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Home > Glossary > Glossary English Terms

English Glossary of Buddhist Terms

This glossary is only a partial list of technical terms found on the pages of the website. From time to time, as work progresses on the glossary project, new terms will be added to the list. Sanskrit equivalents for Tibetan terms have been provided only for select terms and all diacritical marks for transliterated Sanskrit have been omitted, for ease of display on all browsers.

Choose one of the letters below to see the glossary entries that start with this letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z everything

EnglishDefinitionTibetan / Sanskrit
abandonment

See: riddance

Abhisambodhikaya

See: Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment

abiding nature

The lasting, enduring nature of all phenomena; the voidness of all phenomena.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mode of subsistence."

Tib: gnas-lugs
abiding traits

See: naturally abiding family-traits

Able One

An epithet of a Buddha - one who has been able to reach the goal of enlightenment and is able to benefit all beings as much as is possible.


J. Hopkins' translation: "Subduer; Silent One [epithet for Buddha]; short for ShAkyamuni, conqueror [over the afflictions]."

Tib: thub-pa
Skt: muni
Able Sage

See: Able One

absence, absolute

See: absolute absence

absence, bare

See: bare absence

absolute absence

The absence of something impossible; the absence of something that has never existed and never can exist.

absolute nullification

The refutation of the possibility that something could exist.

absorbed concentration

Perfect concentration fully absorbed or sunk into an object of focus.


J. Hopkins' translation: "stabilization, meditative stabilization."

Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
absorption, total

See: total absorption

absorption on voidness, clear light

See: clear light absorption on voidness

abstraction, nonstatic

See: noncongruent affecting variable

abstraction, static

See: static phenomenon

access clear light mental activity

Through advanced meditation practices of the anuttarayoga tantra complete stage, to reach the clear light level of mind -- in the sense of stopping the grosser levels of mind so that the mind operates only on the underlying clear light level, which is the subtlest level of mental activity, and which has been operating with no beginning -- and then both to recognize this subtlest level of mind for what it is and utilize it for cognizing objects.

access rigpa

Through special methods used by a dzogchen master in a personal interaction with a fully prepared dzogchen practitioner, the practitioner reaching the rigpa (pure awareness) level of mind -- in the sense of making the exclusive focus of attention this underlying subtlest, untainted level of mental activity, which has been operating with no beginning -- and then both recognizing rigpa for what it is and making use of its natural properties.

accomplished

See: highly accomplished

accomplishing awareness

See: accomplishing deep awareness

accomplishing deep awareness

One of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that goes out to a cognitive object and which has the willingness to accomplish something with it, or to do something with it or to it, or to relate to it in some personal way. Also called: deep awareness to accomplish things.

Tib: bya-grub ye-shes
accomplishment

The attainment of a spiritual goal.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
accordant nature

A synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."


J. Hopkins' translation: "thusness."

Tib: de-bzhin-nyid
Skt: tathata
accounts, fabulous

See: fabulous accounts

accounts, illustrative

See: illustrative accounts

accounts, past life

See: past life accounts

accounts, revelatory

See: revelatory accounts

accustoming pathway mind

The level of mind of arya shravakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they accustom themselves to the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and thereby rid themselves of either one or both sets of automatically arising obscurations. Other translators usually render it as "path of meditation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of meditation."

Tib: sgom-lam
Skt: bhavanamarga
acquired nirvana

States of release from all samsaric sufferings and their true causes, which are attained through the power of meditation.

Tib: thob-pa'i mya-ngan 'das
acquirement

The obtainment or gain of something, such as a vow or a spiritual attainment, imputable on the mental continuum of the one who has gained it. An acquirement or acquiring of something is a noncongruent affecting variable -- a nonstatic phenomenon that is neither a form of material phenomena nor a way of being aware of something.


J. Hopkins' translation: "acquisition; attainment; to attain; obtainer."

Tib: thob-pa
acquisition

See: acquirement

acting cause

All phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result.


J. Hopkins' translation: "creative cause."

Tib: byed-rgyu
Skt: karanahetu
action, faulty

See: faulty actions

action, karmic

See: karmic action

action, naturally destructive uncommendable

See: naturally uncommendable action

action, naturally uncommendable

See: naturally uncommendable action

action, prohibited uncommendable

See: prohibited uncommendable action

action, thick

See: thick actions

action, uncommendable

See: uncommendable action

activate

To cause a karmic tendency to become a manifest karmic impulse that will give its result in the next moment. Also translated as "arouse."

Tib: gsos-'debs
actual attainment

A significant spiritual goal that one actually attains or, literally, "makes actual" or "makes real" on one's mental continuum. The ordinary actual attainments refer to extrasensory and extraphysical powers, while the supreme actual attainment refers to enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "feat; accomplishment; yogic accomplishment; actual accomplishment; fact."

Tib: dngos-grub
Skt: siddhi
actual clear light mind

A subtlest level of consciousness that has a nonconceptual, blissful cognition of voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual clear light/ exemplified clear light."

Tib: don-gyi 'od-gsal
actual fundamental part

The main part of a text or practice, containing the actual discussion of the principal topic.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

Tib: dngos-gzhi
actuality

See: actual nature

actualization

See: actualize

actualize

To attain a spiritual goal. To make the attainment of a spiritual goal really (actually) happen. Also translated as "attain" and "attainment."


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
actual nature

A synonym for voidness (emptiness) or, in some mahamudra and dzogchen systems, the nature of everything as the play of inseparable awareness and voidness.


J. Hopkins' translation: "final nature/real nature/noumenon."

Tib: chos-nyid
Skt: dharmata
actual state

The full definitional state of something, such as one of levels of mental constancy.


J. Hopkins' translation: "actual."

Tib: dngos-gzhi
actual state of the first dhyana

See: actual state of the first level of mental stability

actual state of the first level of mental stability

A state of mind attained on the basis of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha and which temporarily blocks all disturbing emotions and attitudes directed at phenomena on the plane of sensory desires (the "desire realm"). The various types of advanced awareness arise as a byproduct of the attainment of this state of mind. Also called: "actual state of the first dhyana."

Tib: bsam-gtan dang-po'i dngos-gzhi
advanced awareness

Nonconceptual straightforward cognition of places, times, and distances that are obscure phenomena and of situations that are extremely obscure phenomena. A general term for both the five types of advanced awareness and the six extrasensory eyes, both of which are gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Sometimes also translated as "heightened awareness" or "extrasensory perception."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance."

Tib: mngon-shes
Skt: abhijna
advanced awareness for extraphysical emanation

Cognition that is able to produce many different simultaneous emanations that are any one of three types: (1) physical emanations made of the five elements of earth, water, fire, wind, and space, (2) verbal emanations - speaking in such a way that various people can understand the words in their own languages and at their own levels of understanding, or (3) mental emanations of thoughts and levels of mind, such as awareness of many levels of meaning of a Dharma passage. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: rdzu-'phrul-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of knowing other's minds

Cognition of others' thoughts and states of mind. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).


J. Hopkins' translation: "clairvoyance of knowing other's minds."

Tib: gzhan-sems shes-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of recollection of past situations

Cognition of past lives. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: sngon-gnas rjes-dran-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the depletion of tainted factors

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). Cognition of one's own state of being rid forever of the emotional obscurations preventing liberation from samsara.

Tib: zag-pa zad-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine ear

Cognition that is able to hear sounds at any distance and to understand them, regardless of language. One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana).

Tib: lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine eye

One of the six types of advanced awareness gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental constancy (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, cognition of the different effects of karma on different beings, such as their future rebirths. (2) According to Gelug, cognition of gross (obvious) forms and subtle forms, including those at great distances in space and time.

Tib: lha'i mig-gi mngon-shes
affected

To be influenced by or conditioned by causes and conditions.

affected phenomenon

A phenomenon that arises because of the influence of causes and conditions, and which changes because of constantly being influenced by causes and conditions. This refers to all nonstatic phenomena. Translators often render the term as "conditioned phenomenon."


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional phenomena."

Tib: 'dus-byas-kyi chos
Skt: samskrtadharma
affecting

To influence or condition other things so that it contributes to causing effects to happen.

affecting impulses

See: link of affecting impulses

affecting impulses, link of

See: link of affecting impulses

affecting variable

A phenomenon that continually changes (a nonstatic phenomenon) and which influences other nonstatic phenomenon to arise, in the sense that it contributes to causing them to happen.


J. Hopkins' translation: "compositional factor."

Tib: 'du-byed
Skt: samskara
affecting variables, aggregate of other

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

affirmation

See: affirmation phenomenon

affirmation phenomenon

An item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the establishment of something, without an object to be negated being explicitly precluded by the sounds that express it.


J. Hopkins' translation: "positive/positive phenomenon."

Tib: sgrub-pa
affirmingly known phenomenon

See: affirmation phenomenon

affirming negation

See: implicative negation phenomenon

affliction, emotional

See: disturbing emotion or attitude

aftermath

See: karmic aftermath

aftermath, karmic

See: karmic aftermath

agent

The person who commits an action.


J. Hopkins' translation: "agent; doer."

Tib: byed-pa-po
aggregate

A network of many items, all of which are nonstatic phenomena. See also: aggregate factors of experience.

Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate factors of experience

The five networks (five aggregates) that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aggregate."

Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate of consciousness

See: aggregate of primary consciousnesses

aggregate of distinguishing

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of distinguishing that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of recognition." See: distinguishing.

Tib: 'du-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: samjna-skandha
aggregate of feelings

See: aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness

aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling a level of happiness or unhappiness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of feelings." See: feeling a level of happiness.

Tib: tshor-ba'i phung-po
Skt: vedana-skandha
aggregate of forms

See: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena

aggregate of forms of physical phenomena

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of all types of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, physical sensations, physical sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Any of these can be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Also called "aggregate of forms."


J. Hopkins' translation: "form aggregate."

Tib: gzugs-kyi phung-po
Skt: rupa-skandha
aggregate of karmic formations

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

aggregate of other affecting variables

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors), other than feelings of levels of happiness and distinguishing, as well as all instances of noncongruent affecting variables, that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. Some translators render the term as "aggregate of volitions" or "aggregate of karmic formations."

Tib: 'du-byed-kyi phung-po
Skt: samskara-skandha
aggregate of primary consciousnesses

One of the five aggregate factors of experience. The network of all instances of mental consciousness or of any of the five types of sensory consciousness that could be part of any moment of experience on someone's mental continuum. It also includes the network of all instances of deluded awareness and all-encompassing foundation consciousness in those systems that assert these two. Also called: "aggregate of consciousness."

Tib: rnam-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: vijnana-skandha
aggregate of recognition

See: aggregate of distinguishing

aggregate of volitions

See: aggregate of other affecting variables

aggregates, obtaining

See: obtaining aggregates

aggregates, tainted

See: tainted aggregates

aggregates, untainted

See: untainted aggregates

aging and dying

In a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.


J. Hopkins' translation: "aging and/or death."

Tib: rga-shi
aging and dying, link of

See: link of aging and dying

aim, causal motivating

See: causal motivating aim

aim, contemporaneous motivating

See: contemporaneous motivating aim

aim, motivating

See: motivating aim

alaya

See: basis for all

alaya, deep-awareness

See: deep awareness alaya

alaya, primordial deepest

See: primordial deepest alaya

alaya, specific-awareness

See: specific-awareness alaya

alaya for habits

In the dzogchen system, foundational awareness for the habits of grasping for truly established existence, for karma, and for memories. The type of limited awareness that basis rigpa functions as, when it is mixed with dumbfoundedness.

Tib: bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhi
alayavijnana

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

alertness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that checks the condition of mindfulness's mental hold on the object of focus. It sees if the mental hold has been lost or is too weak or too tight due to flightiness of mind or mental dullness. It is more, however, than just reflexive awareness or implicit apprehension, which merely notices what is happening with the meditation. It resembles an alarm system to trigger a response with restoring attention to correct any faults.


J. Hopkins' translation: "introspection."

Tib: shes-bzhin
Skt: samprajanya
all-encompassing

Including everything within its domain.

all-encompassing foundation consciousness

An unspecified, nonobstructive, individual consciousness that underlies all cognition, cognizes the same objects as the cognitions it underlies, but is a nondetermining cognition of what appears to it and lacks clarity of its objects. It carries the karmic legacies of karma and the mental impressions of memories, in the sense that they are imputed on it. It is also translated as "foundation consciousness" and, by some translators, as "storehouse consciousness." According to Gelug, asserted only by the Chittamatra system; according to non-Gelug, assserted by both the Chittamatra and Madhyamaka systems.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-basis-of-all."

Tib: kun-gzhi rnam-shes
Skt: alayavijnana
all-permeating

The quality of rigpa (pure awareness) that it interpenetrates and pervades all instances of limited awareness (sem) without obstruction, in the same manner as oil permeates sesame seeds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "unhindered."

Tib: zang-thal
all-pervasive

Pertaining to everything.

all-pervasively affecting suffering

The suffering that comes simply from having tainted aggregates that serve as the basis for experiencing the suffering of suffering and the suffering of change. Such suffering is all-pervasive since it affects every moment of samsaric experience.

Tib: khyab-par 'du-byed-kyi sdug-bsngal
all-pervasive suffering

See: all-pervasively affecting suffering

amulet box tradition

A tradition of mahamudra meditation transmitted in the Shangpa Kagyu school.

Tib: ga'u-ma
analysis

See: subtle discernment

analysis, discerning

See: subtle discernment

analytical meditation

See: discerning meditation

ancient narratives

Stories from ancient times that Buddha told. One of the twelve scriptural categories.

Tib: de-lta-bu byung-ba
Skt: itivrttika
anger

A root disturbing emotion, aimed at another limited being, one's own suffering, or situations entailing suffering, and which is impatient with them and wishes to get rid of them, such as by damaging or hurting them, or by striking out against them. It is based on regarding its object as unattractive or repulsive by its very nature.

Tib: khong-khro
Skt: kroddha
antecedent practice for realization

A visualization practice in which one imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure, for which one has received empowerment, and which one does as a method for actualizing oneself as the figure. It is "antecedent" in the sense of being a meditation practice undertaken both before and as a condition for being able to actualize oneself as the Buddha-figure. Synonymous with "sadhana."


J. Hopkins' translation: "clear realization/clear realizer."

Tib: mngon-rtogs
antigods

See: would-be divine

anuttarayoga tantra

In the Sarma (New Translation Period) Tibetan Buddhist schools, the fourth or highest class of tantra practice, emphasizing special internal methods for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure.

Tib: bla-med rnal-'byor
Skt: anuttarayoga tantra
anuyoga tantra

In the Nyingma system, the second of the three inner classes of tantra, emphasizing practices involving the subtle energy-system of winds, channels, and creative energy-drops.

Tib: a-nu yo-ga
apparent Buddha Gem

The Corpus of Forms of a Buddha, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
apparent Dharma Gem

The twelve textual categories of teachings proclaimed by a Buddha's enlightening speech, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
apparent level Precious Gems

The level of Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are apparent to limited beings and which conceal a deeper level gem.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dkon-mchog
apparent Sangha Gem

The individual person of any arya, whether lay or monastic, as a source of safe direction.

Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
apparent true phenomenon

See: superficial true phenomenon

apparent truth

See: superficial truth

appearance

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which arises in the mind. Also called "cognitive appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance, cognitive

See: appearance

appearance, deceptive

See: deceptive appearance

appearance, giving rise to

See: appearance-making

appearance, impure

See: impure appearance

appearance, pure

See: pure appearance

appearance, reflexive

See: reflexive appearance

appearance-congealing

One of the three subtle appearance-making minds.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance congealment

Also translated as: appearance, white appearance


J. Hopkins' translation: "to appear; perceive; light; illuminate; appearance."

Tib: snang
appearance-making

The aspect of mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of an object of cognition.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
appearance-making, discordant

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making, dual

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making, dualistic

See: dualistic appearance-making

appearance-making basis rigpa

Pure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its aspect of spontaneously establishing appearances. Synonymous with the term "effulgent rigpa."

Tib: gzhi-snang-gi rig-pa
appearance-making of non-true existence

According to the Nyingma school, the aspect of a limited being's sensory or nonconceptual mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of objects of cognition without making them appear to be truly existent "this"s or "that"s, in the sense in which Madhyamaka defines true existence.

Tib: med-snang
appearance-making of true existence

The aspect of a limited being's mental activity that gives rise to (makes) a mental hologram of seemingly true existence. It makes the mental holograms of objects of cognition appear to be truly existent, in the sense in which the Madhyamaka schools define true existence. In the non-Gelug systems, it occurs only with conceptual cognition and it makes appearances of objects of cognition to be truly "this"s and "that"s.


J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance of true existence{Lati}."

Tib: bden-snang
appearances, discordant

See: dualistic appearances

appearances, dual

See: dualistic appearances

appearances, dualistic

See: dualistic appearances

appearances of non-true existence

In the Nyingma system, mental holograms of objects of cognition, which do not make them appear as if they were truly existent "this"s or "that"s. This occurs only with sensory and nonconceptual mental cognition.

Tib: med-snang
appearing object

The mental hologram (mental representation) of any external or internal object of cognition, which a cognition gives rise to. Equivalent to the cognitively taken object. Sometimes used interchangeably with "mental aspect," and sometimes differentiated from "mental aspect" in the sense that a cognition takes on the "mental aspect" of its appearing object.

Tib: snang-yul
applying pathway mind

The level of mind of shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas with which they apply the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, focused conceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and which they gained with a building-up pathway mind, to gaining a nonconceptual focus on voidness. Other translators often render this term as "path of preparation."


J. Hopkins' translation: "path of preparation."

Tib: sbyor-lam
Skt: prayogamarga
appreciation

Valuing something highly, usually the kindness of someone. Often used in the context of appreciating the kindness of one's spiritual mentor. Sometimes translated as "respect."


J. Hopkins' translation: "respect; devotion; humility; be intent on."

Tib: gus-pa
apprehend

To cognitively take an object of cognition both correctly and decisively.


J. Hopkins' translation: "realization."

Tib: rtogs-pa
apprehension

See: apprehend

apprehension, explicit

See: explicit apprehension

apprehension, implicit

See: implicit apprehension

approximate and actualize oneself as a Buddha-figure

Intensive tantric meditation practice entailing visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure and recitation of the appropriate mantras.

Tib: bsnyen-sgrub
approximating vacuum

See: threshold


J. Hopkins' translation: "near attainment; near-attainment."

Tib: nyer-thob
approximation retreat, great

See: great approximation retreat

arhat

A practitioner, of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva class, who has achieved a true stopping of the emotional obscurations and thus has attained liberation (nirvana). Also called a "liberated being." Some translators render the term as "foe-destroyer."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Foe Destroyer/Worthy One."

Tib: dgra-bcom-pa
Skt: arhat
arhatship

The state of an arhat.

arise

See: dawn

arise, making

See: making arise

arising, automatically

See: automatically arising

arising, cognitive

See: cognitive arising

arising, simultaneously

See: simultaneously arising

arouse

The process through which a disturbing emotion or attitude brings on the arising of a karmic impulse. Also translated as "activate."

Tib: gsos-'debs
artificial

See: contrived

arya

A practitioner who has had nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths and thus has attained a shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva seeing pathway of mind (path of seeing). Also called a "highly realized practitioner" or a "highly realized being." Some translators render the term as "noble one."


J. Hopkins' translation: "Superior."

Tib: 'phags-pa
Skt: arya
arya bodhisattva

A bodhisattva that has attained nonconceptual cognition of voidness. See also: bodhisattva.


J. Hopkins' translation: "bodhisattva superiors."

Tib: byang-sems 'phags-pa
Skt: arya bodhisattva
arya pathway mind

The three pathway minds of shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva aryas (those with nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths) -- namely, their seeing and accustoming pathway minds, and their pathway minds needing no further training.

Tib: 'phags-lam
Skt: aryamarga
arya pratyekabuddha

A pratyekabuddha that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: pratyekabuddha.

Tib: rang-rgyal 'phags-pa
Skt: arya prtatyekabuddha
arya shravaka

A shravaka that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: shravaka.

Tib: nyan-thos 'phags-pa
Skt: arya shravaka
ascertain

See: decisively determine

ascertainment

A decisive cognition of a cognitive object; decisively knowing what an object of cognition is or how it exists. Also translated as "decisive awareness" and "decisive cognition."

Tib: gtan-la dbab-pa
aspect, mental

See: mental aspect

aspects, naturally inseparable

See: natural inseparability

aspirational prayer

(1) A prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal. (2) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, a special discriminating awareness concerning phenomena toward which to aspire. This discriminating awareness is in connection with the aspiration never to be parted from a bodhichitta aim in all one's lifetimes and for the continuity of one's far-reaching activities for benefiting all beings never to be broken.

Tib: smon-lam
Skt: pranidhana
aspiring bodhichitta

A mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual future enlightenment, is accompanied by the aspiration or wish to attain that enlightenment.


J. Hopkins' translation: "attitude of aspiration [to full enlightenment]; aspirational mind of enlightenment."

Tib: smon-sems
aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

See: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta

asserting one's identity

The fourth of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising. Equivalent to a deluded outlook toward a transitory network.

Tib: bdag-tu smra-ba
assertion

A position, accepted by a Buddhist or non-Buddhist tenet system, in regard to a philosophical point.

assistant tutor

See: Master Debate Partner

associated with confusion

See: tainted

asura

See: would-be divine

atiyoga

In the Nyingma system, the third of the three classes of inner tantras, in which meditation practices to actualize the immediate causes for an enlightening mind and Corpus of Forms of a Buddha are emphasized.

Tib: a-ti-yo-ga
attachment

The disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses and does not wish to let go of it.

Tib: chags-pa
Skt: sanga
attachment, sticky

See: sticky attachment

attain

See: actualize

attainment, actual

See: actual attainment

attainment, subsequent

See: subsequent attainment

attention

The ever-functioning mental factor that engages mental activity with a specific cognitive object. The cognitive engagement may be merely to pay some level of attention to the object (strong or weak), or to focus on the object in a certain way (painstakingly, effortlessly, etc.), or to consider the object in a certain way (concordantly or discordantly). Also called: paying attention, consideration, take to mind, taking to mind.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mental engagement/taking to mind/mental contemplation."

Tib: yid-la byed-pa
Skt: manasi
attention, restoring

See: restoring attention

attitude

A mental factor that takes its cognitive object by regarding it from a certain point of view.


J. Hopkins' translation: "awareness."

Tib: blo
attitude, distorted antagonistic

See: distorted antagonistic thinking


J. Hopkins' translation: "wrong view."

Tib: log-lta
attitude, disturbing

See: disturbing attitude

attitude, far-reaching

See: far-reaching attitude

attitude, nominal disturbing

See: nominal disturbing attitude

attitude-training

A spiritual training in which one cleanses disturbing attitudes from one's mind and trains to replace them with constructive attitudes. Also called: cleansing of attitudes, mind-training, Lojong.


J. Hopkins' translation: "mind-training."

Tib: blo-sbyong
audio category

The conceptual category of the sound of a word or name, in which the sound of all individual pronunciations of the word or name fit, regardless of the voice, volume, or pronunciation with which it is spoken.


J. Hopkins' translation: "sound generality."

Tib: sgra-spyi
audio universal

See: audio category

auditory consciousness

See: ear consciousness

automatically arising

Naturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes

Disturbing emotions and attitudes that arise on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system.


J. Hopkins' translation: "innate afflictions; innate afflictive emotion."

Tib: nyon-mongs lhan-skyes
automatically arising ignorance

See: automatically arising unawareness

automatically arising unawareness

The mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum without being based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Others often translate it as "automatically arising ignorance" or "innate ignorance."

Tib: ma-rigs lhan-skyes
automatically liberates itself in its own place

See: automatically releases itself in its own place

automatically releases itself in its own place

The quality of a conceptual thought or cognition that it ceases or dissolves simultaneously with its arisal, without any effort required to make it cease. Also called: automatically liberates itself in its own place.


J. Hopkins' translation: "self-release."

Tib: rang-grol
auxiliary bonding practices

A set of nine practices and attitudes that, during an anuttarayoga tantra empowerment, one pledges to maintain in order to keep a close connection with tantra practice.

Tib: yan-lag-gi dam-tshig
auxiliary disturbing emotions

A set of twenty disturbing emotions that derive from one of the three poisonous emotions of longing desire, hostility, or naivety. See: disturbing emotions and attitudes.


J. Hopkins' translation: "secondary afflictions."

Tib: nye-nyon
Skt: upaklesha
auxiliary secondary tantric vows

See: auxiliary thick actions

auxiliary thick actions

A set of actions, in addition to the eight thick actions, that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: auxiliary secondary tantric vows.

Tib: yan-lag-gi sbom-po
aversion

See: anger

awareness

The most general, all-inclusive term for cognizing an object. It is used in the sense of both being aware of something and making something an object of awareness, but not necessarily as a conscious act of will or knowing what the object is.

awareness, accomplishing

See: accomplishing deep awareness

Tib: bya-grub ye-shes
awareness, advanced

See: advanced awareness

awareness, basis or fundamental realized

See: basis or fundamental realized awareness

awareness, clear light

See: clear light awareness

awareness, decisive

See: ascertainment

awareness, deep

See: deep awareness

awareness, discriminating

See: discriminating awareness

awareness, general

See: general awareness

awareness, limited

See: sem

awareness, normal

See: normal awareness

awareness, omniscient realized

See: omniscient realized awareness

awareness, pathway realized

See: pathway realized awareness

awareness, primally pure

See: primal purity

awareness, principal

See: principal awareness

awareness, pure

See: pure awareness

awareness, reflexive

See: reflexive awareness

awareness, reflexive deep

See: reflexive deep awareness

awareness, specific

See: specific awareness

awareness, subsidiary

See: subsidiary awareness

awareness of its own face

The nonconceptual cognition, by rigpa (pure awareness), of its own nature.

Tib: rang-ngo shes-pa
axioms, four

See: four axioms

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