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The Buddhist Archives of Dr. Alexander Berzin

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Home > Glossary > Glossary English Terms

English Glossary of Buddhist Terms

This glossary is only a partial list of technical terms found on the pages of the website. From time to time, as work progresses on the glossary project, new terms will be added to the list. Sanskrit equivalents for Tibetan terms have been provided only for select terms and all diacritical marks for transliterated Sanskrit have been omitted, for ease of display on all browsers.

Choose one of the letters below to see the glossary entries that start with this letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z everything

EnglishDefinitionTibetan / Sanskrit
calm abiding

See: stilled and settled state of mind


See: caring attitude

caring attitude

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that takes seriously the situations of others and oneself, and the effects of one's actions on others and on oneself, and which consequently causes one to build up as a habit constructive attitudes and behavior and safeguards against leaning toward tainted or destructive attitudes and behavior. Also translated as "carefulness."

J. Hopkins' translation: "conscientiousness; aware; conscientious; conscious."

Tib: bag-yod
Skt: apramada
caring heart

See: caring attitude

caring love

See: love


A phenomenon shared in common by the individuals on which it is imputed. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." For a fuller definition, see: conceptual category.

J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

Tib: spyi
causal conditions

All the causes that have the power to produce a specific result.

Tib: rgyu'i rkyen
Skt: hetupratyaya
causal links that actualize

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the three links of craving, an obtainer, and further existence, which activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma in the moments preceding death so that the karmic results will actualize. Thus, they serve as the simultaneously acting conditions for the aggregates of a next rebirth.

Tib: bsgrub-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal links that throw

In the twelve links of dependent arising, the two and a half links of unawareness, affecting impulses, and causal loaded consciousness, which describe the process through which throwing karma is built up and its karmic aftermath is "planted" on a mental continuum as the cause for a next rebirth.

Tib: 'phen-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal motivating aim

What someone intends or aims to do just before starting to do something and which causes the person to do it.

J. Hopkins' translation: "causal motivation."

Tib: rgyu'i kun-slong
causal taking of safe direction

A taking of safe direction (refuge) in which the sources of that safe direction are the persons or phenomena that act as causes for one's our own attainments of the Three Gems, namely the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha already attained by others. Synonymous with "mere taking of safe direction."

Tib: rgyu'i skyabs-'gro

A nonstatic phenomenon able to bring about the production or arising of something.

Tib: rgyu
Skt: hetu
cause, acting

See: acting cause

cause, congruent

See: congruent cause

cause, direct

See: direct cause

cause, driving

See: driving cause

cause, equal status

See: equal status cause

cause, material

See: obtaining cause

cause, obtaining

See: obtaining cause

cause, ripening

See: ripening cause

cause, similar family

See: similar family cause

cause, simultaneously acting

See: simultaneously acting cause

cause and effect

See: behavioral cause and effect

cause and effect, behavioral

See: behavioral cause and effect

ceremonial round of offering a ritual feast

A tantra ritual, part of a puja, in which specially consecrated offerings, usually including a torma, are made to one's spiritual master inseparable from a Buddha-figure. In anuttarayoga tantra, the offerings include consecrated alcohol and meat. Often refered to by the Tibetan "tsog."

Tib: tshogs-'khor
Skt: ganacakra
characteristics, inherent

See: inherent characteristics

charya tantra

Tibetan Buddhist schools, the second class of tantra practice, which equally emphasizes external behavior and internal methods

cherishing concerned love

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which, not only does one wish others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one values the welfare of others highly and would feel sad if anything bad happened to them.

Tib: gces-zhing pham-pa'i byams-pa
cherishing others

The attitude with which one considers others as the most precious and important ones; and has affection for and takes care of mainly others.

Tib: gzhan gces-par 'dzin-pa

A Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert external phenomena, but which does assert the true existence of dependent phenomena. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism; the Mind-Only School.

J. Hopkins' translation: "Chittamātra/Mind-Only School."

Tib: Sems-tsam-pa

As a defining characteristic of mind, the ability, mental activity, or event of making cognitive objects arise -- or giving rise to cognitive objects -- so that they can be cognized. According to the Gelug tradition, a mental hologram of the cognitive object need not even arise in the cognition, since the object may be implicitly cognized. Clarity is not some sort of light in one's head that has varying intensity and illuminates objects that are already present. Nor does it have anything to do with an object of cognition being in focus or being understood. Moreover, giving rise to a cognitive object has no implication of passivity or lack of responsibility on the one hand, or conscious will on the other. As an event, clarity just naturally happens every moment of every mental continuum.

J. Hopkins' translation: "clear; bright; light; predicate [misspelling of bsal?]{BJ}."

Tib: gsal
cleansing of attitudes

See: attitude-training

clearheaded belief in a fact

A constructive emotion that is clear about a fact and, like a water purifier, clears the mind of disturbing emotions and attitudes about the object.

J. Hopkins' translation: "faith of clarity."

Tib: dvang-ba'i dad-pa
clearheadedly believing a fact to be true

See: clearheaded belief in a fact

Tib: dangs-ba'i dad-pa
clear light, cognitive

See: cognitive clear light

clear light, object

See: object clear light

clear light, subject

See: cognitive clear light

clear light absorption on voidness

Total absorption, with clear light awareness, on voidness (emptiness).

clear light awareness

The subtlest level of mental activity (mind), which continues with no beginning and no end, without any break, even during death and even into Buddhahood. It is individual and constitutes the mental continuum of each being. It is naturally free of conceptual cognition, the appearance-making of true existence, and grasping for true existence, since it is more subtle than the grosser levels of mental activity with which these occur. It has nothing to do with "light."

J. Hopkins' translation: "clear light."

Tib: 'od-gsal
clear light mental activity

See: clear light awareness

clear light mind

See: clear light awareness

clear light mind, actual

See: actual clear light mind

clear light mind, model

See: model clear light mind

close bond

See: bonding practice


A mental factor of being naive about cause and effect or about reality, and being stubbornly closed to any suggestions from someone else. Sometimes used as a translation for "gti-mug, moha,naivety." See: naivety.

closely bonding practice

See: bonding practice

close placements of mindfulness, four

See: four close placements of mindfulness

cloth mandala

A two-dimensional representation, painted on cloth, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.

Tib: ras-bris-kyi dkyil-'khor
clutching ghost

One of the three worse rebirth states, characterized by the suffering of being unable to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, and caused primarily by miserliness. Translated by most others as "hungry ghost," which is a literal rendering of the Chinese translation for the term, adopted by the Chinese in reference to the spirits of departed ancestors that suffered when not presented with regular offerings of food.

J. Hopkins' translation: "ghost; preta; hungry ghost."

Tib: yi-dags
Skt: preta

Arising simultaneously with each moment of experience, for example a blissful awareness itself or a blissful awareness of voidness, attained with complete stage practice of anuttarayogatantra.

J. Hopkins' translation: "innate."

Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja

(1) The act of cognizing or knowing something, but without necessarily knowing what it is or what it means. It may be either valid or invalid, conceptual or nonconceptual . This is the most general term for knowing something. (2) The "package" of a primary consciousness, its accompanying mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses), and the cognitive object shared by all of them. According to some systems, a cognition also includes reflexive awareness.

J. Hopkins' translation: "consciousness."

Tib: shes-pa
cognition, bare

See: bare cognition

cognition, conceptual

See: conceptual cognition

cognition, deceptive

See: deceptive cognition

cognition, direct

See: direct cognition

cognition, distorted

See: distorted cognition

cognition, explicit

See: explicit apprehension

cognition, implicit

See: implicit apprehension

cognition, inattentive

See: nondetermining cognition

cognition, indecisive

See: indecisive wavering

cognition, indirect

See: indirect cognition

cognition, inferential

See: inferential cognition

cognition, invalid

See: invalid cognition

cognition, nonconceptual

See: nonconceptual cognition

cognition, nondetermining

See: nondetermining cognition

cognition, presumptive

See: presumptive cognition

cognition, straightforward

See: straightforward cognition

cognition, subsequent

See: subsequent cognition

cognition, valid

See: valid cognition

cognitive appearance

See: appearance

cognitive arising

A cognitive appearance that has arisen on a mental continuum.

J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
cognitive clear light

Clear light awareness that cognizes voidness as its object.

Tib: yul-can-gyi 'od-gsal
cognitive engagement

A manner of cognizing an object.

J. Hopkins' translation: "continuity; enter; begin; engage; apply; entrance."

Tib: 'jug-pa
cognitively taking an object

Cognizing an object - taking a validly knowable phenomenon as an object of cognition in the sense of cognizing it with either a valid or invalid way of knowing.

J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehend/conceive."

Tib: 'dzin-pa
Skt: graha
cognitively taking an object, way of

See: way of cognitively taking an object

cognitive obscurations

Fleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from simultaneously cognizing the two truths about all phenomena. Also translated as "obscurations about all knowables" and "obscurations preventing omniscience."

J. Hopkins' translation: "obstructions to omniscience."

Tib: shes-sgrib
Skt: jneyavarana
cognitive open space

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive sphere.

J. Hopkins' translation: "expanse; sphere."

Tib: klong
cognitive sensor

The dominating condition that determines the type of cognition a way of being aware of something is. In the case of the five types of sensory cognition, it is the photosensitive cells of the eyes, the sound-sensitive cells of the ears, the smell-sensitive cells of the nose, the taste-sensitive cells of the tongue, and the physical-sensation-sensitive cells of the body. In the case of mental cognition, it is the immediately preceding moment of cognition. Some translators render the term as "sense power."

J. Hopkins' translation: "sense power."

Tib: dbang-po
Skt: indriya
cognitive space

See: cognitive open space

cognitive sphere

Rigpa (pure awareness) from the point of view of its essential nature as that which underlies and allows for the arising of appearances and the cognizing of them, with the latter being more prominent. Synonymous with essence rigpa and the cognitive open space.

J. Hopkins' translation: "sphere/ sphere of reality."

Tib: dbyings
Skt: dhatu
cognitive stimulator

See: stimulators of cognition

cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomena

All validly knowable phenomena, all of which may be validly cognized by mental consciousness.

J. Hopkins' translation: "phenomenon-sense-sphere."

Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched
cognitive stimulators that are sights

Forms of physical phenomena that may be cognized by either visual or mental consciousness.

J. Hopkins' translation: "sense-sphere of form."

Tib: gzugs-kyi skye-mched

See: cognition

collection mental synthesis

A whole imputed on spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts.

J. Hopkins' translation: "collection generality; collection-generality."

Tib: tshogs-spyi
collection of wisdom

See: network of deep awareness

collection synthesis

See: collection mental synthesis

collection universal

See: collection mental synthesis

commanding results

Synonymous with dominating results.

Tib: dbang-gi 'bras-bu

A spiritual practice that one promises to do. The mental factor with which one makes such a promise. The promise may be made either formally with a ritual or informally, and either verbally or nonverbally. In the case of commitment toward a spiritual master, the mental factor with which one promises to relate to that teacher in a healthy manner, in accord with the traditional scriptural description. The term does not have the connotation of a sense of duty or an obligation.

common denominator

See: common locus

common locus

A common locus of two sets of phenomena is an item that is a member of both sets. Sometimes translated as "common denominator."

Tib: gzhi-mthun
commonsense object

An external sensory object, extending over the sensibilia (sense data) of several senses and over time; what an ordinary person, when cognizing one moment of the sensibilia of one sense, would impute and consider as an object with his or her common sense. See also: conventional commonsense object.

J. Hopkins' translation: "well known to the world."

Tib: 'jig-rten-la grags-pa
commotion, ordinary

See: ordinary commotion


The wish for someone to be free from suffering and from the causes for suffering.

Tib: snying-rje
Skt: karuna
compassion, great

See: great compassion

compassionate sympathy

See: compassion

complete stage

(1) The second stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice, in which everything is now complete for engaging in the practices that act as the immediate causes for reaching enlightenment. These practices entail working with the chakras, channels, and winds of the subtle body. (2) In some non-Gelug texts, nonconceptual meditation on the voidness of the visualizations generated during the first stage of anuttarayoga tantra practice. This meditation on a nondenumerable ultimate phenomenon is done simultaneously with the visualizations, on the same stage of practice, and makes the practice of visualization complete. Many translators render this term as "completion stage."

J. Hopkins' translation: "stage of completion."

Tib: rdzogs-rim
Skt: sampannakrama
completing karma

A mental urge or impulse having a relatively weak accompanying motivation and therefore having the strength to ripen, as its result, into only the circumstances that will complete the conditions of a future rebirth.

Tib: rdzogs-byed-kyi las
completion stage

See: complete stage

comprehensible phenomena

(1) Phenomena that can be apprehended, which means correctly and decisively cognized. (2) Phenomena that can be validly cognized and understood. Synonymous with validly knowable phenomena (shes-bya).

J. Hopkins' translation: "object of comprehension."

Tib: gzhal-bya
comprehensive result

See: dominating result

compulsive existence

Existence under the control of karma and disturbing emotions and attitudes. Synonym for uncontrollably recurring existence, samsara.

J. Hopkins' translation: "existence."

Tib: srid-pa

See: mental fixation

concentration, absorbed

See: absorbed concentration


A general term for a universal, a category, or a mental label. A concept of something need not be verbal. For example, one has a concept of what a pretty face looks like, what one's mother looks like, what a good soup tastes like, what a properly tuned guitar sounds like, what a valid line of reasoning is, what one plus one equals, and so on.

J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

Tib: rtog-pa

(1) The moment when the consciousness of a bardo being enters its next rebirth. In the case of rebirth as a human or an animal, the moment in which it enters the sperm and egg of its next parents. (2) See: concept.

J. Hopkins' translation: "birth."

Tib: skye-ba
conception, link of

See: link of conception

conception existence

The period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience conception. It lasts only one moment. Some translators render the term as "birth existence."

J. Hopkins' translation: "birth-state."

Tib: skye-srid

Together with a concept.

Tib: rtog-bcas
conceptual category

(1) A general term for both audio categories and meaning/object categories. Some translators render the term as "universal" or "generality." (2) A set to which individual items sharing a common defining characteristic belong. It is mentally constructed (mentally fabricated) by a mental synthesis of individual items that are instances of it, or by a mental synthesis of the spatial, sensorial, and/or temporal parts on which it is imputed (labeled). Sometimes translated as "mental synthesis" or just "synthesis."

J. Hopkins' translation: "generality; general; all; universal."

Tib: spyi
conceptual cognition

The cognition of an object through the medium of a metaphysical entity, namely a universal, a category, or a mental label. Conceptual cognition imputes (mentally labels) a metaphysical entity on the object that the mental aspect it assumes resembles, and mixes and confuses the two.

J. Hopkins' translation: "conceptual consciousness; thought; investigation."

Tib: rtog-pa
conceptual isolates

See: conceptually isolated item


The process whereby one cognizes objects conceptually.

conceptualized object

The object about which a conceptual cognition gives rise to a universal, a category, or a mental label through which to think of it. Literally, the object on which a concept clings. Also called: implied object or conceptually implied object.

J. Hopkins' translation: "conceived object."

Tib: zhen-yul
conceptually cling

In the context of a conceptual cognition, a category's implying an actual object that corresponds to it, as if the category were attached to that "conceptually implied object." Also translated as "conceptually imply."

J. Hopkins' translation: "adherence; determination; conception; attachment."

Tib: zhen-pa
conceptually implied object

See: conceptualized object

conceptually imply

See: conceptually cling

conceptually isolated item

The type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition and which represents the actual involved objects of the conceptual cognition. They are static phenomena, equivalent to conceptual representations. (1) According to Gelug, they are fully transparent static phenomena that are different from semitransparent conceptual categories. Equivalent to "items conceptually isolated by themselves" and "items conceptually isolated by categories." Also called "distinguishers" or "isolates."(2) Accordant non-Gelug, they are equivalent to semitransparent conceptual categories.

J. Hopkins' translation: "isolate/conceptually isolatable phenomenon."

Tib: ldog-pa
conceptually isolated meaning

In Gelug, equivalent to the defining characteristic mark of a validly knowable phenomenon, which can only be distinguished in terms of a conceptually isolated item.

J. Hopkins' translation: "meaning isolate."

Tib: don-ldog
conceptual representation

The static conceptually isolated items that are the type of "nothing-other-than" that arises in conceptual cognition. (1) According to Gelug, they represent the actual involved object of the conceptual cognition, for instance of a table, and are fully transparent so that, through them, one directly cognizes the fully transparent mental aspect (the mental hologram of a table) and, through that, an external phenomenon (the table) as the involved object. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are the categories, such as a commonsense table, that are the appearing objects of conceptual cognition.

J. Hopkins' translation: "appearance."

Tib: snang-ba
conceptual thought

See: conceptual cognition


See: caring attitude


Solid, like cement -- a nontechnical term used to describe something with truly established findable existence.

concrete "me"

A nontechnical term for a truly existent "me," which would be the "me" to be refuted. See: solid "me."


A nonstatic phenomenon that helps shape the conventional identity of something that is produced or arises from causes.

Tib: rkyen
Skt: pratyaya
condition, causal

See: causal conditions

condition, dominating

See: dominating condition

condition, focal

See: focal condition

condition, immediately preceding

See: immediately preceding condition

condition, objective

See: focal condition

condition, overlord

See: dominating condition

conditioned phenomenon

See: affected phenomenon

confident belief

See: belief in a fact based on reason


A nontechnical term used in place of unawareness (ignorance) to simplify a discussion of the topic, but without any connotation of disorganization, disorientation, or dementia.

confusion, associated with

See: tainted

confusion, dissociated from

See: untainted


The relationship between ways of being aware of something in the same cognition, in which two or more of these ways share five things in common. Compare: congruent affecting variables.

J. Hopkins' translation: "having/possessing association; associational."

Tib: mtshungs-ldan
congruent affecting variable

Ways of being aware of something that share five things in common with the primary consciousness and subsidiary awarenesses of the cognition in which they occur. See: five congruent features.

Tib: ldan-pa'i 'du-byed
congruent cause

A cause that shares five things in common with its result.

J. Hopkins' translation: "associational cause."

Tib: mtshungs-ldan-gyi rgyu
Skt: samprayuktahetu
congruent features, five

See: five congruent features


A class of ways of being aware of something that cognizes merely the essential nature of its object, such as its being a sight, a sound, a mental object, etc. Consciousness may be either sensory or mental, and there are either six or eight types. The term has nothing to do with the Western concept of conscious versus unconscious.

Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
consciousness, all-encompassing foundation

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

consciousness, body

See: body consciousness

consciousness, ear

See: ear consciousness

consciousness, eye

See: eye consciousness

consciousness, foundation

See: all-encompassing foundation consciousness

consciousness, mental

See: mental consciousness

consciousness, nose

See: nose consciousness

consciousness, primary

See: primary consciousness

consciousness, specific

See: specific awareness

consciousness, tongue

See: tongue consciousness

consciousness that takes objects and objects taken by consciousness

Within a cognition, the consciousness and cognitive object.

J. Hopkins' translation: "apprehended-object and apprehending-subject."

Tib: gzung-'dzin

See: attention

consideration, correct

See: paying attention in a concordant manner

consideration, incorrect

See: paying attention in a discordant manner

constancy, mental

See: mental stability

constancy of mind

See: mental stability


States of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into happiness to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "virtuous" is misleading for this term.

J. Hopkins' translation: "virtue, virtuous."

Tib: dge-ba
Skt: kushala

See: contacting awareness

contacting awareness

The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that differentiates that the object of a cognition is pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.

J. Hopkins' translation: "contact."

Tib: reg-pa
Skt: sparsha
contacting awareness, link of

See: link of contacting awareness

contaminated aggregates

See: tainted aggregates

contemporaneous motivating aim

The motivating aim or intention that accompanies the impulse to start and to continue an action.

Tib: dus-kyi kun-slong
continuum, mental

See: mental continuum


See: mutually exclusive


A state of mind mentally constructed through conceptual thought, such as by going through a line of reasoning. Also translated as "artificial."

J. Hopkins' translation: "fabricated; artificial; made up; fabrication."

Tib: bcos-ma

A word or phrase, agreed upon by a society or an individual, and used in speech and thought to refer to something.

Tib: tha-snyad
Skt: vyavahara
conventional bodhichitta

A mind or heart focused first on the benefit of all limited beings and then on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit others by means of that attainment.

Tib: kun-rdzob-gyi byang-chub-gyi sems
conventional commonsense object

Literally: conventional objects that one actually experiences when one cognizes them. An object of ordinary experience to which a word or concept refers, and which endures over time and extends over the sensibilia of one or more senses.

Tib: tha-snyad spyod-yul
conventional object of experience

See: conventional commonsense object

conventional true phenomenon

See: superficial true phenomenon

conventional truth

See: superficial truth

conviction, firm

See: firm conviction

Corpus Encompassing Everything

The omniscient mind of a Buddha

J. Hopkins' translation: "Truth Body/Body of Attributes."

Tib: chos-sku
Skt: dharmakaya
Corpuses of a Buddha, Five

See: Five Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Four

See: Four Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Three

See: Three Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpuses of a Buddha, Two

See: Two Corpuses of a Buddha

Corpus of a Buddha

A network of enlightening features or aspects of a Buddha, such as those of a Buddha's body, speech, or mind, which are attained with enlightenment and which help to lead others to enlightenment.

J. Hopkins' translation: "body (hon.); image; statue."

Tib: sku
Skt: kaya
Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence

In some dzogchen systems, the spontaneous, effortless positive influence that a Buddha's omniscient mind exerts on others. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence. Some translators render the term as "Wisdom Activity Body."

Tib: ye-shes 'phrin-las sku
Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything

The deep awareness aspect of a Buddha's mind, which is equally aware of the two truths simultaneously, without any break. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything, Deep Awareness Dharmakaya. Some translators render this term as "Wisdom Dharmakaya."

J. Hopkins' translation: "Wisdom Truth Body."

Tib: ye-shes chos-sku
Skt: jnana-dharmakaya
Corpus of Emanations

The network of grosser forms, which are emanations of a Buddha's Corpus of Full Use, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach ordinary beings with the karma to be able to meet with them. Also translated sometimes as "Emanation Body."

J. Hopkins' translation: "Emanation Body."

Tib: sprul-sku
Skt: nirmanakaya
Corpus of Enlightening Forms

See: Corpus of Forms

Corpus of Essential Nature

(1) In the Gelug non-Kalachakra system, the voidness of a Buddha's omniscient mind and its state of being parted from the two sets of obscurations. (2) In the Gelug Kalachakra system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind. (3) In the Non-Gelug systems, the inseparability of all the Corpuses of a Buddha - equivalent to the inseparability of the two truths. Also called: Body of Essential Nature, Nature Body.

J. Hopkins' translation: "Nature Body, Nature Truth Body."

Tib: ngo-bo-nyid sku
Skt: svabhavakaya
Corpus of Forms

A network of forms in which a Buddha appears in order to benefit others. It includes both the subtle forms of a Corpus of Full Use and the grosser forms of a Corpus of Emanations, Also called: Corpus of Enlightening Forms, Form Body, Body of Forms.

J. Hopkins' translation: "Form Body."

Tib: gzugs-sku
Skt: rupakaya
Corpus of Full Use

(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."

J. Hopkins' translation: "Complete Enjoyment Body; Enjoyment Body."

Tib: longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i sku
Skt: sambhogakaya
Corpus of Great Bliss

In the dzogchen system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

Tib: bde-ba chen-po'i sku
Skt: mahasukhakaya
Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment

According to some dzogchen systems, the appearance-making aspect of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure appearance. In other words, the appearance-making aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.

Tib: mngon-byang-gi sku
Skt: abhisambhodhikaya
correct consideration

See: paying attention in a concordant manner


The subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a strong longing desire to experience something in the future that one may or may not be experiencing at present. The Sanskrit term means, literally, "thirst."

J. Hopkins' translation: "attachment."

Tib: sred-pa
Skt: trshna
craving, link of

See: link of craving

craving because of fear

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. Also called: craving to be separated from what is fearful. (1) A strong longing desire to be parted from pain and unhappiness. (2) Holding on to objects of the past.

Tib: 'jigs-sred
craving in relation to further existence

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire for a neutral feeling, which one is experiencing, to continue surviving and not degenerate. (2) A strong longing desire for one's own body composed of five aggregates to continue surviving as a basis for craving in relation to what is desirable and craving because of fear. (3) Holding on to objects of the future.

Tib: srid-sred
craving in relation to what is desirable

One of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire not to be parted from the ordinary forms of happiness that one is currently experiencing. (2) Holding on to objects of the present, which one is attached to keeping.

Tib: 'dod-sred
creative drops, subtle

See: creative energy-drops

creative energy-drops

Subtle forms of pure essence, found in the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which, through anuttarayoga complete stage practice, can function as the seed for generating of a blissful awareness.

J. Hopkins' translation: "drop."

Tib: thig-le
Skt: bindu
crimes, five heinous

See: five heinous crimes

cyclic existence

See: samsara

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