it. It is also translated as "foundation consciousness" and, by some translators, as "storehouse consciousness." According to Gelug, asserted only by the Chittamatra system; according to non-Gelug, assserted by both the Chittamatra and Madhyamaka systems.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-basis-of-all."

Tib: kun-gzhi rnam-shes
Skt: alayavijnana
all-permeating

The quality of rigpa (pure awareness) that it interpenetrates and pervades all instances of limited awareness (sem) without obstruction, in the same manner as oil permeates sesame seeds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unhindered."

Tib: zang-thal
all-pervasive

Pertaining to everything.

all-pervasively affecting suffering

The suffering that comes simply from having tainted aggregates that serve as the basis for experiencing the suffering of suffering and the suffering of change. Such suffering is all-pervasive since it affects every moment of samsaric experience.

Tib: khyab-par 'du-byed-kyi sdug-bsngal
all-pervasive suffering

See: all-pervasively affecting suffering

amulet box tradition

A tradition of mahamudra meditation transmitted in the Shangpa Kagyu school.

Tib: ga'u-ma
analysis

See: subtle discernment

analysis, discerning

See: subtle discernment

analytical meditation

See: discerning meditation

ancient narratives

Stories from ancient times that Buddha told. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

Tib: de-lta-bu byung-ba
Skt: itivrttika
anger

A root disturbing emotion, aimed at another limited being, one's own suffering, or situations entailing suffering, and which is impatient with them and wishes to get rid of them, such as by damaging or hurting them, or by striking out against them. It is based on regarding its object as unattractive or repulsive by its very nature.

Tib: khong-khro
Skt: kroddha
antecedent practice for realization

A visualization practice in which one imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure, for which one has received empowerment, and which one does as a method for actualizing oneself as the figure. It is "antecedent" in the sense of being a meditation practice undertaken both before and as a condition for being able to actualize oneself as the Buddha-figure. Synonymous with "sadhana."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear realization/clear realizer."

Tib: mngon-rtogs
antigods

See: would-be divine

anuttarayoga tantra

In the Sarma (New Translation Period) Tibetan Buddhist schools, the fourth or highest class of tantra practice, emphasizing special internal methods for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure.

Tib: bla-med rnal-'byor
Skt: anuttarayoga tantra
anuyoga tantra

In the Nyingma system, the second of the three inner classes of tantra, emphasizing practices involving the subtle energy-system of winds, channels, and creative energy-drops.

Tib: a-nu yo-ga
apparent Buddha Gem

The Corpus of Forms of a Buddha, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
apparent Dharma Gem

The twelve textual categories of teachings proclaimed by a Buddha's enlightening speech, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
apparent level Precious Gems

The level of Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are apparent to limited beings and which conceal a deeper level gem.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dkon-mchog
apparent Sangha Gem

The individual person of any arya, whether lay or monastic, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
apparent true phenomenon

See: superficial true phenomenon

apparent truth

See: superficial truth

appearance

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which arises in the mind. Also called "cognitive appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance, cognitive

See: appearance

appearance, deceptive

See: deceptive appearance

appearance, giving rise to

See: appearance-making

appearance, impure

See: impure appearance

appearance, pure

See: pure appearance

appearance, reflexive

See: reflexive appearance

appearance-congealing

One of the three subtle appearance-making minds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance congealment

Also translated as: appearance, white appearance


J. Hopkins' translation: "to appear; perceive; light; illuminate; appearance."

Tib: snang
appearance-making

The aspect of mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of an object of cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance-making, discordant

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making, dual

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making, dualistic

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making basis rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its aspect of spontaneously establishing appearances. Synonymous with the term "effulgent rigpa."

Tib: gzhi-snang-gi rig-pa
appearance-making of non-true existence

According to the Nyingma school, the aspect of a limited being's sensory or nonconceptual mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of objects of cognition without making them appear to be truly existent "this"s or "that"s, in the sense in which Madhyamaka defines true existence.

Tib: med-snang
appearance-making of true existence

The aspect of a limited being's mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of seemingly true existence. It makes the mental holograms of objects of cognition appear to be truly existent, in the sense in which the Madhyamaka schools define true existence. In the non-Gelug systems, it occurs only with conceptual cognition and it makes appearances of objects of cognition to be truly "this"s and "that"s.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance of true existence{Lati}."

Tib: bden-snang
appearances, discordant

See: dualistic appearances

appearances, dual

See: dualistic appearances

appearances, dualistic

See: dualistic appearances

appearances of non-true existence

In the Nyingma system, mental holograms of objects of cognition, which do not make them appear as if they were truly existent "this"s or "that"s. This occurs only with sensory and nonconceptual mental cognition.

Tib: med-snang
appearing object

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which a cognition gives rise to. Equivalent to the cognitively taken object. Sometimes used interchangeably with "mental aspect," and sometimes differentiated from "mental aspect" in the sense that a cognition takes on the "mental aspect" of its appearing object.

Tib: snang-yul
applying pathway mind

The level of mind of shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas with which they apply the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, focused conceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and which they gained with a building-up pathway mind, to gaining a nonconceptual focus on voidness. Other translators often render this term as "path of preparation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of preparation."

Tib: sbyor-lam
Skt: prayogamarga
appreciation

Valuing something highly, usually the kindness of someone. Often used in the context of appreciating the kindness of one's spiritual mentor. Sometimes translated as "respect."


J. Hopkins' translation: "respect; devotion; humility; be intent on."

Tib: gus-pa
apprehend

To cognitively take an object of cognition both correctly and decisively.


J. Hopkins' translation: "realization."

Tib: rtogs-pa
apprehension

See: apprehend

apprehension, explicit

See: explicit apprehension

apprehension, implicit

See: implicit apprehension

approximate and actualize oneself as a Buddha-figure

Intensive tantric meditation practice entailing visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure and recitation of the appropriate mantras.

Tib: bsnyen-sgrub
approximating vacuum

See: threshold


J. Hopkins' translation: "near attainment; near-attainment."

Tib: nyer-thob
approximation retreat, great

See: great approximation retreat

arhat

A practitioner, of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva class, who has achieved a true stopping of the emotional obscurations and thus has attained liberation (nirvana). Also called a "liberated being." Some translators render the term as "foe-destroyer."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Foe Destroyer/Worthy One."

Tib: dgra-bcom-pa
Skt: arhat
arhatship

The state of an arhat.

arise

See: dawn

arise, making

See: making arise

arising, automatically

See: automatically arising

arising, cognitive

See: cognitive arising

arising, simultaneously

See: simultaneously arising

arouse

The process through which a disturbing emotion or attitude brings on the arising of a karmic impulse. Also translated as "activate."

Tib: gsos-'debs
artificial

See: contrived

arya

A practitioner who has had nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths and thus has attained a shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva seeing pathway of mind (path of seeing). Also called a "highly realized practitioner" or a "highly realized being." Some translators render the term as "noble one."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Superior."

Tib: 'phags-pa
Skt: arya
arya bodhisattva

A bodhisattva that has attained nonconceptual cognition of voidness. See also: bodhisattva.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bodhisattva superiors."

Tib: byang-sems 'phags-pa
Skt: arya bodhisattva
arya pathway mind

The three pathway minds of shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva aryas (those with nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths) -- namely, their seeing and accustoming pathway minds, and their pathway minds needing no further training.

Tib: 'phags-lam
Skt: aryamarga
arya pratyekabuddha

A pratyekabuddha that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: pratyekabuddha.

Tib: rang-rgyal 'phags-pa
Skt: arya prtatyekabuddha
arya shravaka

A shravaka that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: shravaka.

Tib: nyan-thos 'phags-pa
Skt: arya shravaka
ascertain

See: decisively determine

ascertainment

A decisive cognition of a cognitive object; decisively knowing what an object of cognition is or how it exists. Also translated as "decisive awareness" and "decisive cognition."

Tib: gtan-la dbab-pa
aspect, mental

See: mental aspect

aspects, naturally inseparable

See: natural inseparability

aspirational prayer

(1) A prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal. (2) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, a special discriminating awareness concerning phenomena toward which to aspire. This discriminating awareness is in connection with the aspiration never to be parted from a bodhichitta aim in all one's lifetimes and for the continuity of one's far-reaching activities for benefiting all beings never to be broken.

Tib: smon-lam
Skt: pranidhana
aspiring bodhichitta

A mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual future enlightenment, is accompanied by the aspiration or wish to attain that enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attitude of aspiration [to full enlightenment]; aspirational mind of enlightenment."

Tib: smon-sems
aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

See: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

asserting one's identity

The fourth of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising. Equivalent to a deluded outlook toward a transitory network.

Tib: bdag-tu smra-ba
assertion

A position, accepted by a Buddhist or non-Buddhist tenet system, in regard to a philosophical point.

assistant tutor

See: Master Debate Partner

associated with confusion

See: tainted

asura

See: would-be divine

atiyoga

In the Nyingma system, the third of the three classes of inner tantras, in which meditation practices to actualize the immediate causes for an enlightening mind and Corpus of Forms of a Buddha are emphasized.

Tib: a-ti-yo-ga
attachment

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses and does not wish to let go of it.

Tib: chags-pa
Skt: sanga
attachment, sticky

See: sticky attachment

attain

See: actualize

attainment, actual

See: actual attainment

attainment, subsequent

See: subsequent attainment

attention

The ever-functioning mental factor that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object. The cognitive engagement may be merely to pay some level of attention to the object (strong or weak), or to focus on the object in a certain way (painstakingly, effortlessly, etc.), or to consider the object in a certain way (concordantly or discordantly). Also called: paying attention, consideration, take to mind, taking to mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental engagement/taking to mind/mental contemplation."

Tib: yid-la byed-pa
Skt: manasi
attention, restoring

See: restoring attention

attitude

A mental factor that takes its cognitive object by regarding it from a certain point of view.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness."

Tib: blo
attitude, distorted antagonistic

See: distorted antagonistic thinking


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

Tib: log-lta
attitude, disturbing

See: disturbing attitude

attitude, far-reaching

See: far-reaching attitude

attitude, nominal disturbing

See: nominal disturbing attitude

attitude-training

A spiritual training in which one cleanses disturbing attitudes from one's mind and trains to replace them with constructive attitudes. Also called: cleansing of attitudes, mind-training, Lojong.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-training."

Tib: blo-sbyong
audio category

The conceptual category of the sound of a word or name, in which the sound of all individual pronunciations of the word or name fit, regardless of the voice, volume, or pronunciation with which it is spoken.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sound generality."

Tib: sgra-spyi
audio universal

See: audio category

auditory consciousness

See: ear consciousness

automatically arising

Naturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that arise on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate afflictions; innate afflictive emotion."

Tib: nyon-mongs lhan-skyes
automatically arising ignorance

See: automatically arising unawareness

automatically arising unawareness

The mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Others often translate it as "automatically arising ignorance" or "innate ignorance."

Tib: ma-rigs lhan-skyes
automatically liberates itself in its own place

See: automatically releases itself in its own place

automatically releases itself in its own place

The quality of a conceptual thought or cognition that it ceases or dissolves simultaneously with its arisal, without any effort required to make it cease. Also called: automatically liberates itself in its own place.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-release."

Tib: rang-grol
auxiliary bonding practices

A set of nine practices and attitudes that, during an anuttarayoga tantra empowerment, one pledges to maintain in order to keep a close connection with tantra practice.

Tib: yan-lag-gi dam-tshig
auxiliary disturbing emotions

A set of twenty disturbing emotions that derive from one of the three poisonous emotions of longing desire, hostility, or naivety. See: disturbing emotions and attitudes.


J. Hopkins' translation: "secondary afflictions."

Tib: nye-nyon
Skt: upaklesha
auxiliary secondary tantric vows

See: auxiliary thick actions

auxiliary thick actions

A set of actions, in addition to the eight thick actions, that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: auxiliary secondary tantric vows.

Tib: yan-lag-gi sbom-po
aversion

See: anger

awareness

The most general, all-inclusive term for cognizing an object. It is used in the sense of both being aware of something and making something an object of awareness, but not necessarily as a conscious act of will or knowing what the object is.

awareness, accomplishing

See: accomplishing deep awareness

Tib: bya-grub ye-shes
awareness, advanced

See: advanced awareness

awareness, basis or fundamental realized

See: basis or fundamental realized awareness

awareness, clear light

See: clear light awareness

awareness, decisive

See: ascertainment

awareness, deep

See: deep awareness

awareness, discriminating

See: discriminating awareness

awareness, general

See: general awareness

awareness, limited

See: sem

awareness, normal

See: normal awareness

awareness, omniscient realized

See: omniscient realized awareness

awareness, pathway realized

See: pathway realized awareness

awareness, primally pure

See: primal purity

awareness, principal

See: principal awareness

awareness, pure

See: pure awareness

awareness, reflexive

See: reflexive awareness

awareness, reflexive deep

See: reflexive deep awareness

awareness, specific

See: specific awareness

awareness, subsidiary

See: subsidiary awareness

awareness of its own face

The nonconceptual cognition, by rigpa (pure awareness), of its own nature.

Tib: rang-ngo shes-pa
axioms, four

See: four axioms

balanced sensitivity

The mental state of being neither overly or underly attentive and neither overly, underly, or inappropriately responsive, both with feelings and actions, to either the situation of others or oneself, or the effect of one's behavior on others or on oneself.

bardo

The state of existence from the moment immediately after death until the moment immediately before conception. Translated as the "inbetween state."


J. Hopkins' translation: "intermediate state."

Tib: bar-do
Skt: antarabhava
bardo existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after death until the moment immediately before conception.

Tib: bar-do'i srid-pa
bare absence

The natural state of being without concepts or conceptual cognition, which is the natural state or nature of awareness (mind). Also translated as "bareness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear emptiness; [empty-pure]."

Tib: stong-sang
bare cognition

Cognition of a cognitive object without that cognition being through the medium of a concept, universal, or category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "direct perception."

Tib: mngon-sum
Skt: pratyaksha
bareness

See: bare absence

bases for conceptually isolated items

In Gelug, equivalent to individually characterized object exclusions of something else, which serve as the bases for imputation of the corresponding conceptually isolated items. For instance, the nonstatic negation phenomenon "nothing other than 'this,'" implicitly apprehended when explicitly apprehending "this" and which serves as the basis for imputation of the static negation phenomenon "nothing other than this," which is the mental representation of "nothing other than 'this'" in the conceptual cognition of "this."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis-isolate, illustration-isolate, illustration simpliciter."

Tib: gzhi-ldog
basis for all

A synonym for rigpa (pure awareness), used primarily in treasure texts of the mind division.


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis-of-all."

Tib: kun-gzhi
Skt: alaya
basis for designation

See: basis for labeling

basis for imputation

See: basis for labeling

basis for labeling

A phenomenon on which another phenomenon is mentally labeled. Also translated as "basis for imputation" or "basis for designation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "basis of designation."

Tib: gdags-gzhi
basis level

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something - for instance, the level of Buddha-nature -- that occurs in general, whether or not one has achieved some attainment on the Buddhist spiritual path.


J. Hopkins' translation: "base/foundation."

Tib: gzhi
basis rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of it being a type of Buddha-nature or working basis for attaining enlightenment.

Tib: gzhi'i rig-pa
becoming

See: link of further existence

behavior, tamed

See: tamed behavior

behavioral cause and effect

The principles of karma, whereby certain actions produce certain effects. The cause is one's behavior – how one acts, speaks, and thinks – and the effect is what one experiences. Behavioral cause and effect is about the connection between one's behavior and what one experiences as a result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect(s) of action(s); action(s) and effect(s)."

Tib: las-'bras
being, divine

See: divine being

being, individual

See: person

being, limited

See: limited being

being, ordinary

See: ordinary being

being, sentient

See: limited being

being true to one's word

The mental state with which, once one gives one's word to do something to benefit others, one does not break one's promise. The seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes developed by bodhisattvas according to the Theravada tradition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "truth."

Tib: bden-pa
Skt: satya
belief in a fact, clearheaded

See: clearheaded belief in a fact

belief in a fact based on reason

A constructive emotion that considers a fact about something to be true, based on having thought, with logic, about the reasons that prove it. Also called "confident belief."


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of conviction."

Tib: yid-ches-kyi dad-pa
belief in a fact with an aspiration

A constructive emotion that considers true both a fact about something and a wish one holds about that object, such as that one can attain a positive goal and that one will attain it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of wishing [to attain]."

Tib: mngon-'dod-kyi dad-pa
belief in facts

See: believing a fact to be true

believing a fact to be true

A constructive emotion that focuses on something existent and validly knowable, something with good qualities, or an actual potential, and considers it either existent or true, or considers a fact about it as true. Some translators render the term as "faith."


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith."

Tib: dad-pa
Skt: shraddha
believing a fact to be true based on reason

See: belief in a fact based on reason


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of conviction."

Tib: yid-ches-kyi dad-pa
benevolence

The mental factor of wishing to benefit others, wishing others well. Often translated by others as "altruism."

Tib: phan-sems
bewilderment

A naive state of mind of not know what is happening.


J. Hopkins' translation: "obscuration; delusion; confusion; ignorance; dullness."

Tib: rmongs-pa
Bhagavan

See: Vanquishing Master Surpassing All

bhumi-mind

A level of mind of an arya bodhisattva with either a seeing or an accustoming pathway mind. Some translators render the term as "bodhisattva stage" or simply as "stage" or "ground."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ground/earth."

Tib: sa
Skt: bhumi
binding factors, four

See: four binding factors

Blessed One

See: Vanquishing Master Surpassing All

blessings

See: inspiration

bliss

See: blissful awareness

blissful awareness

A state of mind, either tainted or untainted, characterized by varying levels of intensity of happiness. Some of the untainted ones can be utilized in anuttarayoga tantra practice as the type of awareness with which to focus on voidness, and as an aid for dissolving the energy-winds in the central channel in order to gain access to clear light awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bliss, happiness, pleasure."

Tib: bde-ba
Skt: sukha
Blissfully Gone One

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has reached the blissful goal of enlightenment through methods that produce happiness along the way to reaching that goal.


J. Hopkins' translation: "One-Gone-to-Bliss."

Tib: bde-bar gshegs-pa
Skt: sugata
bodhi

See: purified state

bodhichitta

Usually used in the meaning of relative bodhichitta: A mind or heart focused first on the benefit of all limited beings and then on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, validly imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit others by means of that attainment. Alternative Tibetan: byang-sems.

Tib: byang-chub-gyi sems
Skt: bodhicitta
bodhichitta, aspiring

See: aspiring bodhichitta

bodhichitta, conventional

See: conventional bodhichitta

bodhichitta, deepest

See: deepest bodhichitta

bodhichitta, engaged

See: engaged bodhichitta

bodhichitta, pledged aspiring

See: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta

bodhichitta, pledged state of aspiring

See: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta

bodhichitta, relative

See: conventional bodhichitta

bodhichitta, ultimate

See: deepest bodhichitta

bodhichitta, unlabored

See: unlabored bodhichitta

bodhichitta aim

The type of aim, goal, or focus that a bodhichitta mind has. Used as a synonym for bodhichitta.

bodhichitta motivation

The kind of motivation that bodhichitta is. Used as a synonym for bodhichitta.

bodhisattva

Someone who has developed unlabored bodhichitta.

Tib: byang-chub sems-dpa'
Skt: bodhisattva
bodhisattva arhats of definite lineage

Bodhisattvas who have been definite about their lineage as bodhisattvas from before attaining arhatship and thus who have attained arhatship as bodhisattvas and not as shravakas or pratyekabuddhas before developing bodhichitta.

Tib: rigs-nges-pa'i byang-sems
bodhisattva bhumis

See: bhumi-mind

bodhisattva vows

The set of restraints from committing certain actions (eighteen root downfalls and forty-six faulty actions) that, if committed, would be detrimental to achieving enlightenment and benefiting all others.

Tib: byang-sems sdom-pa
body, rainbow

See: rainbow body

body, subtle

See: subtle body

body, subtlest

See: subtlest body

body, vajra

See: vajra-body

Body Encompassing Everything

See: Corpus Encompassing Everything

body mandala

A network of Buddha-figures arranged inside the body of a Buddha-figure.

Tib: lus-dkyil
Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence

See: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence

Body of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything

See: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Encompassing Everything

Body of Essential Nature

See: Corpus of Essential Nature

Body of Forms

See: Corpus of Forms

Body of Full Use

See: Corpus of Full Use

Body of Great Bliss

See: Corpus of Great Bliss

Body of Manifest Enlightenment

See: Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment

Bon

The pre-Buddhist spiritual tradition of Tibet.

Tib: bon
bonding practice

A type of behavior or a state of mind, which, when practiced, maintains a close connection with either a certain tantra or a certain spiritual master. Also called: closely bonding practice, close bond.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[promise-word]; promise; pledge; vow."

Tib: dam-tshig
Skt: samaya
bonding practices, auxiliary

See: auxiliary bonding practices

bonding substances

Substances, such as alcohol and meat, purified, transformed, and consecrated during a tantra ritual and offered to a Buddha-figure in order to maintain a close bond (close connection) with that figure, as one has promised to do.

Tib: dam-rdzas
Bonpo

A follower of the Bon tradition.

Tib: bon-po
boon experience

In mahamudra meditation, an experience of bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality, and bareness that arises as a bonus result of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha. With this experience, the meditator still has a dualistic sense of there being the meditator on the one side and, on the other, these four as things to be meditated on or experienced.


J. Hopkins' translation: "visionary experience."

Tib: nyams
bountiful field

A bountiful field for growing positive force, and that is shortened to bountiful field. It is usually translated as merit-field by others. Bountiful here means that it gives abundant crop.

Tib: tshogs-shing
bountiful store of positive force

See: network of positive force

break-through

The practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "breaks through" the level of limited mind (sems) and both recognizes and accesses essence rigpa, thereby attaining a seeing pathway of mind (path of seeing) and becoming an arya.

Tib: thregs-chod
Buddha

A fully enlightened being; someone who has totally eliminated, forever, from his or her mental continuum both the emotional and cognitive obscurations.

Tib: sangs-rgyas
Skt: buddha
Buddha-activity

See: enlightening influence

Buddha-Bodies, Five

See: Five Corpuses of a Buddha

Buddha-Bodies, Four

See: Four Corpuses of a Buddha

Buddha-Bodies, Three

See: Three Corpuses of a Buddha

Buddha-Bodies, Two

See: Two Corpuses of a Buddha

Buddha-Body

See: Corpus of a Buddha

Buddha-field

A non-samsaric realm in which the circumstances are the most conducive for uninterrupted intense spiritual practice for gaining Buddhahood. It is a field in the sense of being a place in which one can grow or develop a tremendous amount of positive force (merit). It is synonymous with a pure-land.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Buddha field."

Tib: sangs-rgyas-kyi zhing
Skt: Buddhakshetra
Buddha-figure

An emanated form of a Buddha, often with multiple faces, arms, and legs, which tantric practitioners visualize themselves as. This is done in order to create a close bond with the figure so as to be able to attain enlightenment, in the form of that figure, through such practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[mind-firm]; personal deity; tutelary deity; promise; vow; one who has a vow; deity."

Tib: yi-dam
Skt: ishtadevata
Buddha Gem, apparent

See: apparent Buddha Gem

Buddha Gem, deepest

See: deepest Buddha Gem

Buddha Gem, nominal

See: nominal Buddha Gem

Buddha-nature

Literally: Buddha caste-trait, Buddha family-trait. A factor imputable on the stained mind of a limited being (sentient being) that transforms into or allows for the attainment of enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Buddha lineage."

Tib: sangs-rgyas-kyi rigs
Buddhism professor

A teacher, either lay or monastic, Western or Asian, who imparts information about Buddhism gained from scriptural knowledge and/or scholarly research.

building-up pathway mind

The level of mind with which shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas build up, among other good qualities, the joined pair of a stilled and settled state of mind (shamatha) and an exceptionally perceptive state of mind (vipashyana) focused conceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths. It only pertains to shravakas and pratyekabuddhas once they have attained an unlabored determination to be free, or to bodhisattvas once, in addition, they have attained unlabored bodhichitta. Others often render this term as "path of accumulation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of accumulation."

Tib: tshogs-lam
Skt: sambharamarga
calm abiding

See: stilled and settled state of mind

carefulness

See: caring attitude

caring attitude

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that takes seriously the situations of others and oneself, and the effects of one's actions on others and on oneself, and which consequently causes one to build up as a habit constructive attitudes and behavior and safeguards against leaning toward tainted or destructive attitudes and behavior. Also translated as "carefulness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conscientiousness; aware; conscientious; conscious."

Tib: bag-yod
Skt: apramada
caring heart

See: caring attitude

caring love

See: love

category

A phenomenon shared in common by the individuals on which it is imputed. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." For a fuller definition, see: conceptual category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

Tib: spyi
causal conditions

All the causes that have the power to produce a specific result.

Tib: rgyu'i rkyen
Skt: hetupratyaya
causal links that actualize

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the three links of craving, an obtainer, and further existence, which activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma in the moments preceding death so that the karmic results will actualize. Thus, they serve as the simultaneously acting conditions for the aggregates of a next rebirth.

Tib: bsgrub-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal links that throw

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the two and a half links of unawareness, affecting impulses, and causal loaded consciousness, which describe the process through which throwing karma is built up and its karmic aftermath is "planted" on a mental continuum as the cause for a next rebirth.

Tib: 'phen-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal motivating aim

What someone intends or aims to do just before starting to do something and which causes the person to do it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "causal motivation."

Tib: rgyu'i kun-slong
causal taking of safe direction

A taking of safe direction (refuge) in which the sources of that safe direction are the persons or phenomena that act as causes for one's our own attainments of the Three Gems, namely the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha already attained by others. Synonymous with "mere taking of safe direction."

Tib: rgyu'i skyabs-'gro
cause

A nonstatic phenomenon able to bring about the production or arising of something.

Tib: rgyu
Skt: hetu
cause, acting

See: acting cause

cause, congruent

See: congruent cause

cause, direct

See: direct cause

cause, driving

See: driving cause

cause, equal status

See: equal status cause

cause, material

See: obtaining cause

cause, obtaining

See: obtaining cause

cause, ripening

See: ripening cause

cause, similar family

See: similar family cause

cause, simultaneously acting

See: simultaneously acting cause

cause and effect

See: behavioral cause and effect

cause and effect, behavioral

See: behavioral cause and effect

ceremonial round of offering a ritual feast

A tantra ritual, part of a puja, in which specially consecrated offerings, usually including a torma, are made to one's spiritual master inseparable from a Buddha-figure. In anuttarayoga tantra, the offerings include consecrated alcohol and meat. Often refered to by the Tibetan "tsog."

Tib: tshogs-'khor
Skt: ganacakra
characteristics, inherent

See: inherent characteristics

charya tantra

Tibetan Buddhist schools, the second class of tantra practice, which equally emphasizes external behavior and internal methods

cherishing concerned love

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which, not only does one wish others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one values the welfare of others highly and would feel sad if anything bad happened to them.

Tib: gces-zhing pham-pa'i byams-pa
cherishing others

The attitude with which one considers others as the most precious and important ones; and has affection for and takes care of mainly others.

Tib: gzhan gces-par 'dzin-pa
Chittamatra

A Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert external phenomena, but which does assert the true existence of dependent phenomena. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism; the Mind-Only School.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Chittamātra/Mind-Only School."

Tib: Sems-tsam-pa
clarity

As a defining characteristic of mind, the ability, mental activity, or event of making cognitive objects arise -- or giving rise to cognitive objects -- so that they can be cognized. According to the Gelug tradition, a mental hologram of the cognitive object need not even arise in the cognition, since the object may be implicitly cognized. Clarity is not some sort of light in one's head that has varying intensity and illuminates objects that are already present. Nor does it have anything to do with an object of cognition being in focus or being understood. Moreover, giving rise to a cognitive object has no implication of passivity or lack of responsibility on the one hand, or conscious will on the other. As an event, clarity just naturally happens every moment of every mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear; bright; light; predicate [misspelling of bsal?]{BJ}."

Tib: gsal
cleansing of attitudes

See: attitude-training

clearheaded belief in a fact

A constructive emotion that is clear about a fact and, like a water purifier, clears the mind of disturbing emotions and attitudes about the object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of clarity."

Tib: dvang-ba'i dad-pa
clearheadedly believing a fact to be true

See: clearheaded belief in a fact

Tib: dangs-ba'i dad-pa
clear light, cognitive

See: cognitive clear light

clear light, object

See: object clear light

clear light, subject

See: cognitive clear light

clear light absorption on voidness

Total absorption, with clear light awareness, on voidness (emptiness).

clear light awareness

The subtlest level of mental activity (mind), which continues with no beginning and no end, without any break, even during death and even into Buddhahood. It is individual and constitutes the mental continuum of each being. It is naturally free of conceptual cognition, the appearance-making of true existence, and grasping for true existence, since it is more subtle than the grosser levels of mental activity with which these occur. It has nothing to do with "light."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear light."

Tib: 'od-gsal
clear light mental activity

See: clear light awareness

clear light mind

See: clear light awareness

clear light mind, actual

See: actual clear light mind

clear light mind, model

See: model clear light mind

close bond

See: bonding practice

closed-mindedness

A mental factor of being naive about cause and effect or about reality, and being stubbornly closed to any suggestions from someone else. Sometimes used as a translation for "gti-mug, moha,naivety." See: naivety.

closely bonding practice

See: bonding practice

close placements of mindfulness, four

See: four close placements of mindfulness

cloth mandala

A two-dimensional representation, painted on cloth, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.

Tib: ras-bris-kyi dkyil-'khor
clutching ghost

One of the three worse rebirth states, characterized by the suffering of being unable to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, and caused primarily by miserliness. Translated by most others as "hungry ghost," which is a literal rendering of the Chinese translation for the term, adopted by the Chinese in reference to the spirits of departed ancestors that suffered when not presented with regular offerings of food.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ghost; preta; hungry ghost."

Tib: yi-dags
Skt: preta
co-arising

Arising simultaneously with each moment of experience, for example a blissful awareness itself or a blissful awareness of voidness, attained with complete stage practice of anuttarayogatantra.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
cognition

(1) The act of cognizing or knowing something, but without necessarily knowing what it is or what it means. It may be either valid or invalid, conceptual or nonconceptual . This is the most general term for knowing something. (2) The "package" of a primary consciousness, its accompanying mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses), and the cognitive object shared by all of them. According to some systems, a cognition also includes reflexive awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

Tib: shes-pa
cognition, bare

See: bare cognition

cognition, conceptual

See: conceptual cognition

cognition, deceptive

See: deceptive cognition

cognition, direct

See: direct cognition

cognition, distorted

See: distorted cognition

cognition, explicit

See: explicit apprehension

cognition, implicit

See: implicit apprehension

cognition, inattentive

See: nondetermining cognition

cognition, indecisive

See: indecisive wavering

cognition, indirect

See: indirect cognition

cognition, inferential

See: inferential cognition

cognition, invalid

See: invalid cognition

cognition, nonconceptual

See: nonconceptual cognition

cognition, nondetermining

See: nondetermining cognition

cognition, presumptive

See: presumptive cognition

cognition, straightforward

See: straightforward cognition

cognition, subsequent

See: subsequent cognition

cognition, valid

See: valid cognition

cognitive appearance

See: appearance

cognitive arising

A cognitive appearance that has arisen on a mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
cognitive clear light

Clear light awareness that cognizes voidness as its object.

Tib: yul-can-gyi 'od-gsal
cognitive engagement

A manner of cognizing an object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "continuity; enter; begin; engage; apply; entrance."

Tib: 'jug-pa
cognitively taking an object

Cognizing an object - taking a validly knowable phenomenon as an object of cognition in the sense of cognizing it with either a valid or invalid way of knowing.


J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehend/conceive."

Tib: 'dzin-pa
Skt: graha
cognitively taking an object, way of

See: way of cognitively taking an object

cognitive obscurations

Fleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from simultaneously cognizing the two truths about all phenomena. Also translated as "obscurations about all knowables" and "obscurations preventing omniscience."


J. Hopkins' translation: "obstructions to omniscience."

Tib: shes-sgrib
Skt: jneyavarana
cognitive open space

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive sphere.


J. Hopkins' translation: "expanse; sphere."

Tib: klong
cognitive sensor

The dominating condition that determines the type of cognition a way of being aware of something is. In the case of the five types of sensory cognition, it is the photosensitive cells of the eyes, the sound-sensitive cells of the ears, the smell-sensitive cells of the nose, the taste-sensitive cells of the tongue, and the physical-sensation-sensitive cells of the body. In the case of mental cognition, it is the immediately preceding moment of cognition. Some translators render the term as "sense power."


J. Hopkins' translation: "sense power."

Tib: dbang-po
Skt: indriya
cognitive space

See: cognitive open space

cognitive sphere

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive open space.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sphere/ sphere of reality."

Tib: dbyings
Skt: dhatu
cognitive stimulator

See: stimulators of cognition

cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomena

All validly knowable phenomena, all of which may be validly cognized by mental consciousness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "phenomenon-sense-sphere."

Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched
cognitive stimulators that are sights

Forms of physical phenomena that may be cognized by either visual or mental consciousness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sense-sphere of form."

Tib: gzugs-kyi skye-mched
cognize

See: cognition

collection mental synthesis

A whole imputed on spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts.


J. Hopkins' translation: "collection generality; collection-generality."

Tib: tshogs-spyi
collection of wisdom

See: network of deep awareness

collection synthesis

See: collection mental synthesis

collection universal

See: collection mental synthesis

commanding results

Synonymous with dominating results.

Tib: dbang-gi 'bras-bu
commitment

A spiritual practice that one promises to do. The mental factor with which one makes such a promise. The promise may be made either formally with a ritual or informally, and either verbally or nonverbally. In the case of commitment toward a spiritual master, the mental factor with which one promises to relate to that teacher in a healthy manner, in accord with the traditional scriptural description. The term does not have the connotation of a sense of duty or an obligation.

common denominator

See: common locus

common locus

A common locus of two sets of phenomena is an item that is a member of both sets. Sometimes translated as "common denominator."

Tib: gzhi-mthun
commonsense object

An external sensory object, extending over the sensibilia (sense data) of several senses and over time; what an ordinary person, when cognizing one moment of the sensibilia of one sense, would impute and consider as an object with his or her common sense. See also: conventional commonsense object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "well known to the world."

Tib: 'jig-rten-la grags-pa
commotion, ordinary

See: ordinary commotion

compassion

The wish for someone to be free from suffering and from the causes for suffering.

Tib: snying-rje
Skt: karuna
compassion, great

See: great compassion

compassionate sympathy

See: compassion

complete stage

(1) The second stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice, in which everything is now complete for engaging in the practices that act as the immediate causes for reaching enlightenment. These practices entail working with the chakras, channels, and winds of the subtle body. (2) In some non-Gelug texts, nonconceptual meditation on the voidness of the visualizations generated during the first stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice. This meditation on a nondenumerable ultimate phenomenon is done simultaneously with the visualizations, on the same stage of practice, and makes the practice of visualization complete. Many translators render this term as "completion stage."


J. Hopkins' translation: "stage of completion."

Tib: rdzogs-rim
Skt: sampannakrama
completing karma

A mental urge or impulse having a relatively weak accompanying motivation and therefore having the strength to ripen, as its result, into only the circumstances that will complete the conditions of a future rebirth.

Tib: rdzogs-byed-kyi las
completion stage

See: complete stage

comprehensible phenomena

(1) Phenomena that can be apprehended, which means correctly and decisively cognized. (2) Phenomena that can be validly cognized and understood. Synonymous with validly knowable phenomena (shes-bya).


J. Hopkins' translation: "object of comprehension."

Tib: gzhal-bya
comprehensive result

See: dominating result

compulsive existence

Existence under the control of karma and disturbing emotions and attitudes. Synonym for uncontrollably recurring existence, samsara.


J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

Tib: srid-pa
concentration

See: mental fixation

concentration, absorbed

See: absorbed concentration

concept

A general term for a universal, a category, or a mental label. A concept of something need not be verbal. For example, one has a concept of what a pretty face looks like, what one's mother looks like, what a good soup tastes like, what a properly tuned guitar sounds like, what a valid line of reasoning is, what one plus one equals, and so on.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

Tib: rtog-pa
conception

(1) The moment when the consciousness of a bardo being enters its next rebirth. In the case of rebirth as a human or an animal, the moment in which it enters the sperm and egg of its next parents. (2) See: concept.


J. Hopkins' translation: "birth."

Tib: skye-ba
conception, link of

See: link of conception

conception existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience conception. It lasts only one moment. Some translators render the term as "birth existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "birth-state."

Tib: skye-srid
conceptual

Together with a concept.

Tib: rtog-bcas
conceptual category

(1) A general term for both audio categories and meaning/object categories. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." (2) A set to which individual items sharing a common defining characteristic belong. It is mentally constructed (mentally fabricated) by a mental synthesis of individual items that are instances of it, or by a mental synthesis of the spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts on which it is imputed (labeled). Sometimes translated as "mental synthesis" or just "synthesis."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

Tib: spyi
conceptual cognition

The cognition of an object through the medium of a metaphysical entity, namely a universal, a category, or a mental label. Conceptual cognition imputes (mentally labels) a metaphysical entity on the object that the mental aspect it assumes resembles, and mixes and confuses the two.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

Tib: rtog-pa
conceptual isolates

See: conceptually isolated item

conceptualization

The process whereby one cognizes objects conceptually.

conceptualized object

The object about which a conceptual cognition gives rise to a universal, a category, or a mental label through which to think of it. Literally, the object on which a concept clings. Also called: implied object or conceptually implied object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceived object."

Tib: zhen-yul
conceptually cling

In the context of a conceptual cognition, a category's implying an actual object that corresponds to it, as if the category were attached to that "conceptually implied object." Also translated as "conceptually imply."


J. Hopkins' translation: "adherence; determination; conception; attachment."

Tib: zhen-pa
conceptually implied object

See: conceptualized object

conceptually imply

See: conceptually cling

conceptually isolated item

The type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition and which represents the actual involved objects of the conceptual cognition. They are static phenomena, equivalent to conceptual representations. (1) According to Gelug, they are fully transparent static phenomena that are different from semitransparent conceptual categories. Equivalent to "items conceptually isolated by themselves" and "items conceptually isolated by categories." Also called "distinguishers" or "isolates."(2) Accordant non-Gelug, they are equivalent to semitransparent conceptual categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "isolate/conceptually isolatable phenomenon."

Tib: ldog-pa
conceptually isolated meaning

In Gelug, equivalent to the defining characteristic mark of a validly knowable phenomenon, which can only be distinguished in terms of a conceptually isolated item.


J. Hopkins' translation: "meaning isolate."

Tib: don-ldog
conceptual representation

The static conceptually isolated items that are the type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition. (1) According to Gelug, they represent the actual involved object of the conceptual cognition, for instance of a table, and are fully transparent so that, through them, one directly cognizes the fully transparent mental aspect (the mental hologram of a table) and, through that, an external phenomenon (the table) as the involved object. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are the categories, such as a commonsense table, that are the appearing objects of conceptual cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
conceptual thought

See: conceptual cognition

concern

See: caring attitude

concrete

Solid, like cement -- a nontechnical term used to describe something with truly established findable existence.

concrete "me"

A nontechnical term for a truly existent "me," which would be the "me" to be refuted. See: solid "me."

condition

A nonstatic phenomenon that helps shape the conventional identity of something that is produced or arises from causes.

Tib: rkyen
Skt: pratyaya
condition, causal

See: causal conditions

condition, dominating

See: dominating condition

condition, focal

See: focal condition

condition, immediately preceding

See: immediately preceding condition

condition, objective

See: focal condition

condition, overlord

See: dominating condition

conditioned phenomenon

See: affected phenomenon

confident belief

See: belief in a fact based on reason

confusion

A nontechnical term used in place of unawareness (ignorance) to simplify a discussion of the topic, but without any connotation of disorganization, disorientation, or dementia.

confusion, associated with

See: tainted

confusion, dissociated from

See: untainted

congruent

The relationship between ways of being aware of something in the same cognition, in which two or more of these ways share five things in common. Compare: congruent affecting variables.


J. Hopkins' translation: "having/possessing association; associational."

Tib: mtshungs-ldan
congruent affecting variable

Ways of being aware of something that share five things in common with the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses of the cognition in which they occur. See: five congruent features.

Tib: ldan-pa'i 'du-byed
congruent cause

A cause that shares five things in common with its result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "associational cause."

Tib: mtshungs-ldan-gyi rgyu
Skt: samprayuktahetu
congruent features, five

See: five congruent features

consciousness

A class of ways of being aware of something that cognizes merely the essential nature of its object, such as its being a sight, a sound, a mental object, etc. Consciousness may be either sensory or mental, and there are either six or eight types. The term has nothing to do with the Western concept of conscious versus unconscious.

Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
consciousness, all-encompassing foundation

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

consciousness, body

See: body consciousness

consciousness, ear

See: ear consciousness

consciousness, eye

See: eye consciousness

consciousness, foundation

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

consciousness, mental

See: mental consciousness

consciousness, nose

See: nose consciousness

consciousness, primary

See: primary consciousness

consciousness, specific

See: specific awareness

consciousness, tongue

See: tongue consciousness

consciousness that takes objects and objects taken by consciousness

Within a cognition, the consciousness and cognitive object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehended-object and apprehending-subject."

Tib: gzung-'dzin
consideration

See: attention

consideration, correct

See: paying attention in a concordant manner

consideration, incorrect

See: paying attention in a discordant manner

constancy, mental

See: mental stability

constancy of mind

See: mental stability

constructive

States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into happiness to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "virtuous" is misleading for this term.


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtue, virtuous."

Tib: dge-ba
Skt: kushala
contact

See: contacting awareness

contacting awareness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that differentiates that the object of a cognition is pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.


J. Hopkins' translation: "contact."

Tib: reg-pa
Skt: sparsha
contacting awareness, link of

See: link of contacting awareness

contaminated aggregates

See: tainted aggregates

contemporaneous motivating aim

The motivating aim or intention that accompanies the impulse to start and to continue an action.

Tib: dus-kyi kun-slong
continuum, mental

See: mental continuum

contradictory

See: mutually exclusive

contrived

A state of mind mentally constructed through conceptual thought, such as by going through a line of reasoning. Also translated as "artificial."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fabricated; artificial; made up; fabrication."

Tib: bcos-ma
convention

A word or phrase, agreed upon by a society or an individual, and used in speech and thought to refer to something.

Tib: tha-snyad
Skt: vyavahara
conventional bodhichitta

A mind or heart focused first on the benefit of all limited beings and then on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit others by means of that attainment.

Tib: kun-rdzob-gyi byang-chub-gyi sems
conventional commonsense object

Literally: conventional objects that one actually experiences when one cognizes them. An object of ordinary experience to which a word or concept refers, and which endures over time and extends over the sensibilia of one or more senses.

Tib: tha-snyad spyod-yul
conventional object of experience

See: conventional commonsense object

conventional true phenomenon

See: superficial true phenomenon

conventional truth

See: superficial truth

conviction, firm

See: firm conviction

Corpus Encompassing Everything

The omniscient mind of a Buddha


J. Hopkins' translation: "Truth Body/Body of Attributes."

Tib: chos-sku
Skt: dharmakaya
Corpuses of a Buddha, Five

See: Five Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Four

See: Four Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Three

See: Three Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Two

See: Two Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpus of a Buddha

A network of enlightening features or aspects of a Buddha, such as those of a Buddha's body, speech, or mind, which are attained with enlightenment and which help to lead others to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "body (hon.); image; statue."

Tib: sku
Skt: kaya
Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence

In some dzogchen systems, the spontaneous, effortless positive influence that a Buddha's omniscient mind exerts on others. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence. Some translators render the term as "Wisdom Activity Body."

Tib: ye-shes 'phrin-las sku
Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything

The deep awareness aspect of a Buddha's mind, which is equally aware of the two truths simultaneously, without any break. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything, Deep Awareness Dharmakaya. Some translators render this term as "Wisdom Dharmakaya."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Wisdom Truth Body."

Tib: ye-shes chos-sku
Skt: jnana-dharmakaya
Corpus of Emanations

The network of grosser forms, which are emanations of a Buddha's Corpus of Full Use, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach ordinary beings with the karma to be able to meet with them. Also translated sometimes as "Emanation Body."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Emanation Body."

Tib: sprul-sku
Skt: nirmanakaya
Corpus of Enlightening Forms

See: Corpus of Forms

Corpus of Essential Nature

(1) In the Gelug non-Kalachakra system, the voidness of a Buddha's omniscient mind and its state of being parted from the two sets of obscurations. (2) In the Gelug Kalachakra system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind. (3) In the Non-Gelug systems, the inseparability of all the Corpuses of a Buddha - equivalent to the inseparability of the two truths. Also called: Body of Essential Nature, Nature Body.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nature Body, Nature Truth Body."

Tib: ngo-bo-nyid sku
Skt: svabhavakaya
Corpus of Forms

A network of forms in which a Buddha appears in order to benefit others. It includes both the subtle forms of a Corpus of Full Use and the grosser forms of a Corpus of Emanations, Also called: Corpus of Enlightening Forms, Form Body, Body of Forms.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Form Body."

Tib: gzugs-sku
Skt: rupakaya
Corpus of Full Use

(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Complete Enjoyment Body; Enjoyment Body."

Tib: longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i sku
Skt: sambhogakaya
Corpus of Great Bliss

In the dzogchen system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

Tib: bde-ba chen-po'i sku
Skt: mahasukhakaya
Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment

According to some dzogchen systems, the appearance-making aspect of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure appearance. In other words, the appearance-making aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

Tib: mngon-byang-gi sku
Skt: abhisambhodhikaya
correct consideration

See: paying attention in a concordant manner

craving

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a strong longing desire to experience something in the future that one may or may not be experiencing at present. The Sanskrit term means, literally, "thirst."


J. Hopkins' translation: "attachment."

Tib: sred-pa
Skt: trshna
craving, link of

See: link of craving

craving because of fear

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. Also called: craving to be separated from what is fearful. (1) A strong longing desire to be parted from pain and unhappiness. (2) Holding on to objects of the past.

Tib: 'jigs-sred
craving in relation to further existence

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire for a neutral feeling, which one is experiencing, to continue surviving and not degenerate. (2) A strong longing desire for one's own body composed of five aggregates to continue surviving as a basis for craving in relation to what is desirable and craving because of fear. (3) Holding on to objects of the future.

Tib: srid-sred
craving in relation to what is desirable

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire not to be parted from the ordinary forms of happiness that one is currently experiencing. (2) Holding on to objects of the present, which one is attached to keeping.

Tib: 'dod-sred
creative drops, subtle

See: creative energy-drops

creative energy-drops

Subtle forms of pure essence, found in the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which, through anuttarayoga complete stage practice, can function as the seed for generating of a blissful awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "drop."

Tib: thig-le
Skt: bindu
crimes, five heinous

See: five heinous crimes

cyclic existence

See: samsara

dawn

A verb used for the arising of a cognitive appearance on a mental continuum, in analogy with the sun rising at dawn, except that the cognitive appearance is not already existing somewhere hidden in the mind in some unconscious manner and then comes up to consciousness when it dawns. Also translated as "to arise."


J. Hopkins' translation: "appear/manifest/dawn."

Tib: shar-ba
death existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience death. Unless one successfully does advanced anuttarayoga tantra meditations at this time, this period lasts only one moment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the death state."

Tib: 'chi-srid
Debate Partner, Master

See: Master Debate Partner

deceptive

Being mistaken or confusing with respect to the appearance of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mistaken; illusion."

Tib: 'khrul-ba
deceptive appearance

A cognitive object that appears to exist in a manner different from the way in which it actually exists.

Tib: 'khrul-snang
deceptive cognition

A cognition that takes a phenomenon's mode of existence that it makes appear -- namely, an appearance of its seemingly true existence -- to be the phenomenon's actual mode of existence. The deceptive cognition may be either accurate or distorted with respect to the appearance it makes of the superficial truth of what the phenomenon conventionally is.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mistaken consciousness."

Tib: 'khrul-shes
decisive awareness

See: ascertainment

decisive cognition

See: ascertainment

decisive explications

Precise indications of the meaning of the works in The Basket of Sutras by specifying the individual and general definitions of things. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

Tib: gtan-la phab-pa
Skt: upadesha
decisively determine

To know with certainty what something is, as opposed to what it is not, or how something exists, as opposed to how it does not exist. Also called: determine, ascertain.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ascertainment, definiteness."

Tib: nges-pa
dedicated heart

See: bodhichitta

dedication

See: dedication prayer

dedication prayer

A prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal, in which the person making the prayer directs the positive force (merit) from a constructive action that he or she has done toward ripening into that attainment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "dedicate."

Tib: bsngo-ba
Skt: pranidhana
deep awareness

(1) In the context of the five types of deep awareness, a type of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. It is "deep" in the sense that it is a fundamental way in which the mind works and has always been there, primordially, with no beginning and no end. (2) When contrasted with "discriminating awareness" (Tib. shes-rab) in the non-Gelug usage of the term, the principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the deepest truth of something (its inseparable voidness and appearance), beyond all words and concepts. (3) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, when contrasted with "discriminating awareness," principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the two truths of something. (4) In the context of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness, in the Gelug usage, either the principal awareness that explicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness (deepest truth) during total absorption or the principal awareness that implicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness during subsequent attainment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "exalted wisdom/wisdom/pristine wisdom."

Tib: ye-shes
Skt: jnana
deep awareness, accomplishing

See: accomplishing deep awareness

deep awareness, five types of

See: five types of deep awareness

deep awareness, reflexive

See: reflexive deep awareness

deep awareness, self-arising

See: self-arising deep awareness

deep awareness alaya

In the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for "mind-itself": the pure aspect of mind that is an aspect of Buddha-nature.

Tib: kun-gzhi ye-shes
deep awareness Dharmakaya

See: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Encompassing Everything

deep awareness of reality

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness of the superficial truth of something -- namely, awareness of what it is. When developed on the spiritual path, this deep awareness may also be of the deepest truth of something -- namely, its voidness. Also called: deep awareness of the sphere of reality.


J. Hopkins' translation: "exalted wisdom of the element of qualities; exalted wisdom of the sphere of reality; exalted wisdom of the nature of phenomena."

Tib: chos-dbyings ye-shes
Skt: dharmadhatu-jnana
deep awareness of the equality of things

See: equalizing deep awareness

deep awareness of the individuality of things

See: individualizing deep awareness

deep awareness of the sphere of reality

See: deep awareness of reality

deep awareness that is like a mirror

See: mirror-like deep awareness

deep awareness to accomplish things

See: accomplishing deep awareness

deepest bodhichitta

The deep awareness that has nonconceptual cognition of voidness.

Tib: don-dam-pa'i byang-chub-gyi sems
deepest Buddha Gem

A Buddha's Dharmakaya as a source of safe direction (refuge).

Tib: don-dam-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
deepest Dharma Gem

The true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or a monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).

Tib: don-dam-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
deepest level

The level of some phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by something more superficial about that phenomenon. Sometimes translated as "ultimate level" or "deepest ultimate level."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate, ultimate object, highest object."

Tib: don-dam-pa
deepest level Precious Gems

The level of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are concealed by the apparent level gems.

Tib: don-dam-pa'i dkon-mchog
deepest Sangha Gem

The true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).

Tib: don-dam-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
deepest true phenomenon

In the Hinayana tenet systems, a true phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a conventional (superficial, surface, relative, apparent) true phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate truth."

Tib: don-dam bden-pa
Skt: paramartha
deepest truth

In the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a more superficial true fact about the same phenomenon. Some translators render this term as "ultimate truth."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate truth."

Tib: don-dam bden-pa
Skt: paramartha
defilement

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

defining characteristics

See: defining characteristic mark

definitive teaching

A passage in a sutra text that discusses the most profound view of voidness, and to which all other passages in all other sutra texts eventually lead or point. Such passages do not need to be explained as indicating anything more profound.


J. Hopkins' translation: "definitive meaning."

Tib: nges-don
Skt: nitartha
deity, forceful

See: forceful deity

deluded awareness

A primary consciousness that is aimed at the alayavijnana in the Chittamatra system, or at the alaya for habits in the dzogchen system, and grasps at it to be the "me" to be refuted.


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflicted mind."

Tib: nyon-yid
deluded outlook

One of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflicted view."

Tib: lta-ba nyon-mongs-can
deluded outlook toward a transitory network

(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards some transitory network from one's own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as "me" or as "mine." (2) According to Tsongkhapa, the disturbing attitude that focuses on the conventional "me" and regards it as a truly findable "me" identical with the aggregates, or as "me, the possessor, controller, or inhabitant" of the aggregates.


J. Hopkins' translation: "view of the transitory collection [as real I and mine]."

Tib: 'jig-tshogs-la lta-ba
Skt: satkayadrshti
delusion

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

demonic force

Something that harms limited beings or causes interference and obstacles to constructive actions.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Demon."

Tib: bdud
Skt: mara
denumerable ultimate phenomenon

Voidnesses that are validly cognized conceptually. They are "denumerable" in the sense that they can be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts.

Tib: rnam-grangs-pa'I don-dam
dependent arising

The reliance of something on something other than itself for establishing its existence. (1) The reliance of all samsaric phenomena on unawareness for establishing their existence; (2) the reliance of all functional, nonstatic phenomena on causes and conditions for establishing their existence; (3) the reliance of both static and nonstatic phenomena on their parts for establishing their existence; (4) the reliance of all phenomena on mental labeling for establishing their existence. Also translated as "dependent origination."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dependent-arising."

Tib: rten-cing 'brel-bar 'byung-ba
Skt: pratityasamutpada
dependent arising tradition

The dependent arising tradition transmitted in Drugpa Kagyu.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[depend-connect]; dependent-arising; interdependence."

Tib: rten-'brel
dependent origination

See: dependent arising

dependent phenomenon

A validly knowable object that arises dependently on causes and conditions. All nonstatic phenomena. Often translated literally as "other-powered phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "[other-power]; other powered (phenomena); other powered nature; having the influence of another; that which is under the influence of what is other; the dependent; other-powered; other-powered [nature]; dependent nature; dependent phenomenon."

Tib: gzhan-dbang
Skt: paratantra
derivative, mental

See: mental derivative

desirable sensory objects, five types of

See: five types of desirable sensory objects

desire

See: longing desire

desire, longing

See: longing desire

desire realm

See: plane of sensory desires

destructive

States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-virtue, non-virtuous."

Tib: mi-dge-ba
Skt: akushala
detachment

The constructive mental factor of bored disgust with and thus lack of longing desire for compulsive existence and objects of compulsive existence. Also translated as "nonattachment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-attachment; unattached."

Tib: chags-pa med-pa
Skt: asanga
detection, gross

See: gross detection

determination to be free

See: renunciation

determine

See: decisively determine

deva

See: divine being

devastate

To totally weaken the effectiveness of something, such as the positive force of a constructive act, such that it ripens into something far less and more distant in the future, but without completely eliminating its potential to ripen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "destroy; overcome; triumph over."

Tib: bcom
devoid

Totally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic, whether that characteristic is a possibly existing one or an impossible one.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thousand; 1,000; empty; empty of; vacuity."

Tib: stong
devoid, totally

See: totally devoid

devoid form

A form of physical phenomenon that is devoid of atoms and is the natural play of the clear light mind or of pure awareness (rigpa). Discussed in both Kalachakra and dzogchen, advanced practice enables devoid forms to become the cause for the Form Bodies of a Buddha.

Tib: stong-gzugs
devotion, guru

See: guru devotion

dharma

(1) Preventive measures which, if one puts into practice or achieves, prevent the experience of future suffering. (2) Buddha's teachings. (3) Any phenomenon or "thing."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Phenomenon, attribute/quality, religion/practice."

Tib: chos
Skt: dharma
Dharma, "real thing"

See: real-thing Dharma

Dharma Gem, apparent

See: apparent Dharma Gem

Dharma Gem, deepest

See: deepest Dharma Gem

Dharma Gem, nominal

See: nominal Dharma Gem

Dharma instructor

A teacher, either lay or monastic, Western or Asian, who explains the Buddhist teachings from his or her own experiential insight and understanding.

Dharmakaya

See: Corpus Encompassing Everything

Dharma-lite

A version of the Buddhist teachings without the presentation of past and futures lives and in which the motivating aim is usually just to improve one's samsaric existence of this life.

Dharma-protector

A class of forceful beings, tamed by Buddha or a spiritual lineage master such as Guru Rinpoche, and made to take an oath to protect the Dharma and its practitioners. They may be either ordinary worldly beings (non-aryas) or highly realized aryas. In some cases, they are emanations of a Buddha, appearing in the form of a Dharma-protector.

Tib: chos-skyong
Skt: dharmapala
dichotomy

Two mutually exclusive sets form a dichotomy if all existent phenomena must be a member of either one or the other mutually exclusive set.


J. Hopkins' translation: "explicitly contradictory."

Tib: dngos-'gal
direct cause

The phenomenon that actually produces its result, without need for any intermediary -- for example, a visible object is the direct cause for the seeing of it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual cause."

Tib: dngos-rgyu
direct cognition

According to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the present moment of a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object. Compare: indirect cognition.

Tib: dngos-su shes-pa
direction, safe

See: safe direction

discerning analysis

See: subtle discernment

discerning meditation

A method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind, with which one focuses on an object and generates the desired insight, understanding, or state of mind about it, through using the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) and subtle discernment (scrutiny). The method may also entail applying a line reasoning that one has already understood and become convinced of its validity. Many translators render the term as "analytical meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "analytical meditation."

Tib: dpyad-sgom
discernment, subtle

See: subtle discernment

discipline, ethical

See: ethical self-discipline

discipline, rules of

See: rules of discipline

discordant appearance-making

See: dualistic appearance-making

discordant appearances

See: dualistic appearances

discourse

An oral teaching on a spiritual topic, often concerning tantra.


J. Hopkins' translation: "lead; lead through; guide as noun: leader; instruction."

Tib: khrid
discriminate

(1) To differentiate decisively between two things -- for example, between what is correct and incorrect, (2) to single out something and come to a decisive conclusion about it, for example to incorrectly discriminate the shravaka teachings as being essential for only shravakas, and worthless for bodhisattvas.

discriminating awareness

The mental factor that decisively discriminates between what is correct and what is incorrect, or between what is helpful and what is harmful, or between what is appropriate or what is inappropriate, or between what is reality and what is not reality. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wisdom."

Tib: shes-rab
Skt: prajna
discriminating awareness, far-reaching

See: far-reaching discriminating awareness

discrimination

See: discriminating awareness

dissociated from confusion

See: untainted

dissolves into its own place

See: releases into its own place

distant lineage

The lineage of a teaching that began with Buddha himself.

Tib: ring-brgyud
distinguish

See: distinguishing

distinguished equanimity

See: uncommon Mahayana equanimity

distinguishers

See: conceptually isolated item

distinguishing

One of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that takes an uncommon characteristic feature of the appearing object of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance to it, different from that of everything else that appears in the background within that cognition. It does not necessarily ascribe a name or mental label to its object, nor does it compare it with previously cognized objects. Some translators render the term as "recognition."


J. Hopkins' translation: "discrimination."

Tib: 'du-shes
Skt: samjna
distorted antagonistic thinking

The action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

Tib: log-lta
distorted cognition

A way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong consciousness."

Tib: log-shes
distorted outlook

The disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

Tib: log-lta
distorted view

See: distorted outlook

disturbing attitude

Equivalent to a deluded outlook.

disturbing deluded outlook on life

See: deluded outlook

disturbing emotion

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

disturbing emotion or attitude

A subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that, when it arises, causes oneself to lose peace of mind and incapacitates oneself so that one loses self-control. An indication that one is experiencing a disturbing emotion or attitude is that it makes oneself and/or others feel uncomfortable. Some translators render this term as "afflictive emotions" or "emotional afflictions."


J. Hopkins' translation: "affliction, afflictive emotion."

Tib: nyon-mongs
Skt: klesha
disturbing emotions and attitudes, automatically arising

See: automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes

disturbing emotions and attitudes, doctrinally based

See: doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudes

disturbing emotions without an outlook on life

Among the disturbing emotions and attitudes, those that do not regard and understand their objects in a certain way, for instance as "me" or "mine." Abbreviated as "disturbing emotions," in contrast to "disturbing attitudes," which is used for a disturbing deluded outlook on life.

Tib: lta-min nyon-mongs
dividing consciousness

A consciousness that makes dualistic appearances, dividing a moment of experience into an appearance of independently existing consciousness (subject) and object. It is a Kagyu/Nyingma explanation. The Tibetan is rnam-shes, the same as the usual word for consciousness. It is defined like this only in some very special places.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

Tib: rnam-shes
divine being

A limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."


J. Hopkins' translation: "god."

Tib: lha
Skt: deva
divine ear, extrasensory

See: extrasensory divine ear

divine eye, extrasensory

See: extrasensory divine eye

divine realm

A place where divine beings (gods) dwell. Also called a "heaven."

Tib: lha-yul
doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudes

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that arise based on having been taught and having accepted a non-Buddhist Indian tenet system or a less sophisticated Indian Buddhist tenet system.

Tib: nyon-mongs kun-brtags
doctrinally based unawareness

The mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Also called: doctrinally based ignorance.

Tib: ma-rig kun-brtags
dominating condition

The nonstatic phenomena that produce the essential nature of something, such as the eye sensors for the visual consciousness and congruent mental factors of a visual cognition. This condition is called "dominating" – literally, the "overlord condition" – because it rules what the essential nature of its result will be.


J. Hopkins' translation: "empowering condition; dominant condition."

Tib: bdag-rkyen
Skt: adhipatipratyaya
dominating result

(1) The type of environment or society in which one is born or enters and the way it treats one, or (2) objects, such as one's possessions, and what happens to them. Such results may ripen from destructive, tainted constructive, or unspecified actions and are called "dominating results" because they extend over and dominate everything that one experiences in a particular rebirth. Also translated as "comprehensive result," "overriding result" or "overlord result," it is synonymous with "commanding result."


J. Hopkins' translation: "possessional effect."

Tib: bdag-'bras 
bdag-po’i ‘bras-bu
Skt: adhipatiphalam
dormant factor

Literally, something that is "asleep to the taste of the mind." Affecting variables, associated with mental continuums, which are "lying down" and not rushing to manifest mind (consciousness). They include subliminal awareness, tendencies, and habits.


J. Hopkins' translation: "dormancies."

Tib: bag-la nyal
doubt

See: indecisive wavering

downfall, root

See: root downfall

dread

The strong wish not to experience something or for something not to happen. If overlaid with grasping for truly established existence, it becomes fear. Sometimes translated as "fear."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fright; frighten."

Tib: 'jigs-pa
Drigung Kagyu

One of the eight minor Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa's disciple Pagmo-drupa -- in this case, Drigung Jigten-sumgon.

Tib: 'Bri-gung bka'-brgyud
driving cause

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that generate other subsequent disturbing emotions and attitudes in the same plane of samsaric existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omnipresent cause."

Tib: kun-'gro'i rgyu
Skt: sarvatragohetu
drops, jasmine flower

See: jasmine flower drops

Drugpa Kagyu

One of the eight minor Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa's disciple Pagmo-drupa -- in this case, Lingraypa.

Tib: 'Brug-pa bka'-brgyud
dual appearance-making

See: dualistic appearance-making

dual appearances

See: dualistic appearances

dualistic appearance-making

(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the mental activity of giving rise to an appearance of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which anything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhayamaka, the mental activity of giving rise, within a cognition, to an appearance of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, the mental activity of giving rise to an appearance, within a cognition, of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources. Also called "dual appearance-making" and "discordant appearance-making."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dualistic appearance."

Tib: gnyis-snang
dualistic appearances

The appearances that dualistic appearance-making gives rise to. (1) In Gelug Prasangika, an appearance of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which anything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, an appearance of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, an appearance of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources. Also called "dual appearances" and "discordant appearances."


J. Hopkins' translation: "dualistic appearance."

Tib: gnyis-snang
dullness, mental

See: mental dullness

dumbfoundedness

In the dzogchen system, a nominal disturbing attitude, equivalent to automatically arising unawareness regarding phenomena, which obscures rigpa's (pure awareness's) knowing its own nature. Some translators render it as "bedazzlement" or "stupidity," but it has nothing to do with intelligence.

Tib: rmongs-cha
dzogchen

A Mahayana system of practice, found in the Nyingma, Bon, Karma Kagyu, Drugpa Kagyu, and Drigung Kagyu traditions, that entails accessing rigpa, one's own pure awareness, and realizing that it is complete with all good qualities. Translated as "the great completeness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Great Completeness."

Tib: rdzogs-chen
effulgent rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its aspect of spontaneously establishing appearances. Synonymous with the term "appearance-making basis rigpa."

Tib: rtsal-gyi rig-pa
eight sets of realizations

also translated as: eight phenomena.

Tib: dngos-po brgyad
eight transitory things in life

Praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly -- or, more specifically, the emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to these eight. Also called the "eight worldly dharmas."

Tib: 'jig-rten-pa'i chos-brgyad
eight worldly concerns

See: eight transitory things in life

eight worldly dharmas

See: eight transitory things in life

elevation

See: inspiration

eliminations of something else

See: exclusions of something else

emanation, miraculous

See: miraculous emanations

embodied being

A being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."


J. Hopkins' translation: "the embodied."

Tib: lus-can
Skt: dehin
emergence, definite

See: definite emergence

emotion, disturbing

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

emotional affliction

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

emotional obscurations

Fleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing phenomena without accompanying disturbing emotions or attitudes. They include the disturbing emotions and attitudes, as well as their tendencies (seeds), and prevent the attainment of liberation from samsara, Also translated as "obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes"and "obscurations preventing liberation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "afflictive obstruction."

Tib: nyon-sgrib
Skt: kleshavarana
empowerment

A tantric ritual that activates and empowers Buddha-nature factors to grow so that, through repeated, sustained tantric practice, they will eventually transform into the Three Corpuses (Bodies) of a Buddha. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials, that will likewise grow in the same manner. The term is often translated as "initiation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "empowerment; initiation; consecration; power; force; control."

Tib: dbang
Skt: abhishekha
empowerment, discriminating deep awareness

See: discriminating deep awareness empowerment

empowerment, fourth

See: fourth empowerment

empowerment, secret

See: secret empowerment

empowerment, vajra deep awareness

See: vajra deep awareness empowerment

empowerment, vase

See: vase empowerment

empowerment, word

See: word empowerment

emptiness

See: voidness

energy, karmic

See: karmic energy

energy-channel, central

See: central energy-channel

energy-channel, left

See: left energy-channel

energy-channel, right

See: right energy-channel

energy-wind

Also called: energy-wind breaths


J. Hopkins' translation: "wind."

Tib: rlung
Skt: prana
energy-wind, subtle

See: subtle energy-winds

energy-wind breaths

See: energy-wind

engaged bodhichitta

A mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, is committed to attaining that enlightenment by having taken bodhisattva vows and which then enters into the type of behavior that will bring one to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[enter-mind]; practical mind of enlightenment; attitudes or aspirations conjoined with actual practice."

Tib: 'jug-sems
engagement, cognitive

See: cognitive engagement

enigmatic

Also translated as: secret, hidden


J. Hopkins' translation: "secret."

Tib: gsang-ba
Skt: guhya
enlightening deeds

According to Mahayana, a set of twelve actions or deeds in the life of a Buddha, with which a Buddha demonstrates to all limited beings the way to achieve enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "verb: do; use{BJ 34.1}; honorific for byed pa; honorific form of address noun: action; act; deed."

Tib: mdzad-pa
enlightening influence

The unceasing, unending, effortless activity of a Buddha, which helps bring all limited beings to higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment. Such activity does not require a Buddha actually doing anything: a Buddha's attainment itself exerts a positive influence on others to pacify disturbance, stimulate the growth of good qualities, bring disorder under control, and forcefully end any harm. Also translated as: "Buddha-activity."


J. Hopkins' translation: "deed; activity; work; affair."

Tib: 'phrin-las
Skt: samudacara
entity

A truly existent "thing," either objective or metaphysical, that exists as a findable "thing" on its own, established as that "thing" by its own power from its own side.

entity, metaphysical

See: metaphysical entities

entity, objective

See: objective entities

envy

See: jealousy

epic presentations

Presentations of the vast and profound aspects of such topics as the six far-reaching attitudes (six perfections) and ten arya bodhisattva levels of bhumi-mind (ten bhumis) of The Basket of the Mahayana or Bodhisattva Sutras. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Very Extensive [Sūtras]."

Tib: shin-tu rgyas-pa
Skt: vaipulya
equalizing and exchanging our attitudes about self and others

See: equalizing self and others

equalizing and exchanging self and others

A method for developing a bodhichitta aim, consisting of (1) developing mere equanimity, (2) developing uncommon Mahayana equanimity, as a way to regard all others equally in the same way as one regards oneself, (3) thinking of the disadvantages of a self-cherishing attitude, (4) thinking of the advantages of cherishing others, (5) giving and taking, with attitudes of love and compassion, as a way of exchanging one's attitudes about self and others, (6) exceptional resolve, and (7) developing a bodhichitta aim.

Tib: bdag-gzhan mnyam-brje
equalizing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that is aware of several items as belonging equally to the same category, or as fitting into the same pattern. Also called: deep awareness of the equality of things.

Tib: mnyam-nyid ye-shes
equalizing self and others

Developing an equal attitude toward all beings, with the same regard as one has toward oneself.

Tib: bdag-gzhan mnyam-pa
equal status cause

Causes for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena as they are -- either in the same ethical category or on the same plane of existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cause of equal lot; cause of similar lot."

Tib: skal-mnyam-gyi rgyu
equanimity

(1) The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of having an equal attitude toward everyone. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the tenth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude with which one does not expect anything in return for one's help, being indifferent to pleasure and pain, and to any benefit or harm one might receive.


J. Hopkins' translation: "neutral feeling, equanimity."

Tib: btang-snyoms
Skt: upeksha
equanimity, distinguished

See: uncommon equanimity

equanimity, mere

See: mere equanimity

equanimity, uncommon Mahayana

See: uncommon equanimity

equipoise, meditative

See: total absorption

essence mahamudra

A pathway of mahamudra practice concerning the nature of the mind in which specially qualified disciples receive the inspiration of the realizations all the lineage masters through receiving a vajra deep awareness empowerment and thereby achieve realization of mind-itself, equivalent to a seeing pathway mind. As "those for whom it happens all at once," they achieve enlightenment simultaneously with this realization. Also known as "the singular sufficient white panacea."

Tib: snying-po'i phyag-chen
essence rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of it being primally pure and serving as the open space within which effulgent rigpa functions.

Tib: ngo-bo'i rig-pa
essential nature

The general type of phenomenon that something is -- for instance, a sight, a sound, and so on.


J. Hopkins' translation: "entity."

Tib: ngo-bo
essential nature, same

See: same essential nature

ethical discipline

See: ethical self-discipline

ethically neutral

See: unspecified phenomenon

ethically unspecified

See: unspecified phenomenon

ethical narratives

Rules, codified by Buddha for those who are ordained, concerning which actions constitute a breach of their vows. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

Tib: gleng-bzhi
Skt: nidana
ethical self-discipline

(1) In Theravada, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to avoid doing any harm to others, by keeping one's vows, free from anger or ill-will even if others harm one. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge to safeguard the actions of one's body, speech, and mind, which comes from having turned one's mind away from any wish to cause harm to others and from the disturbing and destructive mental factors that had motivated one to harm others. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[system-law]; ethics; morality."

Tib: tshul-khrims
Skt: shila
even-minded

A tranquil state of mind that stays in the middle with regard to being either happy or unhappy, in all circumstances, such as when meeting with or parting from friends. Literally, "a state of standing in the middle."

Tib: dbus-gnas-nyid
Skt: madhyasthata
even-tempered

The mental factor of not becoming either too involved or indifferent toward others, even when helping them.

ever-functioning mental factor

See: ever-functioning subsidiary awareness

ever-functioning subsidiary awareness

According to Asanga, a set of five subsidiary awarenesses that accompany every moment of cognition: feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, an urge, contacting awareness, and paying attention or taking to mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omnipresent; all-pervading; omnipresent factor; omnipresent mental factor."

Tib: kun-'gro
evolving family-traits

(1) In the Chittamatra system, the tendencies (seeds) that, newly gained by listening, contemplating and meditating on Buddha's teachings, are imputable on the basis of the stained minds of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain arya pathway minds. (2) In the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka system, the factors, imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being, that are fit to become the essential nature of a deep awareness Dharmakaya. (3) In the Prasangika-Madhyamaka system, the factors imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being that are fit to become the essential natures of a Corpus of Forms and a deep awareness Dharmakaya of a Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "developmental lineage."

Tib: rgyas-'gyur-gyi rigs
evolving traits

See: evolving family-traits

excellent signs

See: thirty-two excellent signs

exceptionally perceptive state of mind

A state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight."


J. Hopkins' translation: "special insight."

Tib: lhag-mthong
Skt: vipashyana
exceptional resolve

The full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."


J. Hopkins' translation: "unusual attitude."

Tib: lhag-bsam
Skt: adhyashaya
exceptional sincerity

Exceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).


J. Hopkins' translation: "unusual attitude."

Tib: lhag-bsam
exchanging one's attitudes about self and others.

See: exchanging self and others

exchanging self and others

Instead of self-cherishing, cherishing others, and instead of ignoring the needs of others, ignoring one's own selfish needs.

Tib: bdag-gzhan brje-pa
exclude

to eliminate


J. Hopkins' translation: "exclusion [=gzhan sel]; clear away; remove; throw off; eliminate; avoid."

Tib: sel-ba
exclusions

See: exclusions of something else

exclusions, mental

See: mental exclusions of something else

exclusions, nonimplicative negation

See: nonimplicative negation exclusions of something else

exclusions, object

See: individually characterized object exclusions of something else

exclusions of something else

Phenomena specified in terms of the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon explicitly precluding an object to be negated. Synonymous with negation phenomena, they include both implicative and nonimplicative negation phenomena. (1) According to Gelug, they may be either static or nonstatic. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are all static phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "other exclusion; other-eliminator; exclusion-of-the-other."

Tib: gzhan-sel
existence, inherent

See: existence established by self-nature

existence, true

See: true existence

existence established as true

See: true existence

existence established by self-nature

Existence of something established or proven by the fact that the referent object of the imputation of it can be found upon searching for it. For example, the existence of a table established or proven by the fact that when one searches for the object that the mental label "table" refers to, one can find the object, a "table." Also translated as "self-established existence," it is often translated by others as "inherent existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "inherent existence, inherently established."

Tib: rang-bzhin-gyis grub-pa
existent phenomenon

See: existents

existents

Validly knowable phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "existent."

Tib: yod-pa
explications, decisive

See: decisive explications

explicit apprehension

In the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object of the cognition arises. Compare: implicit apprehension.


J. Hopkins' translation: "explicitly realize; explicit realization."

Tib: dngos-su rtogs-pa
explicit cognition

See: explicit apprehension

explicit suggestive meaning

One of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It suggests or leads one on to the second meaning (the implicit suggested meaning), which is dissimilar to what is actually said on face value.


J. Hopkins' translation: "interpretable meaning{BJ 27.6}; interpretable object{N}; requiring interpretation; interpretable; meaning requiring interpretation."

Tib: drang-don
Skt: neyartha
expositions on themes of practice

See: sutra

external object

See: external phenomenon

external phenomenon

A nonstatic phenomenon that arises from a natal source different from the natal source of the consciousness that cognizes it -- namely, from a natal source that is not connected with the mental continuum of the individual who cognizes it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "external object; external object{N}."

Tib: phyi-don
Skt: bahyartha
extraphysical emanations

Physical bodies having abilities that are beyond the usual capacity of the body -- such as the ability to run great distances at an incredible speed, to fly, to increase or decrease in size, to multiply, to walk on water, to pass beneath the earth, and so on -- which are produced (emanated) from karma, recitation of mantra, the power of specially consecrated substances, or the power of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "[deceive-magic]; magical emanation; magical power; magical illusion; miracle."

Tib: rdzu-'phrul
Skt: rddhi
extraphysical powers

See: extraphysical emanations

extrasensory divine eye

Cognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).

Tib: lha'i spyan
extrasensory eye of deep awareness

A Buddha's omniscient awareness that is able to "see" the two truths about all phenomena. One of the five types of extrasensory eyes, possessed only by Buddhas.

Tib: ye-shes-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of discriminating awareness

Cognition that is able to "see" voidness nonconceptually. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana)..


J. Hopkins' translation: "eye of wisdom."

Tib: shes-rab-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of the Dharma

One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Gelug explanation, cognition that is able to understand the mental capacities of others, in order to be able to teach them appropriately. (2) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, a Buddha's omniscient awareness that possesses the ten forces that enable a Buddha to lead all beings to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "eye of doctrine."

Tib: chos-kyi spyan
extrasensory flesh eye

Cognition that is able to see great distances without obstruction, to see through solid objects such as walls, to see in all directions at the same time, and so on. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "fleshly eye."

Tib: sha'i spyan
extrasensory perception

See: advanced awareness

extremely obscure phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that can be apprehended through authoritative texts or speech, such as the enlightening words of the Buddha, or that can be apprehended through the words of persons who are valid sources of information.


J. Hopkins' translation: "very hidden phenomenon."

Tib: shin-tu lkog-gyur
extreme outlook

The disturbing attitude that regards one's five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist or nihilistic way. (1) According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook that views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives. (2) According to Tsongkhapa, a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional "me" and considers it either as having a truly existent identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives.


J. Hopkins' translation: "view holding to an extreme."

Tib: mthar-'dzin-pa'i lta-ba
Skt: antagrahadrshti
eye of deep awareness, extrasensory

See: extrasensory eye of deep awareness

eye of discriminating awareness, extrasensory

See: extrasensory eye of discriminating awareness

eye of the Dharma, extrasensory

See: extrasensory eye of the Dharma

fabrication, parted from mental

See: state parted from mental fabrication

fabulous accounts

Descriptions of such marvelous, wondrous things as the wisdom, extra-physical powers and saintly deeds of the Buddhas, pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers), and shravakas (listeners). One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "marvelous."

Tib: rmad-du byung-ba
Skt: adbhutadharma
faith

See: believing a fact to be true

false view

See: deluded outlook

far-reaching attitude

A mental factor that brings one to the far shore of samsara, either to liberation or to enlightenment. There are either six or ten far-reaching attitudes. Also called "perfection." Theravada and Mahayana give slightly different lists of these. According to Mahayana, the six are the far-reaching attitudes of (1) generosity, (2) ethical self-discipline, (3) patience, (4) joyful perseverance, (5) mental stability, and (6) discriminating awareness (wisdom). The Mahayana list of ten adds the far-reaching attitudes of (7) skill in means, (8) aspirational prayer, (9) strengthening, and (10) deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "perfection."

Tib: pha-rol-tu phyin-pa
Skt: paramita
far-reaching discriminating awareness

The discriminating awareness of voidness that is conjoined with a bodhichitta aim. Most translators render it as "perfection of wisdom." Compare: discriminating awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Perfection of Wisdom."

Tib: shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa
Skt: prajnaparamita
faulty actions

A set of forty-six actions that one vows to avoid and which, if committed, would be detrimental to one's practice of either one of the six far-reaching attitudes or to one's benefiting others. Also called: secondary bodhisattva vows.


J. Hopkins' translation: "misdeed."

Tib: nyes-byas
feature, distinguishing

See: feature, distinguishing

feeling

See: feeling a level of happiness

feeling aggregate

See: aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness

feeling a level of happiness

One of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The subsidiary awareness that accompanies each moment of sensory or mental cognition of a limited being before attaining liberation and with which that being experiences the ripenings of its own karma in the form of something within the spectrum of extreme unhappiness, through neutral, to extreme happiness. Also called "feeling."


J. Hopkins' translation: "feeling."

Tib: tshor-ba
Skt: vedana
feeling a level of happiness, link of

See: link of feeling a level of happiness

filigree

A piece of jewelry made of fine, intricately intertwined wires. A word used in the titles of many Buddhist texts to indicate that the subject matter is presented in a manner resembling a filigree, in which the various topics are intricately intertwined, resulting in a beautiful, elegant presentation of the material. Usually translated by others as "ornament."


J. Hopkins' translation: "ornament."

Tib: rgyan
Skt: alamkara
fire-puja

A tantric ritual, performed mostly upon completion of a mantra-recitation retreat of a Buddha-figure for which one has received an empowerment, during which one tosses into a fire a large number of specific substances, accompanied by elaborate visualizations. It is mostly performed in order to purify any mistakes one has made during the retreat.


J. Hopkins' translation: "burnt offering."

Tib: sbyin-sreg
firm conviction

(1) According to Asanga, the mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that focuses on a fact that one has validly ascertained to be like this and not like that, and which makes one's belief that a fact is true so firm that others' arguments or opinions will not dissuade one. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the term means "regard": the mental factor that takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.


J. Hopkins' translation: "belief."

Tib: mos-pa
fitness, sense of

See: sense of fitness

five aggregate factors

The five networks that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that could make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being: the aggregates of (1) forms of physical phenomena, (2) feelings of levels of happiness, (3) distinguishing, (4) other affecting variables, and (5) primary consciousnesses.


J. Hopkins' translation: "five aggregates."

Tib: phung-po lnga
Skt: pancaskandha
five aggregates

See: five aggregate factors

five bodhisattva pathway minds

Also called: five paths

Tib: lam-lnga
Five Buddha-Bodies

See: Five Corpuses of a Buddha

five Buddha-wisdoms

See: five types of deep awareness

five congruent features

Five things shared in common by the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses within a cognition. (1) According to Vasubandhu, they share the same reliance, object, mental aspect, time, and natal sources having the same slant. (2) According to Asanga, natal source, focal aspect, essential nature, time, and plane.

Tib: mtshungs-ldan lnga
Five Corpuses of a Buddha

(I) In some presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha (Svabhavakaya), and Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya) of a Buddha. (II) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and Corpus of Great Bliss (Mahasukhakaya) of a Buddha. (III) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and (5) Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence of a Buddha. (IV) In yet other systems, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya), and (5) Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment (Abhisambhodhikaya) of a Buddha.

Tib: sku-lnga
five major fields of knowledge

The major topics of study in the ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries: (1) art and craftsmanship, (2) medicine, (3) languages and grammar, (4) logic, and (5) inner or exceptional self-knowledge

Tib: rig-gnas lnga
five obscurations

A set of five mental factors that prevent the attainment of the three higher trainings, in ethical self-discipline, absorbed concentration, and discriminating awareness. According to Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend, (1) flightiness of mind and regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) indecisive wavering, (4) intentions toward sensory objects, and (5) malice. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, (1) regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) sleepiness, (4) flightiness of mind, and (5) indecisive wavering. Also called: five obstacles.

Tib: sgrib-pa lnga
five obstacles

See: five obscurations

five types of deep awareness

Five types of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The five are (1) mirror-like, (2) equalizing, (3) individualizing, and (4) accomplishing deep awareness, and (5) deep awareness of reality. Some translators render this term as "five Buddha-wisdoms." Compare: "deep awareness" (1).

Tib: ye-shes lnga
fixating meditation

See: stabilizing meditation

flat

One's Dharma practice is flat when it is going nowhere, when it is not taking one anywhere. There is nothing lively in it anymore. "Flat" is usually used for sparkling water (soda water) or beer, when there are no more bubbles.

fleeting stain

An emotional or cognitive obscuration that temporarily obscures the realization of Buddha-nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "adventitious defilement/stain."

Tib: glo-bur-gyi dri-ma
flesh eye, extrasensory

See: extrasensory flesh eye

flightiness, mental

See: flightiness of mind

flightiness of mind

The mental factor with which the mind wanders to an object of attraction, due to desire for it or attachment, and which faults the mental abiding of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Sometimes translated as "mental agitation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "excitement."

Tib: rgod-pa
focal condition

An external phenomenon that presents an aspect of itself to be an object of cognition, and thus serves as a condition giving rise to a sensory cognition of it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "observed-object condition."

Tib: dmigs-rkyen
Skt: alambanapratyaya
focal object

An external object on which a cognition focuses and which serves as the focal condition of the cognition. Focal objects exist prior to the cognitions of them and have their own continuums different from those of the cognitions of them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "observed object; object of observation."

Tib: dmigs-yul
focal support

A findable, truly existent referent "thing," propping up the object of a cognition. Compare: referent thing.

Tib: dmigs-gtad
focus, sharp

See: sharp focus

foe-destroyer

See: arhat

foggy-mindedness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly.


J. Hopkins' translation: "lethargy."

Tib: rmugs-pa
force, karmic

See: karmic force

force, positive

See: positive karmic force

forceful

Using extremely strong actions or methods, such as yelling at someone or hitting someone, in order to make the person stop doing something harmful. Forceful methods are used only when all other methods to make the person stop have failed or are impossible in the situation. Some translators render the term as "wrathful," but this has an inappropriate connotation, since "wrathful," in English, is used for the Old Testament God, who, when people disobey Him, gets angry and punishes them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hard; heavy [=sra ba]; fierce; strong."

Tib: drag-po
forceful deity

An emanation of a Buddha in a form of great strength, usually surrounded by flames representing deep awareness, and terrifying, so as to chase away disturbing emotions, interferences, and other harm. Often translated by others as "wrathful deity," although there is no connotation here of "wrath" as in "the wrath of God." Although the Sanskrit and Tibetan terms, here, mean literally "angry," this does not refer to anger as a disturbing emotion, but rather to the strong force of anger to get rid of something detrimental to spiritual well-being and progress.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrathful."

Tib: khro-bo
Skt: kroddha
form aggregate

See: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena

formal meditation

See: stabilizing meditation

formless realm

See: plane of formless beings

form realm

See: plane of ethereal forms

forms of physical phenomena

Nonstatic phenomena that can either (1) transform into another form of physical phenomenon when two or more of them come into contact with each other, such as water and earth which can transform into mud, or (2) be known as what they are by analyzing their directional parts, such as the sight of a vase seen in a dream. Forms of physical phenomena include the nonstatic phenomena of forms and eye sensors, sounds and ear sensors, smells and nose sensors, tastes and tongue sensors, phyiscal sensations and body sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Equivalent to the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form."

Tib: gzugs
Skt: rupa
forms of physical phenomena, totally imaginary

See: totally imaginary forms of physical phenomena

forms of physical phenomena arising from gaining control over the elements

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are actually emanated by the power of absorbed concentration.

Tib: dbang-'byor-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena existing in actual situations

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are spaces that are in between objects and either too large or too small to be seen, such as the space in between astronomical bodies or in between atoms.

Tib: mngon-par skabs yod-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind

The type of subtle phenomena that the body of an arhat in a pure land is: although still included among cognitive stimulators that are forms of physical phenomena, they are visible only to the eye consciousness of arhats in pure lands. Although they are not ways of being aware of anything, their functional nature is similar to that of forms of physical phenomena that can be known only by mental consciousness. Synonymous with "mental bodies."

Tib: yid-kyi rang-bzhin gyi gzugs
forms of physical phenomena included (only) among the cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomena

Forms of physical phenomena that are not knowable by sensory consciousness, but are only knowable by mental consciousness. These include (1) those that make up other things by amassing together, (2) those existing in actual situations, (3) those arising from clearly taking them on, (4) totally imaginary forms, and (5) those arising from gaining control over the elements.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form for the mental consciousness."

Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes

Equivalent to sights. See: sights.

Tib: mig-gi spyod-yul-du 'gyur-ba'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena that make up other things by amassing together

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are the invisible objects, such as atoms and subatomic particles, that make up visible objects.

Tib: bsdud-pa-las gyur-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomenon arising from clearly taking them on

Forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are acquired on a mental continuum, such as the nonrevealing forms of vows and of karmic actions.

Tib: yang-dag-par blangs-pa-las byung-ba'i gzugs
foundation consciousness

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

four axioms

The four axioms for examining a Dharma teaching in order to accept its validity: (1) dependency, (2) functionality, (3) establishment by reason, and (4) the nature of things.

Tib: rigs-pa bzhi
four binding factors

Factors which, when they accompany someone's acting in breach of a vow, bind that person to the full karmic result, in the sense of guaranteeing that the full karmic result will follow.

Tib: kun-dkris bzhi
Four Buddha-Bodies

See: Four Corpuses of a Buddha

four close mindfulnesses

See: four close placements of mindfulness

four close placements of mindfulness

Meditation practices that focus on (a) the body, (b) feelings of levels of happiness, (c) mind, and (d) phenomena, with the subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) of mindfulness ("mental glue") and attention to them with a certain understanding. (1) In Theravada, one is attentive to (a) the breath as affecting the body, (b) feelings of levels of happiness and unhappiness as affecting the mind, (c) disturbing emotions as affecting the thoughts, and (d) the nature of the previous three as being nonstatic and lacking an impossible "soul." (2) In Mahayana, one is attentive to (a) the body as unclean and true suffering, (b) feelings of levels of happiness as in the nature of suffering, and clinging to them as a true cause of suffering, (c) the six kinds of primary consciousness as naturally free of all stains, so as to understand true stoppings, and (d) all mental factors in terms of which to get rid of and which to cultivate, so as to understand true pathway minds.

Tib: dran-pa nyer-bzhag bzhi
Skt: smrtyupasthana
Four Corpuses of a Buddha

(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), and (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha.

Tib: sku-bzhi
four hallmarks of the Dharma

Four points which, if contained in a system of teachings, indicate that the system is a Buddhist one: (1) all affected (conditioned) phenomena are nonstatic (impermanent), (2) all tainted phenomena are problematic (suffering), (3) all phenomena are devoid and lacking an impossible "soul," while (4) a nirvana release is a pacification and something constructive. Also called "four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words."

Tib: chos-kyi sdom-pa bzhi
four joys

See: four gradations of joyful awareness

four placements of confidence

Don’t place your confidence on the person, place it on his or her teachings; don’t place your confidence on his or her words, place it on their meanings; don’t place your confidence on their interpretable meanings, place it on their definitive meanings; (to understand them) don’t place your confidence on your dividing consciousness, place it on your deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "four reliances{N}."

Tib: rton-pa bzhi
four placements of mindfulness

See: four close placements of mindfulness

four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words

See: four hallmarks of the Dharma

Tib: lta-ba bka'-btags-gyi phyag-rgya-bzhi
four sets of applied realizations

Also translated as: four yogas

Tib: sbyor-ba bzhi
fourth empowerment

Also called: word empowerment (tshig-dbang)

Tib: dbang bzhi-pa
fresh and clean

Arising anew in each moment without being stained by any mental constructs -- descriptive of pure awareness (rig-pa) in the dzogchen systems.

Tib: so-ma
front-generation

The part of a self-initiation in which one generates in front of oneself the supported and supporting mandalas from which one will receive the full empowerment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generation in front."

Tib: mdun-bskyed
functional nature

The nature of a phenomenon defined in terms of the function that the phenomenon performs.


J. Hopkins' translation: "nature/inherent existence/inherent nature."

Tib: rang-bzhin
functional phenomenon

(1) A validly knowable, existent object that performs a function -- in other words, it produces a result -- namely, a nonstatic phenomenon. (2) In the Vaibhashika system, all validly knowable, existent phenomenon, all of which at least perform the function of acting as an object for the valid cognition of them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thing/functioning thing/effective thing."

Tib: dngos-po
further existence

See: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence


J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

Tib: srid-pa
Skt: bhava
further existence, link of

See: link of further existence

further existence impulse

See: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence

Gelug

One of the New Translation traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from the reforms made by Tsongkhapa.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ge-luk."

Tib: dGe-lugs
Gelugpa

A follower of the Gelug tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ge-luk-pa."

Tib: dGe-lugs-pa
general awareness

In the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that gives rise to and is aware of the appearing (the arising in general) of an awareness of an object and an object that one is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the general features of an entire sensory or mental field that one cognizes, so that one gets an overview.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Intellect/mentality."

Tib: yid
generality

See: conceptual category

generation stage

The first stage of anuttarayoga practice, during which one uses the powers of imagination to generate oneself in the form of a Buddha-figure and performs a sadhana.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stage of generation."

Tib: bskyed-rim
generosity

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of wishing to give material things to all beings, so that they may be happy, without investigating whether or not they are worthy to receive them. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to wish to give to others all that is one's own – one's body, material wealth, and the roots of one's constructive actions. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. Also translated as "giving."


J. Hopkins' translation: "donation; verb: give; bestow; present noun: giving; gift; present; alms."

Tib: sbyin-pa
Skt: dana
geshe

(1) In the Kadam tradition, a title given to a spiritual mentor and friend, especially those that are masters of attitude-training (lojong). (2) In the Gelug tradition, a title given to those who have completed the monastic education system.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ge-shay."

Tib: dge-bshes
Skt: kalyanamitra
giving

See: generosity

giving and taking

With love, giving one's happiness to others, and with compassion, taking on their suffering. Often practiced with visualizations and in coordination with the breath, this is a practice done in conjunction with exchanging one's attitudes about self with others. Often called by the Tibetan term "tonglen."

giving rise to

See: making arise

giving rise to appearances

See: appearance-making

go for refuge to the Three Gems

See: take safe direction from the Three Gems

golden libation

(1) An offering of a liquid, most commonly alcohol, made usually to a Dharma protector and ideally offered in a golden bowl. (2) The ritual that accompanies this offering.

Tib: gser-skyems
good qualities

Helpful aspects or beneficial talents of a person that are corrections of inadequacies.


J. Hopkins' translation: "good qualities; good quality; virtue; attainment; quality."

Tib: yon-tan
Skt: guna
gorges, dangerous

See: dangerous gorges

grasping for true existence

See: grasping for truly established existence

grasping for truly established existence

(1) Both to cognize (literally, take as a cognitive object) the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, which the habits of this grasping cause the mind to fabricate and project, as well as believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist, (2) simply cognizing the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, without actually believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist. Gelug asserts both definitions, while non-Gelug asserts only the first. Abbreviated as "grasping for true existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conception of true existence."

Tib: bden-'dzin
Skt: satyagraha
great approximation retreat

A three-year, three-month retreat focusing exclusively on one Buddha-figure (deity) system, in which one recites tens of millions of mantras and makes millions of offerings in fire pujas.

Tib: bsnyen-chen
great compassion

The wish for everyone to be free from suffering and from the causes for suffering.

Tib: snying-rje chen-po
Skt: mahakaruna
great completeness

See: dzogchen

Greater Vehicle

See: Mahayana

great love

The wish for everyone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness.

Tib: byams-pa chen-po
Skt: mahamaitri
great seal

See: mahamudra

gross detection

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that investigates something roughly, such as detecting if there are mistakes on a page. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "investigation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

Tib: rtog-pa
gross impermanence

The final destruction or disintegration of a nonstatic phenomenon.

Tib: mi-rtag-pa rags-pa
guideline instructions

Beneficial practical advice concerning spiritual practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "instruction, preceptual instruction."

Tib: gdams-ngag
guideline teachings

Honorific for guideline instructions. See: guideline instructions.

Tib: zhal-gdams
guru-devotion

See: relating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy manner

habit, karmic constant

See: karmic constant habit

hallmarks of the Dharma, four

See: four hallmarks of the Dharma

hallowed

Pure and worthy of the highest respect; sacred.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ultimate."

Tib: dam-pa
happening, no-longer

See: no-longer-happening

happening, not-yet

See: not-yet-happening

happening, passed

See: no-longer-happening

happening, present

See: present-happening

happiness

That feeling which, when it stops, we wish to meet with it again.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bliss, happiness, pleasure."

Tib: bde-ba
Skt: sukha
happiness, mental

See: mental happiness

hearer

See: shravaka

heart essence division

Another name for the quintessence teachings division of treasure texts, and for the texts contained in this division.

Tib: snying-thig
heart essence teachings

Teachings emphasizing the primal purity aspect of pure awareness.

Tib: snying-thig
heartwarming love

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one has a feeling of closeness and warmth toward anyone one meets.

Tib: yid-'ong byams-pa
heavenly musician

See: those who sustain themselves on fragrances

heightened awareness

See: advanced awareness

hidden mandala

See: secret mandala

hidden mantra

Synonymous with "mantra."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mantra; secret mantra."

Tib: gsang-sngags
Skt: guhyamantra
hidden offering

An offering of one's blissful awareness or of one's blissful awareness of voidness, visualized in the form of an offering goddess.

Tib: gsang-mchod
hidden path of sutra

The mahamudra teachings concealed in the Mahayana sutras and passed down in lineage from Maitripa to Marpa to Milarepa to Gampopa.

Tib: mdo'i gsang-lam
highly accomplished

Someone who has attained a spiritual goal.

highly realized being

See: arya

highly realized practitioner

See: arya

Hinayana

Literally, a "Modest Vehicle of Mind" -- levels and states of mind with a modest motivation - renunciation - and, with modest methods, lead to the modest goal of liberation. Some translators render the term as "Lesser Vehicle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Lesser Vehicle/Hīnayāna."

Tib: theg-dman
Skt: hinayana
hold, mental

See: mental hold

holding a deluded outlook as supreme

(1) According to Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards as supreme any one of the three deluded outlooks -- a deluded outlook of a transitory network, an extreme outlook, or a distorted outlook -- and the samsara-perpetuating aggregates based on which the deluded outlook is produced. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the disturbing attitude that regards the samsara-perpetuating aggregates, based on which any of the three above-mentioned deluded outlooks is produced, with the discordant attention that they are totally clean by nature or a source of true happiness.

Tib: lta-ba mchog-tu 'dzin-pa
holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme

The disturbing attitude that regards as purified, liberated, and definitely delivered some deluded morality, some deluded conduct, and the samsara-perpetuating aggregate factors that give rise to the deluded morality and conduct.


J. Hopkins' translation: "conception of ethics and modes of conduct as supreme."

Tib: tshul-khrims-dang brtul-zhugs mchog-tu 'dzin-pa
horizontal mental synthesis

A kind mental synthesis that extends over many instances of the same type of phenomenon, such as many tables.

Tib: thad-ka'i spyi
hostility

A subcategory of anger: anger directed primarily, although not exclusively, at limited beings. One of the three poisonous emotions and attitudes. See: anger.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hatred."

Tib: zhe-sdang
Skt: dvesha
householder

Someone who is neither a monk nor a nun.


J. Hopkins' translation: "worldly; mundane."

Tib: 'jig-rten-pa
how things are

Also called: thusness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "suchness."

Tib: de-nyid
identitylessness

See: lack of an impossible "soul"

identitylessness of all phenomena

See: lack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomena

identitylessness of a person

See: lack of an impossible soul of a person

ignorance

See: unawareness

illustrative accounts

Teachings of Buddha given with examples for ease of comprehension by the listener. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

Tib: rtogs-par brjod-pa
Skt: avadana
immeasurably magnificent palace

A palace visualized in tantra practice as part of the supporting mandala. Each architectural feature of the palace represents one or another realization gained along the tantra path, and inside the palace reside one or more Buddha-figures.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[measure-lacking-house]; inestimable mansion; fabulous mansion."

Tib: gzhal-yas khang
immediate causes

The causes that are very close in time to bringing about a result.

Tib: nye-ba'i rgyu
immediately preceding condition

The immediately preceding moment of awareness, which produces the appearance-making and cognizing (clarity and awareness) of the next moment of awareness as its result.

Tib: de-ma-thag rkyen
Skt: samanantarapratyaya
immovables, three

See: three immovables

Immutable Vajra Body

See: Immutable Vajra Corpus

Immutable Vajra Corpus

In some Kagyu mahamudra systems, synonymous with "Vajra Corpus" in the meaning of the unchanging nature of the other four Corpuses of a Buddha.

Tib: mi-'gyur rdo-rje'i sku
impermanence

See: nonstaticness

impermanent

See: nonstatic phenomenon

impermanent phenomenon

See: nonstatic phenomenon

imperturbability

The constructive mental factor of not wishing to cause harm in response to limited beings (sentient beings), one's own suffering, or situations entailing suffering that may arise from either of the two or which may simply be the situations in which the suffering occurs. Sometimes translated as "non-anger."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-hatred."

Tib: zhe-sdang med-pa
Skt: advesha
implicative negation phenomenon

An exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as "affirming negation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "affirming negative phenomenon."

Tib: ma-yin dgag
implicit apprehension

In the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object itself does not arise; only a cognitive appearance of the basis for imputation of the involved object arises. Compare: explicit apprehension.

Tib: shugs-la rtogs-pa
implicit suggested meaning

One of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the meaning that is dissimilar to the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It is the meaning suggested by the literal (explicit suggestive) meaning and to which one is led by that literal meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "definitive meaning."

Tib: nges-don
Skt: nitartha
implied object

See: conceptualized object

imply, conceptually

See: conceptually cling

impossible "soul," lack of

See: lack of an impossible "soul"

impossible "soul"

(1) With respect to the five aggregate factors of an individual being, something findable inside the aggregates that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. (2) With respect to all validly knowable phenomena, an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self."

Tib: bdag
Skt: atman
impossible "soul" of all phenomenon

An impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self of phenomena."

Tib: chos-kyi bdag
Skt: dharma-atman
impossible "soul" of all phenomenon, lack of

See: lack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomena

impossible "soul" of a person

Something totally nonexistent, findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable.

Tib: gang-zag-kyi bdag
Skt: pudgala-atman
impossible "soul" of a person, lack of

See: lack of an impossible soul of a person

impossible mode of existence

An invalid manner of establishing the existence something.

impulse, karmic

See: karma

impulse, mental

See: karma

impulses, affecting

See: link of affecting impulses

impure appearance

An appearance of something as a nonenlightened mind makes it appear, namely in only a mundane form and with true existence.

Tib: ma-dag-pa'i snang-ba
imputably knowable phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does rely on actual cognition of or by something else, specifically the object's basis for labeling.


J. Hopkins' translation: "imputed existence; imputed existent; imputedly existent."

Tib: btags-yod
imputation

See: mental labeling

impute

See: mental labeling

imputedly existent phenomenon

Equivalent to "imputably knowable phenomenon."

inattentive cognition

See: nondetermining cognition

inbetween existence

See: bardo

inbetween state

See: bardo

incorrect consideration

See: paying attention in a discordant manner

increase

Also translated as "stimulating others' good qualities"

indecisive cognition

See: indecisive wavering

indecisiveness

See: indecisive wavering

indecisive wavering

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that entertains two opinions about what is true – in other words, wavering between accepting or rejecting what is true. One of the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes. Sometimes translated as "doubt."

Tib: the-tshoms
indirect cognition

According to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object, which no longer exists. Compare: direct cognition.

Tib: shugs-la shes-pa
individual being

See: person

individual defining characteristic mark

Something findable on the side of an object that establishes the identity or features of that object and which serves as the basis for that object being labeled by the names, words, and concepts for it, as well as for its qualities.


J. Hopkins' translation: "own-character, specific character, specifically characterized phenomenon."

Tib: rang-gi mtshan-nyid
Skt: svalakshana
individualizing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that singles out an object and is aware of it as a unique, individual item. Also called: deep awareness of the individuality of things.

Tib: sor-rtog ye-shes
individually characterized object exclusions of something else

In reference to an existent phenomenon "this," negation phenomena such as "nothing other than this" and "not that." (1) According to Gelug, they are nonstatic phenomena implicitly apprehended when a valid conceptual or nonconceptual cognition explicitly apprehends its involved object as "this." (2) According to non-Gelug, a static fact about "this" that is validly knowable only conceptually, separately from valid cognition of "this."


J. Hopkins' translation: "other-eliminator that is a factual specifically characterized phenomenon."

Tib: don rang-mtshan-gyi gzhan-sel
inferential cognition

A valid conceptual way of cognizing an obscure object through reliance on a correct line of reasoning as its basis.


J. Hopkins' translation: "inference, inferential cognition."

Tib: rjes-dpag
Skt: anumana
influence, enlightening

See: enlightening influence

influencing nature

One of the threefold natures of pure awareness (rigpa), referring to the enlightening influence it has on others.


J. Hopkins' translation: "deed; activity; work; affair."

Tib: 'phrin-las
in focus

The appearance of something as being sharp and clear, not blurry.


J. Hopkins' translation: "instance; manifestation; predicate [misspelling of bsal ba?]{BJ}; clarifier; clear{D1}; clearly."

Tib: gsal-ba
inherent

The English word "inherent" means something inside an object that is there by means of the nature of that object, It is used in Buddhism to mean something inside an object, by nature of that object, which, by its own power, establishes that the object exists in general and exists specifically as "this" or "that."

inherent existence

See: existence established by self-nature


J. Hopkins' translation: "true establishment."

Tib: bden-grub
initiation

See: empowerment

innate

See: simultaneously arising

inner mandala

A world-system represented by parts of the human body and used as an object of offering.

Tib: nang-gi dkyil-'khor
inner offering

An offering made of the flesh of various animals and various bodily fluids and wastes, representing either the five tainted aggregates and five bodily elements or the ten energy-winds, and which are specially "elevated" and transformed into pure nectar.

Tib: nang-mchod
inseparable

Two facts about the same attribute of an object are inseparable if, when one is the case, so is the other. The two facts may inseparably both be the case either naturally or made to be so through the power of meditation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "undifferentiated; undivided."

Tib: dbyer-med
insight

A nontechnical term for an understanding of a deeper level of meaning of something that one did not understand so deeply before or not at all before.

inspiration

(1) A transformation that someone or something confers, literally by means of a "brightening," into a state of heightened power and ability resembling the position or status of the person or thing that confers it. (2) In the meaning of "elevation," transformation of one's body, speech, and mind, or offering substances, into pure aspects, done during a tantric ritual. Some translators render the term as "blessing."

Tib: byin-gyis rlabs
Skt: adhishthana
instinct

See: karmic constant habit

instructions, guideline

See: guideline instructions

instructions, personal

See: personal instructions

instructor, Dharma

See: Dharma instructor

intellect

The mental activity that gives rise to conceptual cognition -- most commonly, to verbal conceptual thought.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness."

Tib: blo
intellectually derived

Descriptive of meditation with verbal thoughts based on conceptual schemes.

Tib: blos-byas
intelligence

The ability to discriminate between what is correct and what is incorrect, and between what is helpful and what is harmful.


J. Hopkins' translation: "intelligence; intelligent."

Tib: blo-gros
intent

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved, but based on prior deliberation and thus a stronger mental factor than intention .

intention

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aspiration."

Tib: 'dun-pa
interpolation

The projection or superimposition, onto an object, of a quality or a conventional or ultimate identity that it doesn't have. For instance, to superimpose true existence onto the conventionally existent "me." Literally, the term means "sticking feathers on to something." Some translators render it as "exaggeration," but it is not the exaggeration of something present. Rather, it is the adding of something that is not there, as if it were present.


J. Hopkins' translation: "superimposition; exaggeration; reification; overestimation; that which superimposes/exaggerates/ reifies/overestimates."

Tib: sgro-'dogs
interpretable teaching

A passage in a sutra text that discusses any topic other than the most profound view of voidness, and which leads one on or points the way to the most profound view of voidness. Such passages require explanation, so that one does not confuse them as indicating the most profound view.


J. Hopkins' translation: "interpretable meaning{BJ 27.6}; interpretable object{N}; requiring interpretation; interpretable; meaning requiring interpretation."

Tib: drang-don
Skt: neyartha
invalid cognition

(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a cognition that is not fresh, or one that is fallacious, or one that is both not fresh and fallacious. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a fallacious cognition.

Tib: tshad-min
invalid phenomenon

A phenomenon that cannot be validly known now. It may be either an existent phenomenon (such as a no-longer happening or a not-yet-happening one) or a nonexistent phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "not not occur{BJ 20.7}; impossible."

Tib: mi-srid-pa
investigation

See: gross detection

involved bodhichitta

See: engaged bodhichitta

involved object

The main object with which a particular cognition involves itself or engages. Equivalent to the object existing as cognitively taklen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ob­ject of engage­ment."

Tib: 'jug-yul
isolates

See: conceptually isolated item

items conceptually isolated by categories

In Gelug, a synonym for a conceptually isolated item, namely one that distinguishes a specific phenomenon in terms of its conceptual identity.


J. Hopkins' translation: "general-isolate."

Tib: spyi-ldog
items conceptually isolated by themselves

In Gelug, a synonym for a conceptually isolated item, namely one that distinguishes a specific phenomenon in and of itself.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-isolate."

Tib: rang-ldog
jasmine flower drops

Drops of white bodhichitta; drops of subtle creative energy.


J. Hopkins' translation: "kunda; kunda [transliteration of Sanskrit word for jasmine]; jasmine."

Tib: kun-da
Skt: kunda
jealousy

A disturbing emotion that focuses on other peoples' accomplishments – such as their good qualities, possessions, or success – and is the inability to bear their accomplishments, due to excessive attachment to one's own gain or to the respect one receives. Also translated as "envy."

Tib: phrag-dog
Skt: irshya
jenang

See: subsequent permission

Jnana-dharmakaya

See: deep awareness Dharmakaya

jnanamudra

See: sealing partner for deep awareness

joined inseparability

The relationship between two items that do not naturally occur simultaneously and inseparably, but are made to do so through the power of meditation. Once the attainments of both are joined, then whenever one is the case or is occurring, so is the other.

Tib: sbyor-bcas dbyer-med
joined pair

A pair of items, joined inseparably, in which the initial attainment of one of the items occurs before the initial attainment of the other.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[two-connect]; noun: unification; union verb: unify; unite."

Tib: zung-'brel
joy

See: joyful awareness

joyful perseverance

(1) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to have zestful vigor for being constructive, without becoming lazy. With this mental factors, one takes joy in being constructive. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Theravada, see: "perseverance."


J. Hopkins' translation: "effort."

Tib: brtson-'grus
Skt: virya
joyful perseverance, armor-like

See: armor-like joyful perseverance

Kadam

One of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from Atisha's visit to Tibet. After its branches were merged and reformed, it continued as the Gelug tradition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[word-advice]; the Ga-dam school [name of lineage traced to Atiza]; name of mansion; advice; instruction; counsel; preceptual instruction; advisory speech; exhortation."

Tib: bKa'-gdams
Kadampa

A follower of the Kadam tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ga-dam-ba [a Tibetan order, or person of that order]."

Tib: bKa'-gdams-pa
Kadampa Geshe

A spiritual master and friend from the Kadam tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, especially one who is an extremely humble, down-to-earth master of attitude-training.

Tib: bKa'-gdams-pa dge-bshes
Kagyu

One of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. It has two branches, Shangpa Kagyu deriving from Kyungpo Neljor and Dagpo Kagyu deriving from the line Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Ka-gyu."

Tib: bKa'-brgyud
Kagyupa

A follower of one of the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

Tib: bKa'-brgyud-pa
Kagyur

See: Kangyur

Kalachakra tantra root downfall

A transgression of one of the version of the root tantric vows that is specific to the practice of Kalachakra.

Kama

The god of desire in Hindu mythology.

Tib: 'dod-pa'i lha
Kangyur

The collection of the Tibetan translations of the enlightening words of the Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Translated Word of Buddha."

Tib: bKa'-'gyur
Kanjur

See: Kangyur

Kargyu

See: Kagyu

karma

(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, equivalent to a subcategory of the mental factor (subsidiary awareness), an urge. It is the mental factor that brings the mind in the direction of a specific physical, verbal, or mental action. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, with respect to mental karmic actions, it is the mental factor of the urge that brings the mind in the direction of that action. With respect to physical or verbal karmic actions, it is (a) the revealing form of the physical impulse of the physical action or the sound of the words of the verbal action, plus (b) the nonrevealing form of the subtle invisible "vibration" of the action, which continues during and after the action. Some translators render the term "karma" as "action." (3) A general term used loosely for behavioral cause and effect. Also called: karmic impulse.


J. Hopkins' translation: "action."

Tib: las
Skt: karma
Karma Kagyu

One of the four major Dagpo Kagyu traditions of Tibetan Buddhsim deriving from direct disciples of Gampopa, in this case the First Karmapa.

Tib: Kar-ma bka'-brgyud
karmic action

A physical, verbal, or mental action brought on by and sustained by a karmic impulse.

karmic aftermath

A general, nontechnical term for everything left over on someone's mental continuum as a consequence of having committed a karmic action. It includes karmic potentials, a network of karmic force, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits. According to the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika tenet systems, also included, for physical and verbal actions, is a second phase of subtle karmic energy.

karmic constant habit

A type of karmic aftermath, imputable on one's mental continuum as an unspecified (ethically neutral) noncongruent affecting variable after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result every moment until a true stopping of it has been achieved. Some translators render it as "habit" or "instinct."


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic energy

A general term for both positive and negative karmic energy. A constructive or destructive phenomenon that is the first phase of the karmic force of a karmic action.(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it is equivalent to the karmic action itself, from the point of view of what will ripen into a result intermittently. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika systems, this is the case only regarding mental karmic actions. With regard to physical and verbal karmic actions, it is equivalent to the karma of the action -- both its revealing and nonrevealing forms.

karmic force

A general term for both positive and negative karmic force -- the type of karmic aftermath that is either a constructive or destructive phenomenon and which will ripen into a result intermittently. (1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it has two phases (a) the karmic energy, referring to the karmic action itself, and (b) the karmic potential, which is the karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency (karmic seed). (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika system, this is the case only regarding mental karmic actions. With regard to physical and verbal karmic actions, the karma of the action -- both its revealing and nonrevealing forms, as well as the karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency.

karmic force, negative

See: negative karmic force

karmic force, positive

See: positive karmic force

karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency

A synonym for "karmic potential."

Tib: sa-bon-gyi ngo-bor gyur-ba
karmic habit

A synonym for "karmic latency."


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic impulse

See: karma

karmic impulse for further existence

A karmic impulse that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling the aftermath to ripen into a next rebirth. Abbreviated as "further existence."

Tib: yang-srid sgrub-pa'i las
karmic latency

A general term for all karmic aftermath -- namely, karmic potentials, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits.


J. Hopkins' translation: "predisposing latency/predisposition."

Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic legacy

A general term for all karmic aftermath that ripen into a result intermittently -- namely, karmic potentials and karmic tendencies.


J. Hopkins' translation: "seed."

Tib: sa-bon
Skt: bija
karmic potential

A general term for either positive or negative karmic potential. The phase of a karmic force that is a type of either constructive or destructive karmic aftermath, imputable as a noncongruent affecting variable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action and which ripens into a result intermittently. (1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it follows immediately after the karmic action ceases. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika systems, this is the case only with mental karmic actions. In the case of physical and verbal karmic actions, it is the phase of karmic force that follows immediately after the nonrevealing form of the action ceases.

karmic tendency

A type of karmic aftermath that is ethically neutral (unspecified as being either constructive or destructive), which is imputable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result only intermittently. Literally, a "karmic seed."


J. Hopkins' translation: "seed."

Tib: sa-bon
Skt: bija
kaya

See: Corpus of a Buddha

key points

The most important main points of a topic.

Tib: gnad
kind mental synthesis

The type of phenomenon that a specific individual item is an instance of, such as "a table" imputed on a specific instance of something having legs and a flat surface. This is equivalent to the conventional identity of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "type generality; type-generality."

Tib: rigs-spyi
kindness

A beneficial action that is of help to others.


J. Hopkins' translation: "kindness; grace."

Tib: drin
kindness, remembering

See: remembering kindness

kindness, repaying

See: repaying kindness

kind synthesis

See: kind mental synthesis

kind universal

See: kind mental synthesis

klesha

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

knowing, seven ways of

See: seven ways of knowing

label

A name applied to the knowable objects that the name signifies – whether or not those objects are validly knowable. Compare: name.


J. Hopkins' translation: "terminology; term."

Tib: brda
label, mental

See: label

labeling

See: mental labeling

labeling, mental

See: mental labeling

labored

A state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated by working oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.

Tib: rtsol-bcas
lack of a hope

The voidness or total lack of truly existent results of any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any truly existent results that one could hope for from a phenomenon.


J. Hopkins' translation: "wishlessness{N}."

Tib: smon-pa med-pa
lack of an action’s affecting variables

The voidness or total lack of true existence of the three affecting variables (three circles) involved with any action: an act to be done, an agent and an action that occurs.

Tib: mngon-par ‘du-byed med-pa
lack of an impossible "soul"

(1) With respect to the five aggregate factors of an individual being, the total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the aggregates that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. (2) With respect to all validly knowable phenomena, the total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness" or "identitylessness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "selflessness."

Tib: bdag-med
Skt: anatman
lack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomena

The total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness of all phenomena" or "identitylessness of all phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "selflessness of phenomena."

Tib: chos-kyi bdag-med
Skt: dharma-anatman
lack of an impossible soul of a person

The total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. Often translated by others as "selflessness of a person" or "identitylessness of a person."

Tib: gang-zag-kyi bdag-med
Skt: pudgala-anatman
lack of a sign

The voidness or total lack of truly existent causes for any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any sign of truly existent causes from which a phenomenon arose.


J. Hopkins' translation: "signlessness."

Tib: mtshan-ma med-pa
lack of naivety

The discriminating awareness that is aware of the individual details concerning behavioral cause and effect or concerning reality, and which acts as the opponent for naivety about them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-bewilderment; non-ignorance."

Tib: gti-mug med-pa
Skt: amoha
lack of true identity

See: lack of an impossible "soul"

lamrim

See: lam-rim

lam-rim

Graded path; graded stages of the path; graded stage of motivation; graded stages of pathway minds. A course of training in the Mahayana sutra teachings through which one makes progress by developing graded stages of motivation, which act as pathway minds leading to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stages of the path."

Tib: lam-rim
latency

See: karmic latency

latency, karmic

See: karmic latency

leap-ahead

The practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "leaps ahead" from the attainment of break-through, and during which effulgent rigpa gives rises to and cognizes itself as a rainbow body. During this stage, effulgent rigpa becomes increasingly more prominent, while essence rigpa is also prominently maintained. This stage is equivalent to an accustoming pathway of mind (path of meditation).


J. Hopkins' translation: "Leap-over."

Tib: thod-rgal
leap-ahead stage

See: leap-ahead

legacy

See: karmic legacy

legacy, karmic

See: karmic legacy

Lesser Vehicle

See: Hinayana

level, basis

See: basis level

level, pathway

See: pathway level

level, resultant

The level of a fully enlightened Buddha, attained as the result of Mahayana practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect."

Tib: 'bras-bu
libation, golden

See: golden libation

liberated being

See: arhat

liberates itself in its own place

See: automatically releases itself in its own place

liberation

The state of an arhat; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of true suffering and the true origins of suffering, and thus a true stopping of samsara; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of the emotional obscurations.

Tib: thar-pa
Skt: moksha
light diffusion

also translated as: increase, red appearance

Tib: mched
light-diffusion

One of the three subtle appearance-making minds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "increase."

Tib: mched-pa
limited awareness

See: sem

limited being

A being still having limited awareness. Any being other than a Buddha. Often rendered as "sentient being."


J. Hopkins' translation: "sentient being."

Tib: sems-can
Skt: sattva
lineage, distant

See: distant lineage

lineage, near

See: near lineage

link of affecting impulses

The second of the twelve links of dependent arising. A karmic impulse that will affect future lives; synonymous with "throwing karma." Some translators render the term as the "link of karmic formations."

Tib: 'du-byed-kyi yan-lag
Skt: samskara-anga
link of aging and dying

The twelfth of the twelve links of dependent arsing. In a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.

Tib: rga-shi'i yan-lag
Skt: jara-marana-anga
link of an obtainer

The ninth link in the twelve links of dependent arising. The set of four obtainer disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes, any one of which, together with craving, activates throwing karma at the time of death and thus brings about the "obtaining" of a future samsaric rebirth. For the list of the four, see: obtainer. Most other translators render the term as "link of grasping."

Tib: nyer-len-gyi yan-lag
Skt: upadana-anga
link of becoming

See: link of further existence

link of conception

The eleventh of the twelve links of dependent arising, equivalent to the first moment of the link of nameable mental faculties with or without gross form. The moment when the consciousness of a bardo being enters its next rebirth. In the case of rebirth as a human or an animal, the moment in which it enters the sperm and egg of its next parents.

Tib: skye-ba'i yan-lag
Skt: jaty-anga
link of contacting awareness

The sixth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of contacting awareness during the period of time in the development of a foetus when the distinguishing aggregate and such other affecting variables as contacting awareness are functioning, but the feeling aggregate is not yet functioning. During this period, one experiences contacting awareness of objects as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, but does not feel happy, unhappy, or neutral in response to this.

Tib: reg-pa'i yan-lag
Skt: sparsha-anga
link of craving

The eighth of the twelve links of dependent arising, one of the mental factors that activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma at the time of death. The three types of craving that occur at the time of death: (1) craving in relation to what is desirable, (2) craving because of fear, (3) craving in relation to further existence.

Tib: sred-pa'i yan-lag
Skt: trshna-anga
link of feeling a level of happiness

The seventh of the twelve links of dependent arising. The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling a level of happiness starting at the time in the development of a foetus, and continuing for the rest of that lifetime, during which the person experiences happiness in response to pleasant contacting awareness, unhappiness in response to unpleasant contacting awareness, and a neutral feeling in response to neutral contacting awareness.

Tib: tshor-ba'i yan-lag
Skt: vedana-anga
link of further existence

The tenth of the twelve links of dependent arising. A karmic impulse, brought on by craving and an obtainer disturbing emotion or attitude, that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling that throwing karma to ripen into the bardo existence, conception existence, predeath existence, and death existence of a next rebirth.

Tib: srid-pa'i yan-lag
Skt: bhava-anga
link of grasping

See: link of an obtainer

link of loaded consciousness

The third of the twelve links of dependent arising. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma, both during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. and during the future lifetime produced by that throwing karma.

Tib: rnam-shes-kyi yan-lag
Skt: vijnana-anga
link of loaded consciousness at the time of the cause

The first phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. The first part of the third link of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness.

Tib: rgyu-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lag
link of loaded consciousness at the time of the result

The second phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the future lifetime produced as a result of that throwing karma.

Tib: 'bras-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lag
link of nameable mental faculties with or without gross form

The fourth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The four mental aggregates -- consciousness, feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, and other affecting variables -- some of which are merely potentials -- together with the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena during a rebirth on the plane of sensory desires or the plane of ethereal forms, or without this aggregate during a rebirth on the plane of formless beings, during the period of time in the development of a foetus from the moment of conception up until the moment just before the cognitive faculties of seeing, hearing, and so on are differentiated.

Tib: ming-dang gzugs-kyi yan-lag
Skt: namarupa-anga
link of stimulators of cognition

The fifth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The stimulators of cognition during the period of time in the development of a fetus from when the six different stimulators of cognition are differentiated up until but just before the aggregate of distinguishing is differentiated.

Tib: skye-mched-kyi yan-lag
Skt: ayatana-anga
link of unawareness

The first of the twelve links of dependent arising. Both doctrinally based and automatically arising forms of not knowing how persons exist. Some translators render the term as the "link of ignorance."

Tib: ma-rig-pa'i yan-lag
Skt: avidya-anga
listener

See: shravaka

listening

At the time when the Buddhist teachings were only available in oral form, hearing the recitation of the teachings. Nowadays, also reading the teachings. By means of listening to the teachings, one learns about them.


J. Hopkins' translation: "hearing."

Tib: thos-pa
Skt: shruta
loaded consciousness

See: link of loaded consciousness

loaded consciousness, link of

See: link of loaded consciousness

loaded consciousness at the time of the cause, link of

See: link of loaded consciousness at the time of the cause

loaded consciousness at the time of the result, link of

See: link of loaded consciousness at the time of the result

lojong

See: attitude-training


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-training."

Tib: blo-sbyong
longdey

See: open space division

Tib: klong-sde
longing desire

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one does not possess and wishes to obtain it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "desire."

Tib: 'dod-chags
Skt: raga
love

(1) The wish for someone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the ninth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude to work to bring about the welfare and happiness of others, even when doing so requires self-sacrifice.

Tib: byams-pa
Skt: maitri
love, caring

See: love

love, cherishing concerned

See: cherishing concerned love

love, great

See: great love

love, heartwarming

See: heartwarming love

loving-kindness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one not only wishes others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one also acts towards others in a helpful manner.


J. Hopkins' translation: "noun: mercy; love; kindness verb: feel mercy; pity; love."

Tib: brtse-ba
lucidity

A quality of a well-concentrated mind with which the mind remains fresh in each moment.

Tib: dvangs
Madhyamaka

A Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert the true existence of anything. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "center; middle; middle way{N}; MAdhyamika [Proponent of the Middle Way]; Middle Way School."

Tib: dbu-ma
Skt: madhyamaka
Madhyamika

A follower of the Madhyamaka school of Indian Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Middle Way School, Mādhyamika."

Tib: dbu-ma-pa
mahamudra

Literally, "the great seal," a Mahayana meditation practice that focuses on the nature of the mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "great seal."

Tib: phyag-rgya chen-po
Skt: mahamudra
mahamudra, essence

See: essence mahamudra

mahamudra, mantra

See: mantra mahamudra

mahamudra, pathway

See: pathway mahamudra

mahamudra, sutra

See: sutra mahamudra

Mahayana

Literally, a "Vast Vehicle of Mind" - levels or states of mind that, with a vast motivation of bodhichitta, employ vast methods for reach the vast goal of enlightenment. Some translators render the term as "Greater Vehicle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Great Vehicle/Mahāyāna."

Tib: theg-chen
Skt: mahayana
Mahayana master

A spiritual mentor in whose presence disciples take bodhisattva vows. In a broader sense, a spiritual mentor whose teachings on compassion and bodhichitta lead disciples to develop aspiring and engaged bodhichittas, and then to take bodhisattva vows.

mahayoga

Within the Nyingma classification scheme of nine vehicles of mind, the class of tantra leading to dzogchen practice but with the main emphasis and detail on generation stage practice.

Tib: ma-ha yo-ga
making arise

The mental activity of appearance-making, which causes a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) to occur as an object of cognition in a moment of a mental continuum. Also translated as: "giving rise to."

mandala

In general, a round symbol used to represent a meaning. Most often used to represent a world system.

Tib: dkyil- 'khor
Skt: mandala
mandala, body

See: body mandala

mandala, cloth

See: cloth mandala

mandala, inner

See: inner mandala

mandala, outer

See: outer mandala

mandala, powdered sand

See: powdered sand mandala

mandala, speech

See: speech mandala

mandala, supported

See: supported mandala

mandala, supporting

See: supporting mandala

mandala, three-dimensional

See: three-dimensional mandala

manifest cognition

A cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, both to the person and to the consciousness of the manifest cognition. Both the person and the manifest consciousness cognitively take it _ both cognize or "know" it. See also: subliminal cognition.

Tib: shes-pa mngon-gyur-ba
man-made result

A result that arises as the direct result of the effort of a limited being, but which does not ripen from karma.


J. Hopkins' translation: "personally made effect."

Tib: skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
Skt: purushakaraphalam
man-made result that develops

See: man-made result that is produced

man-made result that is an attainment

The reaching of a goal as the result of someone's effort, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.

Tib: thob-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
man-made result that is produced

Something material, such as a vase, a bruise, or a profit, that arises from someone's effort or actions, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.

Tib: bskyed-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
mantra

Sets of syllables and, often, additional Sanskrit words and phrases, all of which represent enlightening speech and which, when repeated, protect the mind from destructive states. While repeating the mantras of a Buddha-figure, one imagines having the abilities to communicate perfectly to everyone the complete means for eliminating suffering and reaching enlightenment. Mantras shape the breath, and consequently the subtle energy-winds, enabling one to bring the winds under control for use in meditation practice.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spell; mantra; general word for tantra."

Tib: sngags
Skt: mantra
mantra-gathering

A tantric ritual for giving disciples confidence in the accuracy of a mantra, in which the vowels and consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet are written with colored powder in a grid on the surface of a metal mirror and the tantric master reads out, one by one, the grid location of the consonant and vowel for each syllable of the main mantra. After each specification of the consonant and vowel of a syllable, an assistant takes some colored powder from the mirror and uses it to write the syllable on the surface of another metal mirror.

Tib: sngags-btus
mantra mahamudra

Meditations on the nature of the mind with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.

Tib: sngags-kyi phyag-chen
Master Debate Partner

The title held by a highly educated attendant of an incarnate lama (tulku) that attends all the lessons that the lama receives and afterwards debates with the lama to ensure that he or she has understood the lesson correctly. In the case of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, there are seven master debate partners, one from each of the colleges of Drepung, Sera, and Ganden Monasteries. Sometimes also translated as "Assistant Tutor."

Tib: mtshan-zhabs
material cause

See: obtaining cause

me, solid

See: solid "me"

meaning, explicit suggestive

See: explicit suggestive meaning

meaning, implicit suggested

See: implicit suggested meaning

meaning/object category

The conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refers. These items are also what the audio category signifies (means).


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

Tib: don-spyi
meaning category

The conceptual category into which fit all significances (meanings) of an audio category.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

Tib: don-spyi
meaning universal

See: meaning category

means, appropriate

See: appropriate means

meditation

The repeated practice of generating and focusing on a beneficial state of mind in order to build it up as a habit.


J. Hopkins' translation: "1. meditate; meditation; cultivate; cultivation; 2. analytical meditation."

Tib: sgom
Skt: bhavana
meditation, discerning

See: discerning meditation

meditation, stabilizing

See: stabilizing meditation

meditation trainer

A teacher who instructs one in the mechanics of meditation, such as the correct posture.

meditative equipoise

See: total absorption

melodic verses

One of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Verses that Buddha uttered during the course of and at the conclusion of his sutras. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of interpretable meaning.

Tib: dbyangs-kyis bsnyad-pa
Skt: geya
menngag-dey

See: quintessence teachings division

mental abiding

The aspect of a cognition that describes the degree to which attention remains on the focal object. Also translated as "mental placement," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mental fixation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "factor of stability."

Tib: gnas-cha
mental aspect

A nonstatic mental hologram, asserted by all Indian Buddhist tenet systems other than Vaibhashika, that is a likeness of an object of cognition, and which both conceptual and nonconceptual mental activity produces in order to cognize the object; the "mental shape" of the appearing object of a cognition. (1) According to Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika, they are fully transparent so that through them, one directly cognizes external objects. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are opaque and thus allow only indirect cognition of external objects.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aspect, subjective aspect, representation."

Tib: rnam-pa
Skt: akara
mental body

The type of body that arhats in pure lands have. See: forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind.

Tib: yid-lus
mental consciousness

A primary consciousness that can take any existent phenomenon as its object and which relies on merely the previous moment of cognition as its dominating condition and not on any physical sensors.

Tib: yid-kyi rnam-shes
Skt: manovijnana
mental constancy

See: mental stability

mental construct

See: mental fabrication

mental continuum

The stream of continuity of mental activity (mind, awareness) of an individual being, which has no beginning, which continues even into Buddhahood, and, according to Mahayana, has no end. According to the Hinayana tenets, it comes to an end when an arhat or Buddha dies at the end of the lifetime in which the person attains liberation or enlightenment. Also called a "mind-stream."

Tib: sems-rgyud
Skt: santana
mental derivative

(A) In Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, a fully transparent appearing object, which is a mental aspect, similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity, through which that external entity is directly cognized also as an appearing object of the cognition. (2) In conceptual cognition, a static conceptual category that is mentally constructed from all individual objective entities that fit into it and thus is a semitransparent, static, metaphysical entity. It is the appearing object through which a fully transparent mental representation of a specific objective entity is cognized. (B) In non-Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, the opaque, directly cognized appearing object, which is a mental aspect similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity that the cognition indirectly cognizes as its focal object, but not as an additional appearing object. (2) In conceptual cognition, a conceptually isolated item, an opaque metaphysical entity that stands for the mentally synthesized commonsense object and category in the cognition and which is the appearing object of the cognition.

Tib: gzugs-bsnyan
Skt: pratibimba
mental dullness

A mental factor (subsidiary awareness) faulting the appearance-making of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Some translators render the term as "sinking."


J. Hopkins' translation: "laxity."

Tib: bying-ba
mental exclusions

See: mental exclusions of something else

mental exclusions of something else

Static implicative negation phenomena, including audio categories, meaning/object categories, and conceptually isolated items.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental exclusion; other-eliminator that is a mind."

Tib: blo'i gzhan-sel
mental fabrication

An appearance of truly established existence that mental activity in a conceptual cognition produces and projects due to the habits of grasping for truly established existence.


J. Hopkins' translation: "proliferation."

Tib: spros-pa
Skt: prapanca
mental factor

See: subsidiary awareness

mental faculties, nameable, with or without gross form

See: nameable mental faculties with or without gross form

mental fixation

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of maintaining mental placement on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Also called "mentally fixating" and "concentration," it accompanies all cognitions and varies in intensity from very weak to very strong. When perfected, it becomes "absorbed concentration."


J. Hopkins' translation: "stabilization, meditative stabilization."

Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
mental flightiness

See: flightiness of mind

mental glue

See: mental hold

mental hold

The aspect of a cognition that describes the level of strength of maintenance of attention on the focal object, without letting go of it. Also translated as "mental glue," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mindfulness and has two aspects: mental abiding and appearance-making.

Tib: 'dzin-cha
mental impulse

See: karma

mental label

See: label

mental labeling

To impute (project, superimpose), with conceptual cognition, an audio category (such as the word or name "table") or a meaning/object category (such as a "table" as an individual object) onto a basis (such as four legs and a flat board on top of them). Also translated as "imputation."

Tib: ming 'dogs-pa
mentally constructed synthesis

See: mental synthesis

mentally fixating

See: mental fixation

mental placement

See: mental abiding

mental quiescence

See: stilled and settled state of mind

mental reflection

See: mental derivative

mental representation

Something that appears in a conceptual cognition. (1) In Gelug, a static, fully transparent conceptually isolated item through which the cognition cognizes the external object that the hologram resembles; equivalent to a mental aspect. (2) In non-Gelug, a static, partially transparent mentally synthesized commonsense object and category through which the cognition cognizes a conceptually isolated item (a mental aspect) that stands for a commonsense object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
mental semblance

See: mental aspect

mental stability

Single-pointed placement of the mind on any constructive focal object, without any mental wandering -- a stable state of mind that is not only free of flightiness and dullness, but is also not distracted by any disturbing emotion of the plane of sensory desires. In Mahayana, when conjoined with bodhichitta, a far-reaching attitude. Some translators render the term as "concentration."


J. Hopkins' translation: "concentration."

Tib: bsam-gtan
Skt: dhyana
mental synthesis

The imputation of a conceptual category in which the bases for imputation are the individual sensibilia of a commonsense object, the parts of any of the sensibilia of a commonsense object, the moments in the continuum of a commonsense object, or items sharing a common defining characteristic. Synonymous with "conceptual category" and "category."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

Tib: spyi
mental synthesis, collection

See: collection mental synthesis

mental synthesis, kind

See: kind mental synthesis

mental synthesis, object

See: object mental synthesis

mental urge

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mental activity to face an object or to go in its direction. In general, it moves a mental continuum to cognitively take an object. It is equivalent to mental karma and, according to Sautrantika, Chittamatra, Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, and the non-Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka schools, it is equivalent to physical and verbal karmas as well.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attention/intention/intentionality/will."

Tib: sems-pa
Skt: cetana
mental wandering

A subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mind to lose concentration and to go on and on, uncontrollably from one object to another, due to any reason.


J. Hopkins' translation: "distraction."

Tib: rnam-g.yeng
mentor, spiritual

See: spiritual mentor

mere

Only this, without anything more.


J. Hopkins' translation: "only."

Tib: tsam
mere equanimity

An equal attitude toward everyone that is devoid of attachment to loved ones, repulsion from enemies, and indifference toward strangers, developed in common in both Hinayana and Mahayana.

Tib: btang-snyoms tsam
merely aspiring bodhichitta

See: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

The initial state of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own future enlightenment and merely has the intention to attain it and to benefit all beings by means of it. Also called: the mere state of aspiring bodhichitta.

Tib: smon-sems smon-pa-tsam
mere taking of safe direction

Synonymous with "causal taking of safe direction."

Tib: skyab-'gro tsam-pa-ba
merit

See: positive karmic force

metaphysical entities

In the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their being merely imputed by conceptual cognition and which are superficial (relative, conventional) true phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all static phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include all static phenomena other than voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug system, they are the appearing objects of only conceptual cognitions, although they are not the actual cognitive appearances in those cognitions. They may be validly cognized not only by valid conceptual cognition, but also implicitly by valid nonconceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid conceptual cognition. Also translated as "generally characterized phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "generally characterized phenomenon."

Tib: spyi-mtshan
Skt: samanyalakshana
metered verses

Two-to-six-lined verses composed by Buddha. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "verses; stanza."

Tib: tshigs-su bcad-pa
Skt: gatha
method of actualization

See: sadhana

mind

The cognitive activity of merely giving rise to an appearance or mental hologram of something knowable and cognitively engaging with it.

Tib: sems
Skt: chitta
mind, exceptionally perceptive state of

See: exceptionally perceptive state of mind

mind, noncontriving

See: noncontriving mind

mind, primordial

See: primordial mind

mind, serenely stilled and settled

See: stilled and settled state of mind

mind, stilled and settled state of

See: stilled and settled state of mind

mind, subtle

See: subtle mind

mind, subtlest

See: clear light awareness

mind division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from the Indian texts translated into Tibetan by Vairochana, that emphasizes pure awareness as the basis for all. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "semdey."

Tib: sems-sde
mindfulness

(1) The subsidiary awareness (mental factor), similar to a mental glue, that keeps a mental hold on a cognitive object, so that it is not lost. (2) The recollection of something, with which the mind keeps a mental hold on a mental hologram that resembles and represents something previously cognized. The term is often rendered as "memory" or "remembering," but has nothing to do with the recording or storage of mental information.

Tib: dran-pa
Skt: smrti
mind-itself

In the Kagyu and Nyingma systems, the deepest nature of the mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "intrinsic mind."

Tib: sems-nyid
mind-stream

See: mental continuum

mind-training

See: attitude-training

miraculous emanations

(1) In mahamudra and dzogchen texts, a descriptive synonym for the mental aspects (mental appearances, mental holograms) that are produced by the clarity aspect of the mind and which are directly cognized by conceptual or nonconceptual cognition. (2) A synonym for extraphysical emanations.

Tib: rnam-'phrul
Skt: vikurvana
miraculous powers

See: extraphysical emanations

mirror-like deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that takes in all the information about an object of cognition. Also called: deep awareness that is like a mirror.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mirror-like wisdom."

Tib: me-long lta-bu'i ye-shes
miserable phenomena

One of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.


J. Hopkins' translation: "miserable{N}; suffering."

Tib: sdug-bsngal-ba
Skt: du:kha (duhkha)
mixed with confusion

See: tainted

model clear light mind

A subtle level of consciousness that has a blissful conceptual cognition of voidness, which is attained when the subtle energy-winds are partly dissolved in the central energy-channel. Also translated as "approximating clear light mind."


J. Hopkins' translation: "metaphoric clear light."

Tib: dpe'i 'od-gsal
Modest Vehicle

See: Hinayana

Modest Vehicle of Mind

See: Hinayana

moldings

(on walls or ceilings)

moment

The smallest unit of time.


J. Hopkins' translation: "moment; instant; period."

Tib: skad-cig
Skt: kshana
monad

An undifferentiated, partless whole, either the size of an atom or the size of the universe, asserted by non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy as descriptive of the atman, the "soul" of a person.


J. Hopkins' translation: "one; same; oneness; unitary; single; singular phenomenon."

Tib: gcig
monastic community

See: Sangha

monastic sangha

See: Sangha

moral self-dignity

As defined by Asanga, the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how one's actions reflect on oneself.


J. Hopkins' translation: "shame."

Tib: ngo-tsha shes-pa
Skt: hri
moral self-dignity, no

See: no moral self-dignity

moral self-dignity, no sense of

See: no moral self-dignity

mother-awareness

The recognition of all beings as having at some time been one's mother. The first of the seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cognize as mother."

Tib: mar-shes
motivating aim

Synonymous with intention. See: intention.


J. Hopkins' translation: "motivation; ask; beg; collect; gather; raise; cause to rise; inspire; excite; arouse; urge on."

Tib: kun-slong
motivating aim, causal

See: causal motivating aim

motivating aim, contemporaneous

See: contemporaneous motivating aim

motivating mental framework

A state of mind that accompanies a karmic urge or impulse and which is a cluster of three mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): distinguishing an object on which to focus the action, the motivating aim of what one intends to do with or to that object, and a motivating emotion or attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thinking."

Tib: bsam-pa
motivation

When used in Western languages, a state of mind that entails two mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): a motivating aim and a motivating emotion. A motivating aim is the mental factor of an intention – the intention to reach a certain goal for a certain purpose. A motivating emotion is the mental factor of the positive or negative emotion, such as love and compassion, or jealousy and greed, which accompanies the intention and moves one to attain that goal.

mundane

Related to the mental continuum of a non-arya -- someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. Also translated as "perishably based" and "worldly."


J. Hopkins' translation: "worldly; mundane."

Tib: 'jig-rten-pa
musician, heavenly

See: those who sustain themselves on fragrances

mutually exclusive

Two sets are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common locus -- neither contains a member that also belongs to the other. Also translated as "contradictory."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mutually exclusive, contradictory."

Tib: 'gal-ba
naivety

A subcategory of unawareness. The unawareness of behavioral cause and effect or of reality that accompanies only destructive states of mind or behavior. One of the three poisonous emotions.


J. Hopkins' translation: "obscuration."

Tib: gti-mug
Skt: moha
name

A combination of sounds that are assigned a meaning.

Tib: ming
nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, link of

See: nameable mental faculties with or without gross form

name and form

See: link of nameable mental faculties with or without gross form

narratives, ancient

See: ancient narratives

narratives, ethical

See: ethical narratives

natal source

That which gives rise to something, such as a womb for a baby or an oven for a loaf of bread.


J. Hopkins' translation: "substantial entity."

Tib: rdzas
Skt: dravya
natural inseparability

The relationship between two items, in which when one is the case or is occurring, then automatically so is the other.

Tib: rang-bzhin dbyer-med
naturally abiding family-traits

(1) In the Chittamatra system, the seeds that, without beginning, are imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain one of the three purified states. (2) In the Madhyamaka systems, the voidnesses imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being.


J. Hopkins' translation: "natural lineage."

Tib: rang-bzhin gnas-rigs
naturally destructive uncommendable action

See: naturally uncommendable action

naturally inseparable aspects

See: natural inseparability

naturally uncommendable action

A negative action which, because it is destructive by nature, ripens into the experience of suffering by anyone who commits it.

Tib: rang-bzhin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-ba
natural nirvana

Equivalent to voidness (emptiness), the natural state of all phenomena being released from impossible ways of existing. Asserted only by the Mahayana tenet systems.

Tib: rang-bzhin-gyi mya-ngan 'das
natural stain

See: self-established stain

nature, actual

See: actual nature

nature, essential

See: essential nature

nature, functional

See: functional nature

Nature Body

See: Corpus of Essential Nature

near lineage

The lineage of a teaching that did not begin with Buddha himself, but began with an Indian or Tibetan master, usually through a pure vision.

Tib: nye-brgyud
negatingly known phenomenon

See: negation phenomenon

negation

See: negation phenomenon

negation phenomenon

An item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the exclusion of something else, in which an object to be negated is explicitly precluded by the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon. Also translated as: "negation," "nullification," "refutation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "negative/negative phenomenon."

Tib: dgag-pa
negation phenomenon, implicative

See: implicative negation phenomenon

negation phenomenon, nonimplicative

See: nonimplicative negation phenomenon

negative force

See: negative karmic force

negative karmic force

The type of karmic force associated with a destructive action and which ripens intermittently into unhappiness and the suffering of problems and pain. Also called: "negative karmic potential." Some translators render it as "sin." See: karmic force.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sin; moral wrong-doing; scorpion."

Tib: sdig-pa
Skt: papa
negative potential

See: negative karmic force

network of deep awareness

A constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the moments of conceptual or nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths or of voidness, on the mental continuum of a limited being, when followed by a bodhichitta dedication, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Dharmakaya of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of deep awareness." Some translators render the term as "collection of wisdom" or "collection of insight."


J. Hopkins' translation: "accumulation of wisdom; collection of wisdom."

Tib: ye-shes-kyi tshogs
Skt: jnanasambhara
network of positive force

A constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the positive force on the mental continuum of a limited being, when dedicated with bodhichitta, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Form Corpus of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of positive force." Some translators render the term as "collection of merit."


J. Hopkins' translation: "accumulation of merit; collection of merit."

Tib: bsod-nams-kyi tshogs
Skt: punyasambhara
neutral feeling

That feeling which, when it arises, one neither wants to be parted from it, nor, when it stops, one wishes to meet it again.


J. Hopkins' translation: "neutral feeling, equanimity."

Tib: btang-snyoms
Skt: upeksha
New Translation

An adjective referring to (1) the period of the second transmission of the Dharma from India to Tibet, (2) one of the traditions of Tibetan Buddhism founded during this period -- namely, Kagyu, Sakya, Kadam or Gelug, (3) a text translated during this period.

Tib: Sar-ma
New Transmission

See: New Translation

ngondro

See: preliminary practices

Nirmanakaya

See: Corpus of Emanations

nirvana

An extinguished state of release -- either an acquired one, in which all samsaric sufferings and their causes have been removed, or a naturally occurring one, in which all stains of impossible existence have always been removed. The Tibetan term means, literally, "a state beyond sorrow."


J. Hopkins' translation: "nirvANa; liberation; liberated."

Tib: mya-ngan-'das
Skt: nirvana
nirvana, acquired

See: acquired nirvana

nirvana, natural

See: natural nirvana

nirvana, nonabiding

See: nonabiding nirvana

nirvana without residue

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats, or a Buddha, attains immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. No longer having a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuum extinguishes, like a spent candle. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the state that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats attain immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. Although they no longer have a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuums now go on in a purified form. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state during total absorption on voidness, when there is no appearance-making of truly established existence. In reference to Buddhas, their Deep Awareness Dharmakayas.

Tib: lhag-med mya-ngan 'das
Skt: nirupadhishesha-nirvana
nirvana with residue

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that a shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, attains during his lifetime and which lasts only so long as the person is alive. This is so called because the person still has left a residue of tainted aggregates. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the same as asserted by the Hinayana systems, but in reference only to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state either during subsequent attainment (post-meditation) periods, when meditating on something other than voidness, or when not meditating at all. In reference to Buddhas, their Corpuses of Form.

Tib: lhag-bcas-kyi mya-ngan 'das
Skt: sopadhishesha-nirvana
noble one

See: arya

no-longer-happening

The past occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."


J. Hopkins' translation: "past; pass away; go beyond; pastness."

Tib: 'das-pa
nominal Buddha Gem

A painting or statue of a Buddha, representing a Buddha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to an actual Buddha Gem.

Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
nominal Dharma Gem

Printed Dharma texts, representing the Dharma that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Dharma Gem.

Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
nominal gem

Representations of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems, which themselves are not actual sources of safe direction, but which serve as a basis for showing respect to them.

Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i dkon-mchog
nominal Sangha Gem

Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic sangha (full or novice monks or nuns), representing the Sangha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Sangha Gem.

Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
nonabiding nirvana

(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting only so long as he is alive. In this state, a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems, including Gelug Prasangika, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting forever, in which a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue.

Tib: mi-gnas-pa'i mya-ngan 'das
Skt: apratisthita-nirvana
nonaffirming negation

See: nonimplicative negation phenomenon

non-anger

See: imperturbability

nonattachment

See: detachment

non-Buddhist extremist

A follower of a non-Buddhist Indian school of philosophy that asserts either an eternalist position of an unchanging static soul (atman) of a person or a nihilist position that denies the continuity of a person after death and/or the workings of karmic cause and effect.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Forder{N}."

Tib: mu-stegs-pa
Skt: tirthika
nonconceptuailty

A state of mind that cognizes an object without the filter of a concept, idea, category, or universal.

nonconceptual cognition

Cognition of an object, without that cognition being through the medium of a universal, a category, or a mental label.

Tib: rtog-med shes-pa
noncongruent

The relationship between nonstatic components of a cognition, in which two or more of them do not share five things in common. See: five congruent features. See also: noncongruent affecting variables.

Tib: mtshungs-ldan med-pa
noncongruent affecting variable

One of the three types of nonstatic phenomena -- those nonstatic phenomena that do not share five things in common with the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses of the cognition in which they occur, and which are neither forms of physical phenomena nor ways of being aware of something. Sometimes translated as "nonstatic abstractions." See: five congruent features.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-associated compositional factors."

Tib: ldan-min 'du-byed
nondenumerable ultimate phenomenon

Voidnesses that are validly cognized nonconceptually. They are "nondenumerable" in the sense that they cannot be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts, thus they are voidnesses that are "beyond words and beyond concepts."

Tib: rnam-grangs ma-yin-pa'I don-dam
nondetermining cognition

A cognition of an object, in which (a) the involved object is an objective entity, (b) a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the involved object arises, but (c) there is no ascertainment (certainty, decisiveness) of what the involved object is or that the cognition of it has occurred. Also called: inattentive cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness to which an object appears but is not ascertained."

Tib: snang-la ma-nges-pa
nondual

(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the absence (the voidness) of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which everything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-duality; non-dual; non-dualistic."

Tib: gnyis-med
nondual tantra

A division of anuttarayoga tantra, specified only in the non-Gelug schools, in which there is equal emphasis on practices for generating the physical bodies of a Buddha and practices for generating the mind of a Buddha.

Tib: gnyis-med rgyud
nonexistent phenomenon

See: nonexistents

nonexistents

Things that cannot be validly known.


J. Hopkins' translation: "nonexistent."

Tib: med-pa
nonfallacious

Not incorrect.


J. Hopkins' translation: "inevitable; [not-deceive]; incontrovertible; ineluctible; undeceived."

Tib: mi-bslu-ba
nonfunctional phenomenon

(1) An validly knowable, existent object that does not perform a function -- in other words, it does not produce a result -- namely, a static phenomenon. (2) A nonexistent object, such as an impossible way of existing.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-thing; that which is not a [functioning] thing; non-existent."

Tib: dngos-med
nonimplicative negation exclusions of something else

Synonymous with nonimplicative negation phenomena, and thus include voidnesses, spaces, and other absences.


J. Hopkins' translation: "other-eliminator that is a non-affirming negative."

Tib: med-dgag-gi gzhan-sel
nonimplicative negation phenomenon

An exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they do not leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as a "nonaffirming negation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-affirming negation, nonaffirming negative phenomenon."

Tib: med-dgag
nonobstructive unspecified phenomenon

A phenomenon that Buddha did not specify as being either constructive or destructive, and which does not hinder the attainment of liberation.

Tib: ma-bsgribs-pa'i lung ma-bstan
Skt: anivrta-avyakrta
nonrevealing form

A subtle form of physical phenomenon, asserted only by the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that is caused by a strong constructive or destructive motivation, but which does not show ("reveal") that motivation. Such a phenomenon is part of a mental continuum, but is not felt on that continuum; it does not degenerate from moment to moment; it can only be an object of mental cognition; and it must be either constructive or destructive. Examples are vows and one aspect of karmic impulses.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-revelatory form."

Tib: rnam-par rig-byed ma-yin-pa'i gzugs
Skt: avijnaptirupa
nonstatic

See: nonstatic phenomenon

nonstatic abstraction

See: noncongruent affecting variable

nonstaticness

The noncongruent affecting variable of changing from moment to moment, under the influence of causes and circumstances. Sometimes translated as "impermanence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "impermanence."

Tib: mi-rtag-pa
Skt: anitya
nonstatic phenomenon

Phenomena that are affected and supported by causes and circumstances and, consequently, change from moment to moment, and which produce effects. Their streams of continuity may have a beginning and an end, a beginning and no end, no beginning but an end, or no beginning and no end. Some translators render the term as "impermanent phenomena." They include forms of physical phenomena, ways of being aware of something, and noncongruent affecting variables, which are neither of the two.


J. Hopkins' translation: "impermanence."

Tib: mi-rtag-pa
Skt: anitya
nonupsetting

A way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with an arya's total absorption on voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-object; not disarranged; unconfused; non-thing."

Tib: zang-zing med-pa
nonvirtuous

See: destructive

normal awareness

In the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for clear light mind, which is "normal" in the sense that it is the primordial, natural state that has always been the case.

Tib: tha-mal-gyi shes-pa
no sense of ethical self-dignity

See: no moral self-dignity

no sense of moral self-dignity

See: no moral self-dignity


J. Hopkins' translation: "non-shame."

Tib: ngo-tsha med-pa
nothing-other-than

An implicative negation phenomenon that leaves behind in its wake what is left when one excludes or eliminates everything that is not a specific object.


J. Hopkins' translation: "opposite from not being; opposite from non-; non-non."

Tib: ma-yin-pa-las log-pa
not-yet-happening

The future occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon.

Tib: ma-'ong-pa
nullification

See: negation phenomenon

Nyingma

The Old Translation Period tradition of Tibetan Buddhism deriving from Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma."

Tib: rNying-ma
Nyingmapa

A follower of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma-ba (Old Translation) Order."

Tib: rNying-ma-pa
nyingtig

See: heart essence teachings

object, appearing

See: appearing object

object, conceptualized

See: conceptualized object

object, focal

See: focal object

object, involved

See: involved object

object, specific

See: specific object

object category

The conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refer.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

Tib: don-spyi
object clear light

Voidness as the object cognized by clear light awareness.

Tib: yul-gyi 'od-gsal
object exclusions

See: individually characterized object exclusions of something else

objective condition

See: focal condition

objective entities

In the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their not being merely imputed by conceptual cognition. They include all nonstatic phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all nonstatic phenomena and are deepest true phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include not only all nonstatic superficial true phenomena, but also the static deepest true phenomena of voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug tradition, the appearing objects of only valid nonconceptual cognitions, although they are what actually appears and can be validly cognized in both valid nonconceptual and conceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid nonconceptual cognition. Also translated as "individually characterized phenomena."


J. Hopkins' translation: "specifically characterized phenomenon."

Tib: rang-mtshan
Skt: svalakshana
object mental synthesis

(1) The conceptual category of a commonsense object, such as a table, used when thinking of, verbalizing, imagining (visualizing), or remembering a commonsense object. (2) A specific commonsense object as a conceptual category into which fit all moments of anyone's mental or sensory cognition of any amount of parts of any of its sensibilia.


J. Hopkins' translation: "generic image, meaning-generality, mental image."

Tib: don-spyi
objects taken and minds that take them

See: consciousness that takes objects and objects taken by consciousness

objects that indicate a safe direction

A general term for the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

Tib: skyabs-yul
object synthesis

See: object mental synthesis

object universal

See: object mental synthesis

obscuration

A fleeting stain that temporarily "covers" or accompanies mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing objects without suffering or other limitations. Some translators render the term as "obstacle."


J. Hopkins' translation: "obstruct; defile; obstruction; defilement."

Tib: sgrib
Skt: avarana
obscurations, emotional

See: emotional obscurations

obscurations, five

See: five obscurations

obscurations about all knowables

See: cognitive obscurations

obscurations of not knowing

Mental blocks that come from not knowing the Dharma in general or specifically not knowing about the emotional and cognitive obscurations. These mental blocks prevent the attainment of liberation and enlightenment.

Tib: mi-shes sgrib
obscurations preventing liberation

See: emotional obscurations

obscurations preventing omniscience

See: cognitive obscurations

obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes

See: emotional obscurations

obscure phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that cannot be apprehended through the force of personal experience, but can be apprehended through the force of a line of reasoning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "subliminal, hidden, hidden phenomenon."

Tib: lkog-gyur
obstacles, five

See: five obscurations

obstructive unspecified phenomenon

A phenomenon that Buddha did not specify as being either constructive or destructive, and which hinders the attainment of liberation.

Tib: bsgribs-pa'i lung ma-bstan
Skt: nivrta-avyakrta
obtainer

A set of four disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes: (1) obtainer desire, (2) an obtainer deluded outlook, (3) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (4) asserting one's identity, and which, when occurring at the time of death, constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.


J. Hopkins' translation: "grasping."

Tib: len-pa
Skt: upadana
obtainer attitude

A general term coined to refer to the last three "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) an obtainer deluded outlook, (2) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (3) asserting one's identity.

obtainer deluded outlook

A set of three disturbing deluded outlooks on life that constitute the second of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) a distorted outlook, (2) an extreme outlook, (3) holding a deluded outlook as supreme.

Tib: lta-ba nye-bar len-pa
obtainer desire

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of longing desire specifically for some desirable sensory object on the plane of sensory desires. See: longing desire. Equivalent to the obtainer emotion, it is the first of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.

Tib: 'dod-pa nye-bar len-pa
obtainer emotion

Equivalent to obtainer desire.

obtaining aggregates

Aggregate factors of a limited being that include the causes that will obtain for that being further samsaric rebirth.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appropriated aggregates."

Tib: nyer-len-gyi phung-po
obtaining cause

The cause from which a result is obtained and which transforms into the result. For example, a seed is the obtaining cause for a sprout, and a network of positive force (a collection of merit) is the obtaining cause for a Corpus of Forms (Form Body) of a Buddha. Some translators render the term as "material cause," but this term does not refer to the physical elements that make up something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "substantial cause."

Tib: nyer-len-gyi rgyu
Skt: upadanahetu
obvious phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that can be cognized by valid nonconceptual straightforward cognition. Also defined as a validly knowable phenomenon that be apprehended through the force of personal experience.


J. Hopkins' translation: "manifest phenomenon."

Tib: mngon-gyur
offering

Something presented, with respect and the intention to bring happiness and benefit, to someone else.


J. Hopkins' translation: "offering; offer; revere; honor; please through offering; worship."

Tib: mchod-pa
offering, hidden

See: hidden offering

offering, inner

See: inner offering

offering, outer

See: outer offerings

offering, secret

See: inner offering

offering of the very nature of reality

Offering of a nonconceptual cognition of voidness with a blissful awareness or of one's nonconceptual blissful cognition of voidness together with one's appearance as an illusory body.

Tib: de-kho-na-nyid mchod-pa
offering ritual

A tantra ceremony in which specially consecrated offerings are made to honor one's tantric master, inseparable from a Buddha-figure.


J. Hopkins' translation: "offering; offer; revere; honor; please through offering; worship."

Tib: mchod-pa
Skt: puja
offerings of absorbed concentration

Offerings made of various aspects of one's Dharma practice, visualized in the form of the outer offerings. Also called: offerings of samadhi.

Tib: ting-nge-'dzin-gyi mchod-pa
offerings of samadhi

See: offerings of absorbed concentration

offspring, spiritual

See: spiritual offspring

Old Translation

An adjective referring to (1) the period of the first transmission of the Dharma from India to Tibet, (2) the Nyingma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism founded during this period, (3) a text translated during this period.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Nying-ma."

Tib: rNying-ma
Old Transmission

See: Old Translation

omniscience

See: omniscient awareness

omniscient awareness

A Buddha's unceasing nonconceptual cognition simultaneously of all validly knowable phenomena and their voidnesses -- in other words, of the two truths about all knowable phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "omniscient."

Tib: kun-mkhyen
open space

See: cognitive open space

open space division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from the oral teachings of the translator Vairochana, that emphasizes the cognitive open space aspect of pure awareness as the basis for all. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "longdey."

Tib: klong-sde
oral transmission

A ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony insures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them need to understand their meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "scripture; oral transmission; passage; precept; injunction; spiritual instruction."

Tib: lung
ordinary being

A limited being who has not yet attained the state of an arya. In other words, someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths.


J. Hopkins' translation: "common being."

Tib: so-so'i skye-bo
ordinary commotion

The emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to the eight transitory things in life: praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly.

Tib: tha-mal 'du-'dzi
other-powered phenomena

See: dependent phenomenon

other-voidness

The natural, beginningless absence from the clear light level of mental activity of "other" levels of mental activity, which are all limited by fleeting stains.


J. Hopkins' translation: "emptiness-of-other; emptiness of the other."

Tib: gzhan-stong
outer mandala

A round, flat-bottomed bowl, held bottom side up, with three mounds of grain, placed one atop the other on its surface and contained within progressively smaller concentric metal rings, and crowned with an ornamental diadem. It is used as an offering to a spiritual master in request for a teaching, the conferring of a set of vows, and for the conferring of a tantric empowerment. It is also used as an offering of appreciation at the conclusion of these three occasions. It is also offered 100,000 times as a preliminary practice for building up positive force for success in the practice of tantra.

Tib: phyi'i dkyil-'khor
outer offerings

Offerings of specially consecrated external objects such as water, flowers, incense, and so on.

Tib: phyi'i mchod-pa
outlook

A way of regarding and understanding objects, for instance as "me" and "mine."


J. Hopkins' translation: "view."

Tib: lta-ba
outlook, extreme

See: extreme outlook

outlook of holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme

See: holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme

overlord condition

See: dominating condition

overlord result

See: dominating result

overriding result

See: dominating result

own face

The manner of existence and good qualities of pure awareness (rig-pa) as can be cognized by reflexive deep awareness.

Tib: rang-ngo
pair, joined

See: joined pair

pair, unified

See: unified pair

paramita

See: far-reaching attitude

parted from mental fabrication

See: state parted from mental fabrication

parted from taking to mind

See: state parted from taking to mind

parting

Also translated as: separation


J. Hopkins' translation: "separation; free from; lack; devoid."

Tib: bral-ba
Skt: visamyoga
partner, pure awareness

See: pure awareness partner

partner, sealing

See: sealing partner

passed-happening

See: no-longer-happening

past life accounts

Accounts of the difficult ascetic practices that Buddha performed in his previous lives while engaging in the conduct of the bodhisattvas. One of the twelve scriptural categories.


J. Hopkins' translation: "life stories; discourses on [Buddha's previous] births."

Tib: skyes-pa'i rabs
Skt: jataka
path

See: pathway mind

path of accumulation

See: building-up pathway mind

path of accustoming

See: accustoming pathway mind

path of application

See: applying pathway mind

path of building up

See: building-up pathway mind

path of meditation

See: accustoming pathway mind

path of no further training

See: pathway mind needing no further training

path of preparation

See: applying pathway mind

path of seeing

See: seeing pathway mind

pathway level

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of it in the context of someone engaged in the practices for attaining enlightenment. In some usages, the level of a Mahayana arya with a seeing or accustoming pathway mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "path."

Tib: lam
Skt: marga
pathway mind

A level or state of mind that acts or functions as a pathway toward liberation or enlightenment. Some translators render this term as "path," but it refers to mental states, not to a series of spiritual practices. Also called: pathway of mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "path."

Tib: lam
Skt: marga
pathway mind, accustoming

See: accustoming pathway mind

pathway mind, applying

See: applying pathway mind

pathway mind, building up

See: building-up pathway mind

pathway mind, seeing

See: seeing pathway mind

pathway mind, true

See: true pathway mind

pathway mind needing no further training

The level of mind of shravaka arhats, pratyekabuddha arhats, and Buddhas, with which they have attained their respective purified states (bodhi) of liberation or enlightenment, and which require no further training in order to attain that purified state. Other translators sometimes render this term as "path of no learning."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of no more learning."

Tib: mi-slob lam
Skt: ashaiksha-marga
pathway of mind

See: pathway mind

patience

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of not becoming angry at others' shortcomings, mistakes, or cruel deeds. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to be unperturbed by those who do harm and by suffering, so that one never becomes angry. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, patience becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "forbearance."

Tib: bzod-pa
Skt: kshanti
paying attention

See: attention

paying attention in a concordant manner

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object and considers it in a way that accords with its actuality. Also called "correct consideration."

Tib: tshul-bcas yid-byed
paying attention in a discordant manner

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object and considers it in a way that does not accord with its actuality, such as considering something nonstatic to be static. Also called "incorrect consideration."

Tib: tshul-min yid-byed
perception

A general, nontechnical term used for valid sensory cognition.

perfection

See: far-reaching attitude

perfection of wisdom

See: far-reaching discriminating awareness

Perfection Vehicle

See: Paramitayana

perishably based

See: mundane

perishing

The nonstatic, affected phenomenon of the ceasing of the present-happening of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "disintegrating; disintegration."

Tib: 'jig-pa
permanence

See: staticness

permanent

See: static phenomenon

permanent phenomena

See: static phenomenon

permission, subsequent

See: subsequent attainment

perseverance

(1) In Theravada, the mental factor to exert effort, constantly and courageously, in helping others and in being able to help. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Mahayana, see "joyful perseverance."


J. Hopkins' translation: "effort."

Tib: brtson-'grus
Skt: virya
perseverance, joyful

See: joyful perseverance

person

An individual being, including those from any of the six realms of samsaric existence, as well as arhats and Buddhas. A noncongruent affecting variable, synonymous with a conventional "me."

Tib: gang-zag
Skt: pudgala
personal instructions

Advice on how to practice meditation, emphasizing the quintessential points.

Tib: zhal-lung
pervasion

The intersection of two sets of phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "pervasion; entailment; fill; pervade; penetrate; cover over."

Tib: khyab-pa
pervasive

"x" is pervasive with "y" if, whenever "x" is the case, so is "y". Used in such formulations as "If "x" is the case, then it is pervasive that "y" is the case."


J. Hopkins' translation: "entail; pervade; fill; embrace; cover over."

Tib: khyab
phase

The first part of a process, especially one in meditation, which may last a variable length of time.


J. Hopkins' translation: "moment; instant; period."

Tib: skad-cig
phenomena, comprehensible

See: comprehensible phenomena

phenomena, comprehensible, three types of

See: three types of comprehensible phenomena

phenomena, validly knowable

See: validly knowable phenomena

phenomenon

A validly knowable object that holds its own individual self-nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Phenomenon, attribute/quality, religion/practice."

Tib: chos
Skt: dharma
phenomenon, affected

See: affected phenomenon

phenomenon, affirmation

See: affirmation phenomenon

phenomenon, apparent true

See: superficial true phenomenon

phenomenon, conventional true

See: superficial true phenomenon

phenomenon, deepest true

See: deepest true phenomenon

phenomenon, dependent

See: dependent phenomenon

phenomenon, extremely obscure

See: extremely obscure phenomenon

phenomenon, functional

See: functional phenomenon

phenomenon, generally characterized

See: metaphysical entities

phenomenon, imputedly existent

See: imputably knowable phenomenon

phenomenon, imputedly knowable

See: imputably knowable phenomenon

phenomenon, invalid

See: invalid phenomenon

phenomenon, negation

See: negation phenomenon

phenomenon, nonfunctional

See: nonfunctional phenomenon

phenomenon, obscure

See: obscure phenomenon

phenomenon, obvious

See: obvious phenomenon

phenomenon, other-powered

See: dependent phenomenon

phenomenon, relative true

See: superficial true phenomenon

phenomenon, self-sufficiently knowable

See: self-sufficiently knowable phenomenon

phenomenon, specifically characterized

See: objective entities

phenomenon, superficial true

See: superficial true phenomenon

phenomenon, thoroughly established

See: thoroughly established phenomena

phenomenon, totally conceptional

See: totally conceptional phenomena

phenomenon, ultimate true

See: deepest true phenomenon

phenomenon, unaffected

See: unaffected phenomenon

phenomenon, valid

See: valid phenomenon

phenomenon with a basis beyond perishing

See: supramundane

phowa

Also called: transference of consciousness.

Tib: pho-ba
physical cognitive sensors

Out of the six cognitive sensors, the five that are forms of physical phenomena -- namely, (1) the photosensitive cells of the eyes, (2) the sound-sensitive cells of the ears, (3) the smell-sensitive cells of the nose, (4) the taste-sensitive cells of the tongue, and (5) the physical sensation-sensitive cells of the body.

placement, mental

See: mental abiding

plane

See: three planes of samsaric existence


J. Hopkins' translation: "basic constituent/constituent."

Tib: khams
plane of ethereal forms

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for subtle forms of physical phenomena. Usually translated by others as "form realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Form Realm."

Tib: gzugs-khams
Skt: rupadhatu
plane of formless beings

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings lack any gross body. Usually translated by others as "formless realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Formless Realm."

Tib: gzugs-med khams
Skt: arupadhatu
plane of sensory desires

Samsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for sensory objects. Usually translated by others as "desire realm."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Desire Realm."

Tib: 'dod-khams
Skt: kamadhatu
planes of samsaric existence, three

See: three planes of samsaric existence

pledged aspiring bodhichitta

See: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta

pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta

The advanced level of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the bais of the Buddha-nature factors oon one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit all beings by means of it, and then pledges never to give up this bodhichitta aim until one reaches that enlightenment. Abbreviated as: pledged aspiring bodhichitta.

Tib: smon-sems dam-bca'-can
positive force

See: positive karmic force

positive karmic force

The type of karmic force associated with a constructive action and which ripens intermittently into transitory happiness. Some translators render it as "merit." See: karmic force.


J. Hopkins' translation: "merit."

Tib: bsod-nams
Skt: punya
positive potential

See: positive karmic force

post-meditation period

See: subsequent attainment

potential, karmic

See: karmic potential

powdered sand mandala

A two-dimensional representation, made of powdered colored minerals, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.

Tib: rdul-phran-gyi dkyil-'khor
powers, extraphysical

See: extraphysical emanations

powers, extrasensory

See: advanced awareness

practice, preliminary

See: preliminary practices

practitioner, highly realized

See: arya

prajnaparamita

See: far-reaching discriminating awareness

Prasangika

A subdivision of the Madhyamaka school within the Indian Buddhist tenet systems that uses absurd conclusions to bring about valid inferential cognition of something to be proven or established. Gelug adds to this definition that it also asserts that all phenomena lack existence established by an essential nature and even conventionally lack existence established by their individual defining characteristic marks.


J. Hopkins' translation: "PrAsaGgika; Consequentialist."

Tib: thal-'gyur-ba
Prasangika Madhyamaka

See: Prasangika

Tib: dbu-ma thal-'gyur-ba
pratimoksha vows

The vows of either a layman or laywoman, a novice or full monk, or a provisional, novice, or full nun. The ethical self-discipline of keeping them purely provides the basis for the individual being keeping them to attain liberation from samsara.

Tib: so-thar sdom-pa
Skt: pratimokshasamvara
pratyekabuddha

Literally, "self-realizers" or "self-evolvers" - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being). They live during dark ages when the teachings of a Buddha are no longer available. They do not study with Buddhist spiritual teachers, because there are none at such times, and they teach others only subtly, through gestures, since people are not receptive. Living either singly ("like a rhinoceros") or in small groups, they must rely on their instincts from previous lives to recall and master the Dharma. Some translators render the term as "solitary Buddhas."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Solitary Realizer."

Tib: rang-rgyal
Skt: pratyekabuddha
pratyekabuddha arhat

A pratyekabuddha that has attained liberation. See also: pratyekabuddha.

Tib: rang-rgyal dgra-bcom
Skt: pratyekabuddha arhat
preclude

To cut off, dismiss, or reject something. To logically cut off or eliminate the possibility that something is something else


J. Hopkins' translation: "cut; decided; eliminated; judged; condemned."

Tib: bcad-pa
preclude, explicitly

See: explicitly preclude

preclusion

The conceptual process through which sets and countersets are formulated. It implies previous apprehension of an object to be negated, in which the apprehension itself logically and automatically excludes the object to be negated from the set of either all validly knowable phenomena other than itself or all validly knowable phenomena in total. It is not a deliberate, conscious mental act.


J. Hopkins' translation: "cut; decided; eliminated; judged; condemned."

Tib: bcad-pa
predeath existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after conception until the moment immediately before death.


J. Hopkins' translation: "prior state [from the second moment until death; usually the longest of the four states]."

Tib: sngon-dus-kyi srid-pa
preliminaries

See: preliminary practices

preliminary practices

Practices, such as prostration, usually repeated 100,000 times, done as a method to build up positive force and cleanse negative force so as to have more success in tantra practice. Also called "ngondro."

Tib: sngon-'gro
presentations, epic

See: epic presentations

present-happening

The affirmation phenomenon of the occurrence of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "now; present; nowadays."

Tib: da-lta-ba
presumption

See: presumptive cognition

previously-having-perished

The past occurrence of something, equivalent to the no-longer-happening of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."


J. Hopkins' translation: "destroy; disintegrate; perish; disintegratedness."

Tib: zhig-pa
primally pure

See: primal purity

primally pure awareness

See: primal purity

primal purity

The essential nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which refers to its being pure of all stains, without a beginning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "essential purity."

Tib: ka-dag
primary consciousness

Within a cognition of an object, the awareness of merely the essential nature of the object that the cognition focuses on. Primary consciousness has the identity-nature of being an individualizing awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
primordial deepest alaya

In the dzogchen system, a synonym for basis rigpa. The source of all appearances of samsara and nirvana.

Tib: ye-don kun-gzhi
primordial mind

Awareness that, with no beginning, has been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. A synonym for "clear light mind."


J. Hopkins' translation: "fundamental mind."

Tib: gnyug-sems
primordial state

The state of having, with no beginning, been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. Descriptive of the clear light mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fundamental."

Tib: gnyug-ma
principal awareness

Within a cognition, an awareness that consists of the composite of a primary consciousness and its accompanying set of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The principal awareness is the way of being aware of the object of the cognition that is prominent and which characterizes the type of cognition that it is occurring -- for example, relative bodhichitta and the deep awareness of total absorption on voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "main mind."

Tib: gtso-sems
prohibited uncommendable action

Ethically neutral (unspecified) actions that Buddha prohibited for certain types of practitioners, for instance monks or nuns, as detrimental to their spiritual practice.

Tib: bcas-pa'i kha-na ma-tho-ba
property-possessor

A member of the set of phenomena possessing a certain property, such as voidness as its actual nature.


J. Hopkins' translation: "subject/ substrata."

Tib: chos-can
protector, Dharma

See: Dharma-protector

provisional source of safe direction

The aryas with incomplete sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.

Tib: gnas-skabs-kyi skyabs-gnas
puja

See: offering ritual

pure, primally

See: primal purity

pure appearance

An appearance of something as an enlightened mind makes it appear, namely in the form of a Buddha-figure or mandala and devoid of any of the four extremes of impossible existence.

Tib: dag-pa'i snang-ba
pure awareness

In the dozgchen system, the subtlest level of awareness, which is totally untainted by any of the fleeting stains of mental obscurations. It is devoid of all grosser levels of awareness and yet permeates all of them, and it spontaneously establishes pure appearances. Often left untranslated as "rigpa."


J. Hopkins' translation: "intrinsic awareness; knower."

Tib: rig-pa
pure wish

See: exceptional resolve

purified state

The state of a shravaka arhat, pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, in which the mental continuum of the person attaining this state has been purified of either the emotional obscurations or both the emotional and the cognitive obscurations.


J. Hopkins' translation: "[purified-realized]; enlightenment."

Tib: byang-chub
Skt: bodhi
purity, primal

See: primal purity

qualities, good

See: good qualities

quasi-divine beings

See: would-be divine

quintessence teachings

Teachings, either oral or written, that present the essential, most profound points of a more extensive topic.


J. Hopkins' translation: "quintessential instruction."

Tib: man-ngag
Skt: upadesha
quintessence teachings division

The division of treasure texts, deriving from texts buried by either Guru Rinpoche or Vimalamitra, that emphasizes pure awareness being primally pure. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan "menngag-dey." Equivalent to the heart essence division."

Tib: man-ngag sde
real

A nontechnical term for what actually exists.

reality

A nontechnical term for what actually exists.

reality, true

See: true reality

realization

A stable, correct understanding of some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, which brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it. Compare: "attainment".

Tib: rtogs-pa
realization, subsequent

See: subsequent attainment

realization and liberation, simultaneous

See: simultaneous realization and liberation

realize

To understand correctly, in a stable manner, some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has gained it.

realize voidness

To gain a stable, correct understanding of voidness, either conceptually or nonconceptually, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it.

Tib: stong-nyid rtogs-pa
realms of existence, six

See: six realms of existence

real-thing Dharma

A full presentation of the Dharma, in the traditional manner, in terms of beginningless uncontrollably recurring rebirth.

rebirth states, better

See: better rebirth states

rebirth states, three better

See: three better rebirth sates

rebirth states, three worse

See: three worse rebirth states

rebirth states, worse

See: worse rebirth states

recitation practice

In tantra, the meditation practice with which one recites a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings.

Tib: kha-'don
recognition

The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of distinguishing an object as being something specific, such as when studying the Dharma, oneself as being a sick person, one's spiritual teacher as being a doctor, and the Dharma as being medicine.


J. Hopkins' translation: "discrimination."

Tib: 'du-shes
Skt: samjna
recognitions, three

See: three recognitions

recognizable

See: identifiable

recurring existence

See: samsara

recurring samsara

See: samsara

referent aim, without a

See: without a referent aim

referent object

The validly knowable phenomena that the names and concepts for them, imputed on a basis for labeling, refer to.


J. Hopkins' translation: "designated phenomenon{N}; phenomenon imputed."

Tib: btags-chos
referent thing

The actual "thing" referred to by a name or concept, corresponding to the names or concepts for something, and which is findable, establishing its own existence by its own power, on the side of the referent object of the name or concept. In Gelug, according to Prasangika it is nonexistent and according to lower tenet systems it is existent.


J. Hopkins' translation: "designated object."

Tib: btags-don
reflection

See: mental derivative

reflection, mental

See: mental derivative

reflexive

Turned in on itself.

reflexive appearance

An appearance of a cognitive object that arises automatically from a person's clear light mind itself. Such an appearance may be either impure (with an appearance of truly established existence) or pure (without such an appearance).

Tib: rang-snang
reflexive awareness

(1) The cognitive faculty within a cognition, asserted in the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, that takes as its cognitive object the consciousness within the cognition that it is part of. It also cognizes the validity or invalidity of the cognition that it is part of, and accounts for the ability to recall the cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug schools, this cognitive faculty becomes reflexive deep awareness -- that part of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes the two truths of that nonconceptual cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-knowing."

Tib: rang-rig
reflexive deep awareness

(1) In Kagyu and Sakya, that aspect of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes its own two-truth nature. (2) In Nyingma, that aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that cognizes its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with self-arising deep awareness.

Tib: rang-rig ye-shes
refuge

See: safe direction

refuge, take

See: take safe direction

refuge preceptor

A spiritual mentor who has kept one of the sets of pratimoksha vows purely for a certain number of years and in whose presence spiritual seekers formally take refuge (put a safe direction in their lives), thus committing themselves to the Buddhist path.

refutation

See: negation phenomenon

regard

See: firm conviction

regret

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of not wishing to repeat doing something, either proper or improper, that one did or that someone else made one do.


J. Hopkins' translation: "contrition."

Tib: 'gyod-pa
relating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy manner

Entrusting oneself, through mind and actions, to a fully qualified spiritual mentor. Also called: relying on a spiritual mentor, entrusting oneself to a spiritual mentor, whole-hearted commitment to a spiritual mentor. Often translated as: guru-devotion.

Tib: bshes-gnyen bsten-pa
relative bodhichitta

See: conventional bodhichitta

relative true phenomenon

See: superficial true phenomenon

relative truth

See: superficial truth

release itself in its own place

See: automatically releases itself in its own place

reliance

See: something that supports something else

reliquary monument

See: stupa

remembering kindness

Remembering the kindness of motherly love, remembering all the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers. The second of the six part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.

Tib: drin-dran
renunciation

(1) The definite determination to be free of samsara and to gain liberation, and with which one is willing to give up true suffering and true causes. Also translated as "determination to be free." (2) In Theravada, the mental factor to give up all attachment to worldly possessions, social status, and even one's body. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thought definitely to leave cyclic existence."

Tib: nges-'byung
Skt: naishkramya
renunciation, short-lived all-excited

See: short-lived all-excited renunciation

repaying kindness

Appreciating the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers and wishing to benefit them in return. The third of the seven part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.

Tib: drin-gso
representation, mental

See: mental representation

repudiation

A conceptual denial of something that is true or is present.


J. Hopkins' translation: "deprecation; depreciation; denial; underestimation."

Tib: skur-'debs
resolution

One of the ten far-reaching attitudes in the Theravada tradition. An attitude of determination with which a bodhisattva never abandons what he or she needs to do in order to benefit others.

Tib: byin-rlabs
Skt: adhisthana
resolve, exceptional

See: exceptional resolve

respect

See: appreciation

respite

A temporary rest or a break from a state of no leisure for Dharma practice, such as the worst states of rebirth. Some translators render the term as a "freedom" or a "liberty."


J. Hopkins' translation: "leisure."

Tib: dal-ba
responsive awareness

See: responsiveness

responsiveness

The influencing nature of pure awareness (rigpa) - namely, that it responds to others effortlessly and spontaneously with compassionate communication. See: responsive awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "compassion."

Tib: thugs-rje
result, commanding

See: dominating result

result, comprehensive

See: dominating result

result, dominating

See: dominating result

result, man-made

See: man-made result

result, overlord

See: dominating result

result, overriding.

See: dominating result

result, ripened

See: ripened result

resultant level

In the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something, for instance Buddha-nature, in the state of a Buddha when it is fully purified.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect."

Tib: 'bras-bu
resultant links of what has been thrown

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the three and a half links of resultant loaded consciousness, nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, stimulators of cognition, and contacting awareness, which occur during the development of an embryo in the womb in the life that is thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.

Tib: 'phangs-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lag
resultant links of what is actualized

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the two links of conception and aging and dying in a future rebirth thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.

Tib: mngon-par grub-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lag
resultant taking of safe direction

A taking of safe direction (refuge) that takes as its sources of safe direction the Triple Gem that one will attain oneself in the future, based on actualizing one's own Buddha-nature. Synonymous with "special taking of safe direction."

Tib: 'bras-bu'i skyabs-'gro
result that corresponds to its cause

A result that in some way resembles its cause, either in the wish to repeat its causal action or in the experience of something happening back to one that resembles what one did.


J. Hopkins' translation: "causally concordant effect."

Tib: rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
Skt: nishyandaphalam
result that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of liking or wishing to do an action, in a particular moment, similar to what one has done in the past. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause in one's behavior" and "result that is similar to its cause in one's instinctive behavior."


J. Hopkins' translation: "functionally causally concordant effect."

Tib: byed-pa rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
result that corresponds to its cause in one's experience

The experience of a situation in which something similar to one's previous action happens back to oneself. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause on one's experience."


J. Hopkins' translation: "experientially causally concordant effect."

Tib: myong-ba rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
result that is a state of being parted

A static state that is attained by means of effort, but which is neither produced by nor ripens from that effort.


J. Hopkins' translation: "effect of separation."

Tib: bral-'bras
Skt: visamyogaphalam
result that is similar to its cause in one's experience

See: result that corresponds to its cause in one's experience

result that is similar to its cause on one's behavior

See: result that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior

result that is similar to its cause on one's instinctive behavior

See: result that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior

retreat, serviceability

See: serviceability retreat

revealing form

A form of physical phenomenon, asserted in the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that shows (reveals) the motivation behind it, and which may be a constructive, destructive or unspecified phenomenon. Examples are the shape of one's body when performing an action, the sound of the words when one speaks, the expression on someone's face, and so on. In general, such a phenomenon may be either one of the five sensory objects or one of the five sensory cognitive sensors.

Tib: rnam-par rig-byed-kyi gzugs
Skt: vijnaptirupa
revelatory accounts

One of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Buddha's revelations of what has happened in the past or prophesies of what will occur in the future. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of definitive meaning.


J. Hopkins' translation: "prophesy; prophesied{BJ 8.3}; taught in scripture; scriptural teaching."

Tib: lung-bstan-pa
Skt: vyakarana
riddance

A static state in which an emotional obscuration or a cognitive obscuration has been removed forever from a mental continuum. Equivalent to a true stopping (true cessation). Translated by others as "abandonment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "abandon; eliminate; give up; dispel; abandonment{N}."

Tib: spong-ba
Skt: hani
rigpa

See: pure awareness

rigpa, appearance-making basis rigpa

See: appearance-making basis rigpa

rigpa, basis

See: basis rigpa

rigpa, effulgent

See: effulgent rigpa

rigpa, essence

See: essence rigpa

rigpa of all-embracing spontaneous presence

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its resultant level as the Dharmakaya of a Buddha.

Tib: lhun-grub sbubs-kyi rig-pa
ripen

(1) A karmic cause developing or growing to the point at which it can bear fruit, which means produce its result. This is ripening in its definitional sense. (2) A karmic causal factor on a mental continuum exhausting and finishing its presence there as it produces its fruit.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ripen; mature; fructify; maturation; ripening; matured; ripened."

Tib: smin-pa
Skt: vipaka
ripened result

A nonobstructive unspecified item conjoined with the mental continuum of a limited being, such as the body, consciousness, and feelings of happiness and unhappiness, and which comes from a ripening cause that was also conjoined with his or her mental continuum.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fruitional effect."

Tib: rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-bu
Skt: vipakaphalam
ripening

The process whereby a karmic cause gives rise to its result. See: ripen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "ripen; mature; fructify; maturation; ripening; matured; ripened."

Tib: smin-pa
Skt: vipaka
ripening cause

A destructive or tainted constructive phenomenon that, unless one has rid one's mental continuum forever of craving, has the power to produce the nonobstructive unspecified items contained in the five aggregate factors of future rebirth states, such as the body, the types of consciousness, and the feelings.


J. Hopkins' translation: "fruitional cause."

Tib: rnam-smin-gyi rgyu
Skt: vipakahetu
ritual, expiation

See: expiation ritual

ritual, offering

See: offering ritual

ritual bountiful feast

A specially consecrated torma offered to one's tantric master, inseparable from the Buddha-figure, during a tantra ceremonial round of offering.


J. Hopkins' translation: "collection; stock; assembly; gathering; group; accumulation; community."

Tib: tshogs
ritual ceremony

Also called puja. See: offering ritual.

ritual trainer

A teacher who instructs one in how to perform Buddhist rituals.

root bodhisattva vows

The eighteen primary bodhisattva vows which, if kept purely, act as a root for attaining enlightenment, and which, if fully transgressed, act as a root for rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.

root downfall

A transgression of a root bodhisattva or root tantric vow, which, if it is a full transgression, acts as a root for falling to rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.

Tib: rtsa-ltung
root downfall, Kalachakra tantra

See: Kalachakra tantra root downfall

root guru

The spiritual teacher that inspires one the most, such that his or her inspiration serves as the root giving sustenance to one's spiritual growth.

Tib: rtsa-ba'i bla-ma
roots of constructive force

See: roots of positive force


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtuous/wholesome root(s); roots of virtue."

Tib: dge-rtsa
roots of positive force

The network of positive force (collection of merit), described from the point of view of it serving as the "root" for one to grow into a Buddha.


J. Hopkins' translation: "virtuous root."

Tib: dge-ba'i rtsa-ba
roots of virtue

See: roots of positive force

root tantric vows

The fourteen primary tantric vows which, if kept purely, act as a root for attaining enlightenment, and which, if fully transgressed, act as a root for rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.

rules of discipline

(1) The scriptural texts that discuss the ethical discipline and vows for the monastic community of monks and nuns. (2) The subject matter discussed in the above texts.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Discipline."

Tib: 'dul-ba
Skt: vinaya
Rupakaya

See: Corpus of Forms

sadhana

Literally, a method of actualization, namely a meditation method for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. Performing a sadhana entails recitation of a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings. Synonymous with "self-generation" and "antecedent practice for realization."


J. Hopkins' translation: "means of achievement."

Tib: sgrub-thabs
Skt: sadhana
safe direction

A direction that one puts in one's life that will protect one from true suffering and its true causes, and, when one reaches the goal of this direction, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "refuge."


J. Hopkins' translation: "refuge."

Tib: skyabs
Skt: sharana
safe direction, provisional source of

See: provisional source of safe direction

safe direction, take

See: take safe direction

safe direction, ultimate source of

See: ultimate source of safe direction

Sakya

One of the New Translation traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from the five masters who were descendants of Kon Konchog-gyelpo.

Sakyapa

A follower of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

samadhi

See: absorbed concentration

Sambhogakaya

See: Corpus of Full Use

same essential nature

The relationship between two facts about the same attribute of a phenomenon. In a sense, the two facts are referring to the same phenomenon from two points of view. The two facts may be naturally inseparable, such as the two truths about the phenomenon, or they may constitute a joined inseparability arising from the power of meditation, such as a blissful awareness and an awareness of voidness. Some translators render the term as "one by nature."


J. Hopkins' translation: "one entity; same entity."

Tib: ngo-bo gcig
samsara

Uncontrollably recurring rebirth under the power of disturbing emotions and attitudes and of karma. Some translators render it as "cyclic existence."


J. Hopkins' translation: "cyclic existence."

Tib: 'khor-ba
Skt: samsara
Sangha

The literal meaning of the Sanskrit term is a "community"; the literal meaning of the Tibetan translation is "those intent on a constructive goal." Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic community: full or novice monks or nuns - the four need not necessarily be all from one group or one from each group - and who have unlabored renunciation and are intent on ridding themselves of disturbing emotions and attitudes and thus attaining liberation.


J. Hopkins' translation: "spiritual community."

Tib: dge-'dun
Skt: sangha
Sangha Gem, apparent

See: apparent Sangha Gem

Sangha Gem, deepest

See: deepest Sangha Gem

Sangha Gem, nominal

See: nominal Sangha Gem

Sarma

See: New Translation

Tib: gSar-ma
Sarvastivada

One of the eighteen divisions of the Hinayana tradition of Buddhism and within which Vaibhashika and Sautrantika are subdivisions.

Tib: Thams-cad yod-pa smra-ba
Sautrantika

A Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that asserts the true existence of both reflexive awareness and external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Sūtra School, Sautrāntika."

Tib: mDo-sde-pa
Sautrantika-Svatantrika

According to Gelug, a subdivision of the Svatantrika Madhyamaka tenet system that does not assert reflexive awareness, but does assert external phenomena as having existence established by their individual defining characteristic marks.


J. Hopkins' translation: "SUtra Autonomy Middle Way School."

Tib: mDo-sde spyod-pa'i dbu-ma rang-rgyud-pa
scriptural categories, twelve

See: twelve scriptural categories

scriptural pronouncement

See: scriptural teaching

scrutiny

See: subtle discernment

sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words, four

See: four hallmarks of the Dharma

secondary bodhisattva vows

See: faulty actions

secondary tantric vows

See: thick actions

secret mandala

The offering of a blissful awareness, or of a nonconceptual blissful awareness of voidness with a clear-light mind. Also called: hidden mandala.

Tib: gsang-ba'i dkyil-'khor
secret offering

See: hidden offering

seeing pathway mind

The level of mind of arya sharavakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they first attain a joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and with which they rid themselves of one or both sets of doctrinally based obscurations. Often translated as "path of seeing."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of seeing."

Tib: mthong-lam
self-arising deep awareness

In Nyingma, the aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that automatically arises with awareness of its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with reflexive deep awareness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-arisen pristine wisdom."

Tib: rang-byung ye-shes
self-aware

See: self-awareness

self-awareness

An attitude focused on one's conventional "me" and that distinguishes and knows correctly the mental factors, such as the motivation, disturbing emotions, level of feeling of happiness, and so on, that are presently manifest on one's mental continuum.

self-cherishing

The attitude with which one considers oneself as the most important being and has affection for and takes care of only oneself.

Tib: rang bces-par 'dzin-pa
self-conscious

Being so concerned about oneself and what others think of oneself and that one doesn't make any mistakes, that one becomes awkward and cannot act naturally. Often teenagers are like this. They have pimples on their faces and are so self-conscious about them that they think everyone is looking at them.

self-consciousness

See: self-conscious

self-dignity

See: moral self-dignity

self-dignity, ethical

See: moral self-dignity

self-dignity, moral

See: moral self-dignity

self-discipline

See: ethical self-discipline

self-discipline, ethical

See: ethical self-discipline

self-established existence

See: existence established by self-nature

self-established stain

Something, the existence of which is established by its own power, independently of anything else, and which obscures the realization of Buddha-nature on one's mental continuum. This refers to an impossible manner of existence of the mind, and does not exist at all.


J. Hopkins' translation: "natural defilements."

Tib: rang-bzhin-gyi dri-ma
self-establishing nature

See: self-nature

self-evolver

See: pratyekabuddha

self-generation

Synonymous with "sadhana." A meditation method in which one visualizes and imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. See: sadhana.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-generation; self generation."

Tib: bdag-bskyed
self-initiation

A tantric meditation practice in which one visualizes receiving the entire empowerment (initiation) ritual for a Buddha-figure, performed in order to renew one's tantric vows. It may only be performed if one has done the serviceability retreat of that particular Buddha-figure and the fire-puja afterwards.

Tib: bdag-'jug
selflessness

See: lack of an impossible "soul"

selflessness of all phenomena

See: lack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomena

selflessness of a person

See: lack of an impossible soul of a person

self-nature

Something on the side of an object or phenomenon that (1) establishes the existence, in general, of the object or phenomenon and (2) establishes, as well, what the object or phenomenon is. A self-nature may do this either by its own power alone, or by its own power in conjunction with mental labeling. The term may also be translated as "self-establishing nature."


J. Hopkins' translation: "nature/inherent existence/inherent nature."

Tib: rang-bzhin
self-preoccupation

An attitude of thinking only about oneself, as if one were the only one in the world, and not thinking about anyone else; narcissism.


J. Hopkins' translation: "the conception as/of I; conception of [an inherently existent] I."

Tib: ngar-'dzin
self-preoccupied

See: self-preoccupation

self-realizer

See: pratyekabuddha

self-sufficiently knowable

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.

Tib: rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yod
self-sufficiently knowable phenomenon

A validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.

Tib: rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yod
self-voidness

The absence of any phenomenon existing, by "self"-nature, in an impossible manner.


J. Hopkins' translation: "emptiness of self."

Tib: rang-stong
sem

All levels of awareness (levels of mind) that are tainted with the fleeting stains of the emotional and cognitive obscurations. All levels of awareness other than rigpa. Translated as "limited awareness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind."

Tib: sems
semblance, mental

See: mental aspect

semdey

See: mind division

Tib: sems-sde
sense of fitness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling totally fit to do something, and which is both exhilarating and blissful, physically and mentally, but in a nondisturbing way.


J. Hopkins' translation: "pliancy."

Tib: shin-sbyangs
sense of physical and mental fitness

See: sense of fitness

sensibilia

Sense data; forms of physical phenomenon that, in one moment, occupy an extended location and are cognized by one of the five types of sense consciousness; the data or information concerning one moment of the sight, sound, smell, taste, or physical sensation of an object having physical qualities.

sensor

See: cognitive sensor

sentient being

See: limited being

serenely stilled and settled state of mind

See: stilled and settled state of mind

serviceability retreat

An intensive tantric meditation practice, done over many meditation sessions, during which one performs the sadhana and recites the mantra of a Buddha-figure ten thousand, one hundred thousand, or many hundreds of thousands of times, depending on the number of syllables in the mantra. When completed and finished off with the appropriate fire puja, this intensive practice makes the mind fit to be used (fit to be put into service) for more advanced tantric practices with that Buddha-figure.

Tib: las-rung
set theory

Set theory has to do with the logical pervasions between two or more sets -- mutually exclusive, totally congruent, overlapping, etc. A set is a collection or a group of many items, like the set of all nonstatic phenomena.

Tib: bsdus-grva
Skt: dura
seven-part cause and effect method

See: seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta

seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta

One of the two methods for developing a bodhichitta aim. Based on the development of equanimity, (1) mother-awareness, (2) remembering kindness, (3) repaying kindness, (4) love, (5) compassion, (6) exceptional resolve, (7) a bodhichitta aim. The first six, developed consecutively, function as the causes for the seventh as the result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "seven cause-and-effect quintessential instructions."

Tib: rgyu-'bras man-ngag bdun
Shakyamuni

The Able One of the Shakya Clan, the Sage of the Shakya Clan, an epithet of Buddha

Tib: shakya'i thub-pa
Skt: Shakyamuni
shamatha

See: stilled and settled state of mind

shared meaning, teaching of

See: teaching of shared meaning

sharing five congruent factors

Subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that share five things in common with the primary consciousness of the cognition in which they occur. (1) According to Vasubandhu: reliance, object, mental aspect, time, and natal source. (2) According to Asanga: natal source, focal aspect, essential nature, time, and plane and bhumi-level of mind.

Tib: mtshungs-ldan lnga
short-lived all-excited renunciation

The enthusiastic and fanatic giving up of everything worldly, often based on blind faith that an external source will save us.

Tib: sna-thung spu-sud-kyi nges-'byung
shravaka

Literally, "listeners" to Buddha's teachings - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being) of either the shravaka or pratyekabuddha class. They practice, based on having listened to Buddha's teachings. Some translators render the term as "hearer."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Hearer."

Tib: nyan-thos
Skt: shravaka
shravaka arhat

A shravaka that has attained liberation. See also: shravaka.

Tib: nyan-thos dgra-bcom
Skt: shravaka arhat
sights

Nonstatic phenomena that can be explicitly cognized by eye consciousness -- namely, colors and shapes. Equivalent to "forms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes." One of the eleven types of forms of physical phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "form."

Tib: gzugs
Skt: rupa
similar family cause

A cause that is in the same family or category of phenomenon as is the result. For example, a model of a vase is the similar family cause for a vase that one is now making.

Tib: rigs-'dra'I rgyu
Skt: sajatiyakaranam
simultaneously acting condition

An item that must exist prior to the arising of something and which assists in making the arising happen, but which does not transform into what arises, for instance water for a sprout.

Tib: lhan-cig byed-pa'i rkyen
Skt: sahakaripratyaya
simultaneously arising

Two items simultaneously arise if, when one of them arises or happens, the other does also, at the same time. The two items may arise simultaneously either naturally or through the power of meditation. Also called: innate.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
simultaneously arising cause

A cause that arises simultaneously with its results, such as the elements that make up a material object.

Tib: lhan-cig 'byung-ba'i rgyu
Skt: sahabhuhetu
sin

See: negative karmic force

sincerity

Sincerity has two factors included in it: (1) lack of hypocrisy (g.yo-med) – not hiding our own faults, (2) lack of pretension (sgyu-med) – not pretending to have qualities that we do not have.


J. Hopkins' translation: "thinking."

Tib: bsam-pa
single-pointed

Concentration settled on an object or settled in a state of mind (such as compassion) and free of all flightiness of mind an mental dullness.

singular sufficient white panacea

Also called: all-curing single white epanacea, single white remedy, self-sufficient white remedy

Tib: dkar-po chig-thub
six realms of existence

Literally, the six families of wandering beings. The six types of samsaric rebirth: (1) hell-beings (trapped beings in the joyless realms), (2) clutching ghosts (hungry ghosts), (3) animals (creeping creatures), (4) humans, (5) would-be divine beings (anti-gods), and (6) divine beings (gods).

Tib: 'gro-ba rigs-drug
Six-Session Yoga

In Gelug, a practice, recited six times daily, required of those who have received an anuttarayoga empowerment, through which they keep the nineteen closely bonding practices for the five Buddha-families.

Tib: Thun-drug rnal-'byor
sixty-two wrong views

A set of sixty-two incorrect positions regarding the past, present and future of the self, the universe, and so on, propounded by the eighteen non-Buddhist extremeists and refuted in Buddhism. Sometimes translated by others as the sixty-two bad views.

Tib: lta-ba ngan-pa drug-cu re-gnyis
skillful means

See: skill in means

skill in means

The special discriminating awareness concerning the most effective and appropriate internal methods for actualizing the Buddha's teachings and the most effective and appropriate external methods for making limited beings ripe for attaining liberation and enlightenment. In Mahayana, when conjoined with a bodhichitta, the seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes.


J. Hopkins' translation: "skill in means/skillful means."

Tib: thabs-mkhas
Skt: upayakaushalya
solid "me"

A "me" that exists as a concrete, autonomous