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Startseite > Glossar > Glossar Tibetischer Fachbegriffe

Tibetisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

Nur für einige ausgewählte tibetische Begriffe wurden auch die Entsprechungen des Sanskrit aufgenommen, außerdem wurden die diakritischen Zeichen für die Transliteration des Sanskrit weggelassen, um eine Anzeige in allen Browsern zu ermöglichen.

Wählen Sie einen der folgenden Buchstaben. Es werden dann alle Glossareinträge mit diesem Anfangsbuchstaben angezeigt:

' A B C D G K L M N P R S T Y Z alles

TibetischDeutschEnglischSanskritDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)
'bras-buWirkungsebenelevel, resultantThe level of a fully enlightened Buddha, attained as the result of Mahayana practice.
'bras-buWirkungsebeneresultant levelIn the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something, for instance Buddha-nature, in the state of a Buddha when it is fully purified.
'bras-bu'i skyabs-'groresultierendes Einschlagen der sicheren Richtungresultant taking of safe directionA taking of safe direction (refuge) that takes as its sources of safe direction the Triple Gem that one will attain oneself in the future, based on actualizing one's own Buddha-nature. Synonymous with "special taking of safe direction."
'bras-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lagaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt des Ergebnisseslink of loaded consciousness at the time of the resultThe second phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the future lifetime produced as a result of that throwing karma.
'chi-sridTodes-Existenzdeath existenceThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience death. Unless one successfully does advanced anuttarayoga tantra meditations at this time, this period lasts only one moment.
'das-paNicht-Länger-Stattfindenno-longer-happeningThe past occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."
'dod-chagssehnsüchtiges Verlangenslonging desireSkt: ragaThe disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one does not possess and wishes to obtain it.
'dod-khamsEbene des Sinnesbegehrensplane of sensory desiresSkt: kamadhatuSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for sensory objects. Usually translated by others as "desire realm."
'dod-pa'i lhaKamaKamaThe god of desire in Hindu mythology.
'dod-pa nye-bar len-paherbeiführendes Begehrenobtainer desireThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of longing desire specifically for some desirable sensory object on the plane of sensory desires. See: longing desire. Equivalent to the obtainer emotion, it is the first of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.
'dod-sredBegierde in Bezug auf Begehrenswertescraving in relation to what is desirableOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire not to be parted from the ordinary forms of happiness that one is currently experiencing. (2) Holding on to objects of the present, which one is attached to keeping.
'du-byedbeeinflussende Variable / Einflussvariableaffecting variableSkt: samskaraEin Phänomen, das sich fortwährend verändert (ein nichtstatisches Phänomen) und welches andere nichtstatische Phänomene dahingehend beeinflusst, dass sie entstehen, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass es dazu beiträgt, das ihr Entstehen verursacht wird.
'du-byed-kyi phung-poAggregat der anderen beeinflussenden Variablenaggregate of other affecting variablesSkt: samskara-skandhaEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren), die nicht ein Empfinden von Graden von Glücklichsein oder Unterscheiden sind, und auch alle Vorgänge nichtkongruenter beeinflussender Variablen, die Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnten. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat der Willensregungen oder Willenskräfte", "Aggregat karmischer Formationen", "Aggregat der Karmagestaltungen", "Anhäufung geistiger Bildekräfte" oder "Ansammlung von Impulsen oder Tatabsichten".
'du-byed-kyi yan-lagbeeinflussende Impulselink of affecting impulsesSkt: samskara-angaDas zweite Glied der zwölf Glieder abhängigen Entstehens. Es handelt sich um karmische Impulse, die zukünftige Leben beeinflussen werden; synonym mit "werfendem Karma". Einige Übersetzer geben diesen Fachbegriff mit dem Ausdruck "karmische Formationen" oder "karmische Gestaltungen" wieder.
'dun-paAbsicht / IntentionintentionThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved.
'dus-byas-kyi chosbeeinflusstes Phänomenaffected phenomenonSkt: samskrtadharmaEin Phänomen, das durch die Einwirkung von Ursachen und Bedingungen entsteht, und das sich verändert, weil es ständig durch Ursachen und Bedingungen beeinflusst wird. Dies bezieht sich auf alle nichtstatischen (unbeständigen) Phänomene. Übersetzer geben diesen Fachbegriff häufig mit dem Ausdruck "bedingtes Phänomen" wieder.
'du-shesUnterscheidendistinguishingSkt: samjnaOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that takes an uncommon characteristic feature of the appearing object of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance to it, different from that of everything else that appears in the background within that cognition. It does not necessarily ascribe a name or mental label to its object, nor does it compare it with previously cognized objects. Some translators render the term as "recognition."
'du-shesErkenntnisrecognitionSkt: samjnaThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of distinguishing an object as being something specific, such as when studying the Dharma, oneself as being a sick person, one's spiritual teacher as being a doctor, and the Dharma as being medicine.
'du-shes-kyi phung-poAggregat des Unterscheidensaggregate of distinguishingSkt: samjna-skandhaEiner von fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren) des Unterscheidens, das Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnte. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat des Erkennens" oder "Anhäufung der Wahrnehmung". Siehe: Unterscheiden.
'dus ma-byasnichtbeinflusstes Phänomenunaffected phenomenonSkt: asamskrtadharmaA phenomenon that is not affected by causes or conditions. A synonym for static phenomenon. Often rendered by other translators as "unconditioned phenomenon."
'dzin-chageistiges Festhaltenmental holdThe aspect of a cognition that describes the level of strength of maintenance of attention on the focal object, without letting go of it. Also translated as "mental glue," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mindfulness and has two aspects: mental abiding and appearance-making.
'dzin-pakognitiv aufnehmen (eines Objektes)cognitively taking an objectSkt: grahaMit dem "kognitiven Aufnehmen eines Objektes" wird das Wahrnehmen eines Objektes bezeichnet. "Wahrnehmen eines Objektes heißt", dass man ein gültig erkennbares Phänomen zu einem Objekt der Wahrnehmung macht, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass man es durch eine gültige oder ungültige Art des Wissens wahrnimmt.
'dzin-stangsArt, ein Objekt kognitiv aufzunehmenway of cognitively taking an objectAlso called: way of taking an object
'gal-basich gegenseitig ausschließendmutually exclusiveTwo sets are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common locus -- neither contains a member that also belongs to the other. Also translated as "contradictory."
'gog-paBeendigungstoppingSkt: nirodhaThe total elimination of something such that it never recurs.
'gog-pa'i bden-pawahre Beendigungtrue stoppingSkt: nirodha-satyaThe elimination, forever, of some degree of either an emotional or a cognitive obscuration from a mental continuum. They occur only on the mental continuum of aryas -- those with nonconceptual cognition of voidness. Often translated as "true cessation."
'gro-bawanderndes Wesenwandering beingSkt: gaminA being that "wanders" from one uncontrollably recurring rebirth to the next; a being caught in samsara. Synonymous with "limited being" (sentient being).
'gro-ba rigs-drugsechs Existenzbereichesix realms of existenceLiterally, the six families of wandering beings. The six types of samsaric rebirth: (1) hell-beings (trapped beings in the joyless realms), (2) clutching ghosts (hungry ghosts), (3) animals (creeping creatures), (4) humans, (5) would-be divine beings (anti-gods), and (6) divine beings (gods).
'gyod-paReue / BedauernregretThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of not wishing to repeat doing something, either proper or improper, that one did or that someone else made one do.
'gyur-ba'i sdug-bsngalLeiden der Veränderungsuffering of changeThe suffering of ordinary happiness, which never lasts, never satisfies, and which eventually turns into the suffering of suffering.
'jig-rten-la grags-paallgemein verständliches Objektcommonsense objectEin allgemein verständliches Objekt (ein Objekt, das mit dem gesunden Menschenverstand erfasst werden kann) ist ein äußeres sinnliches Objekt, dass durch Sinneseindrücke (Sinnesdaten) mehrerer Sinne über längere Zeit hinweg erfasst wird. Ein allgemein verständliches Objekt oder Objekt des gesunden Menschenverstandes ist folglich das, was ein normaler Mensch in einem Augenblick des Empfangens von Sinneseindrücken eines Sinnesorgans wahrnimmt und dieses mit seinem gesunden Menschenverstand als ein Objekt ansieht.
'jig-rten-pa'i chos-brgyadacht vergängliche Angelegenheiten des Lebenseight transitory things in lifePraise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly -- or, more specifically, the emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to these eight. Also called the "eight worldly dharmas."
'jigs-paAbscheudreadThe strong wish not to experience something or for something not to happen. If overlaid with grasping for truly established existence, it becomes fear. Sometimes translated as "fear."
'jigs-sredBegierde aufgrund von Angstcraving because of fearOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. Also called: craving to be separated from what is fearful. (1) A strong longing desire to be parted from pain and unhappiness. (2) Holding on to objects of the past.
'jig-tshogs-la lta-baverblendete Auffassung in Bezug auf ein vergängliches Netzwerkdeluded outlook toward a transitory networkSkt: satkayadrshti(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards some transitory network from one's own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as "me" or as "mine." (2) According to Tsongkhapa, the disturbing attitude that focuses on the conventional "me" and regards it as a truly findable "me" identical with the aggregates, or as "me, the possessor, controller, or inhabitant" of the aggregates.
'jog-sgomstabilisierende Meditation / verankernde Meditationstabilizing meditationA method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind in which one focuses on an object with that desired insight, understanding, or state of mind and with full conviction in its validity, but without the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) or subtle discernment (scrutiny). Also translated sometimes as "fixating meditation."
'jug-pakognitives Sichbefassencognitive engagementA manner of cognizing an object.
'jug-semsausübendes Bodhichittaengaged bodhichittaA mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, is committed to attaining that enlightenment by having taken bodhisattva vows and which then enters into the type of behavior that will bring one to enlightenment.
'jug-yulbeteiligtes Objektinvolved objectThe main object with which a particular cognition involves itself or engages. Equivalent to the object existing as cognitively taklen.
'khor-baSamsarasamsaraSkt: samsaraUncontrollably recurring rebirth under the power of disturbing emotions and attitudes and of karma. Some translators render it as "cyclic existence."
'khor-lo gsumdrei Kreisethree circlesThree aspects of an action that are all equally void of true existence: (1) the individual performing the action, (2) the object upon or toward which the action is committed, and (3) the action itself. Occasionally, as in the case of the action of giving, the object may refer to the object given. The existence of each of these is established dependently on the others. Sometimes translated as "the three spheres" of an action.
'khrul-batrügerischdeceptiveBeing mistaken or confusing with respect to the appearance of something.
'khrul-shestrügerische Wahrnehmungdeceptive cognitionA cognition that takes a phenomenon's mode of existence that it makes appear -- namely, an appearance of its seemingly true existence -- to be the phenomenon's actual mode of existence. The deceptive cognition may be either accurate or distorted with respect to the appearance it makes of the superficial truth of what the phenomenon conventionally is.
'khrul-snangtrügerische Erscheinungdeceptive appearanceA cognitive object that appears to exist in a manner different from the way in which it actually exists.
'od-gsalGewahrsein des klaren Lichtsclear light awarenessDas Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts ist die subtilste Ebene geistiger Aktivität (Geist), die sich, ohne einen Anfang und ohne ein Ende zu besitzen, selbst nach dem Tod und in der Buddhaschaft weiter fortsetzt [fortdauert]. Das Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts ist individuell und macht das geistige Kontinuum eines jeden Wesens aus [bildet das geistige Kontinuum jedes einzelnen Wesens]. Es ist frei von konzeptueller Wahrnehmung, dem Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer Existenz und frei vom Greifen nach wahrer Existenz, da es subtiler ist als die gröberen Ebenen geistiger Aktivität, mit denen das Gewahrsein auftritt. Das Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts hat nichts mit "Licht" zu tun.
'phags-lamArya-Pfadgeistarya pathway mindSkt: aryamargaDie drei Arten von Pfadgeist der Shravaka-Aryas, Pratyekabuddha-Aryas und Bodhisattva-Aryas (also die drei Arten von Pfadgeist jener Wesen, die eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier edlen Wahrheiten besitzen) - und zwar der Pfadgeist des Sehens, der Pfadgeist des Gewöhnens und der Pfadgeist, der keines weiteren Trainings mehr bedarf.
'phags-paAryaaryaSkt: aryaEin Arya ist eine Praktizierender, der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier Edlen Wahrheiten gehabt hat und so den Pfadgeist des Sehens (Pfad des Sehens) eines Shravakas, Pratyekabuddha oder Bodhisattvas erlangt hat. Der Arya wird auch als "hoch verwirklichter Praktizierender" oder als ein "hoch verwirklichtes Wesen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Edler".
'phangs-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lagaus dem Geworfenen entstandene Gliederresultant links of what has been thrownIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the three and a half links of resultant loaded consciousness, nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, stimulators of cognition, and contacting awareness, which occur during the development of an embryo in the womb in the life that is thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.
'phen-byed-kyi yan-lagkausale Glieder, die werfencausal links that throwIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the two and a half links of unawareness, affecting impulses, and causal loaded consciousness, which describe the process through which throwing karma is built up and its karmic aftermath is "planted" on a mental continuum as the cause for a next rebirth.
'phrin-laserleuchtender Einflussenlightening influenceSkt: samudacaraThe unceasing, unending, effortless activity of a Buddha, which helps bring all limited beings to higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment. Such activity does not require a Buddha actually doing anything: a Buddha's attainment itself exerts a positive influence on others to pacify disturbance, stimulate the growth of good qualities, bring disorder under control, and forcefully end any harm. Also translated as: "Buddha-activity."
'phrin-lasbeeinflussende Naturinfluencing natureOne of the threefold natures of pure awareness (rigpa), referring to the enlightening influence it has on others.
a-nu yo-gaAnuyogaanuyoga tantraIm Nyingma-System die zweite von drei inneren Tantra-Klassen, die Praktiken betont, die mit den subtilen Energiensystemen der Winde, Kanäle und kreativen Energie-Tropfen befasst sind.
a-ti-yo-gaAtiyogaatiyogaAtiyoga ist im Lehrsystem der Nyingma-Schule die zweite von drei Klassen der inneren Tantras, in der
bag-chagskarmische ständige Gewohnheitkarmic constant habitSkt: vasanaA type of karmic aftermath, imputable on one's mental continuum as an unspecified (ethically neutral) noncongruent affecting variable after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result every moment until a true stopping of it has been achieved. Some translators render it as "habit" or "instinct."
bag-chagskarmische Gewohnheitkarmic habitSkt: vasanaA synonym for "karmic latency."
bag-chagskarmische Latenzkarmic latencySkt: vasanaA general term for all karmic aftermath -- namely, karmic potentials, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits.
bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhiAlaya für Gewohnheitenalaya for habitsDer Alaya für Gewohnheiten bezeichnet im Dzogchen-System das grundlegende Gewahrsein für die Gewohnheiten des Greifens nach wahrer Existenz, nach Karma und nach Erinnerungen. Der Alaya der Gewohnheiten bezeichnet die Art des begrenzten Gewahrseins, als die das Basis-Rigpa fungiert, wenn es mit Benommenheit vermischt ist.
bag-la nyalschlafende Faktorendormant factorLiterally, something that is "asleep to the taste of the mind." Affecting variables, associated with mental continuums, which are "lying down" and not rushing to manifest mind (consciousness). They include subliminal awareness, tendencies, and habits.
bag-la nyal-gyi shes-paunterbewusste Wahrnehmungsubliminal cognitionA cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, only to the consciousness of the subliminal cognition and only that consciousness cognizes it. The cognitive object of the subliminal cognition does not appear to the person and is not cognized by the person. Nor does it appear to or is it cognized by the consciousness of the manifest cognition that is simultaneously occurring and overpowering the subliminal cognition.
bag-yodsich kümmernde Geisteshaltungcaring attitudeSkt: apramadaEine sich kümmernde Geisteshaltung ist ein Nebengewahrsein, dass die Situation anderer, wie auch die eigene Situation ernst nimmt, und dass auch die Auswirkungen der Handlungen auf sich selbst und andere ernst nimmt, und somit zur Folge hat, dass man konstruktive Geisteshaltungen und Verhaltensweisen zu einer Gewohnheit ausbaut. Dieses Nebengewahrsein, die sich kümmernde Geisteshaltung (fürsorgliche Haltung), behütet einen auch davor, dass man zu befleckten oder destruktiven Geisteshaltungen neigt.
bar-doBardobardoSkt: antarabhavaDie Existenzform zwischen dem Augenblick unmittelbar nach dem Tod bis zu dem Augenblick unmittelbar vor der Empfängnis. Der Bardo wird mit dem Begriff "Zwischenzustand" übersetzt.
bar-do'i srid-paBardo-Existenzbardo existenceDie Zeitspanne im geistigen Kontinuum eines individuellen begrenzten Wesens beginnend im ersten Moment unmittelbar nach dem Tod bis zum Augenblick unmittelbar vor der Empfängnis.
bcad-paabgrenzenprecludeTo cut off, dismiss, or reject something. To logically cut off or eliminate the possibility that something is something else
bcad-paAbgrenzenpreclusionThe conceptual process through which sets and countersets are formulated. It implies previous apprehension of an object to be negated, in which the apprehension itself logically and automatically excludes the object to be negated from the set of either all validly knowable phenomena other than itself or all validly knowable phenomena in total. It is not a deliberate, conscious mental act.
bcad-shesnachfolgende Wahrnehmungsubsequent cognitionOne of the seven ways of knowing something: a nonfraudulent, but not fresh, cognition of an object. It is the second phase of a valid bare cognition or inferential cognition, and is asserted only by the Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika tenet systems.
bcas-pa'i kha-na ma-tho-baverbotene nicht lobenswerte Handlungenprohibited uncommendable actionEthically neutral (unspecified) actions that Buddha prohibited for certain types of practitioners, for instance monks or nuns, as detrimental to their spiritual practice.
bcomvernichtendevastateTo totally weaken the effectiveness of something, such as the positive force of a constructive act, such that it ripens into something far less and more distant in the future, but without completely eliminating its potential to ripen.
bcom-ldan-'dasAlles Übertreffender Siegreicher MeisterVanquishing Master Surpassing AllSkt: bhagavanAn epithet of a Buddha - one who has conquered (vanquished) all obstacles, attained (mastered) all good qualities, and gone beyond (surpassed) any of the Hindu gods for whom the epithet Bhagavan has also been applied. Some translators render the term as "Blessed One."
bcos-makünstlich / gekünsteltcontrivedAls "künstlich" wird ein Geisteszustand bezeichnet, der geistig durch konzeptuelle Gedanken zusammengebaut oder konstruiert wird, wie beispielsweise durch eine Argumentationskette.
bcos-mednichtkünstlichuncontrivedA state of mind not mentally constructed by conceptual thought. Also translated as "unartificial."
bdagSeelesoulSkt: atmanAccording to non-Buddhist Indian tenet systems, something findable, either with or without being a conscious phenomenon, inside the body of a person, and which is static, a partless monad, separable from the body, and self-sufficiently knowable.
bdag-'brasbeherrschende Wirkungdominating resultSkt: adhipatiphalam(1) The type of environment or society in which one is born or enters and the way it treats one, or (2) objects, such as one's possessions, and what happens to them. Such results may ripen from destructive, tainted constructive, or unspecified actions and are called "dominating results" because they extend over and dominate everything that one experiences in a particular rebirth. Also translated as "comprehensive result," "overriding result" or "overlord result," it is synonymous with "commanding result."
bdag-'jugSelbst-Initiationself-initiationA tantric meditation practice in which one visualizes receiving the entire empowerment (initiation) ritual for a Buddha-figure, performed in order to renew one's tantric vows. It may only be performed if one has done the serviceability retreat of that particular Buddha-figure and the fire-puja afterwards.
bdag-bskyedSelbst-Erzeugungself-generationSynonymous with "sadhana." A meditation method in which one visualizes and imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. See: sadhana.
bdag-gzhan mnyam-brjeunsere geistigen Einstellungen uns selbst und anderen gegenüber gleichsetzen und austauschenequalizing and exchanging self and othersA method for developing a bodhichitta aim, consisting of (1) developing mere equanimity, (2) developing uncommon Mahayana equanimity, as a way to regard all others equally in the same way as one regards oneself, (3) thinking of the disadvantages of a self-cherishing attitude, (4) thinking of the advantages of cherishing others, (5) giving and taking, with attitudes of love and compassion, as a way of exchanging one's attitudes about self and others, (6) exceptional resolve, and (7) developing a bodhichitta aim.
bdag-rkyendominante Bedingung / vorherrschende Bedingungdominating conditionSkt: adhipatipratyayaThe nonstatic phenomena that produce the essential nature of something, such as the eye sensors for the visual consciousness and congruent mental factors of a visual cognition. This condition is called "dominating" – literally, the "overlord condition" – because it rules what the essential nature of its result will be.
bdag-tu smra-baeigene Identitäten behauptenasserting one's identityThe fourth of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising. Equivalent to a deluded outlook toward a transitory network.
bde-baglückseliges Gewahrseinblissful awarenessSkt: sukhaGlückseliges Gewahrsein ist ein Geisteszustand der entweder befleckt oder unbefleckt ist, und der durch unterschiedliche Intensitätsgrade von Glück gekennzeichnet ist. Einige der unbefleckten Grade von glückseligem Gewahrsein können in Praktiken des Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra als die Art von Gewahrsein verwendet werden, mit dem man sich auf Leerheit ausrichtet und mit dessen Hilfe man die Energiewinde im Zentralkanal auflöst, um Zugang zum Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts zu erlangen.
bde-baGlücklichseinhappinessSkt: sukhaThat feeling which, when it stops, we wish to meet with it again.
bde-ba chen-po'i skuKörper großer GlückseligkeitCorpus of Great BlissSkt: mahasukhakayaIn the dzogchen system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.
bde-bar gshegs-paGlückselig GegangenerBlissfully Gone OneSkt: sugataEin Beiname des Buddha - jemand der das glückselige Ziel der Erleuchtung durch Methoden erreicht hat, die auf dem Weg zum Ziel Glück erzeugen.
bden-'dzinGreifen nach wahrer Existenzgrasping for truly established existenceSkt: satyagraha(1) Both to cognize (literally, take as a cognitive object) the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, which the habits of this grasping cause the mind to fabricate and project, as well as believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist, (2) simply cognizing the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, without actually believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist. Gelug asserts both definitions, while non-Gelug asserts only the first. Abbreviated as "grasping for true existence."
bden-grubinhärente Existenzinherent existenceSee: existence established by self-nature
bden-paWahrhaftigkeit / zu seinem Wort stehenbeing true to one's wordSkt: satyaWahrhaftigkeit ist der Geisteszustand, in dem man sein Versprechen nicht bricht, nachdem man sein Wort gegeben hat, etwas zum Wohle anderer zu tun. Wahrhaftigkeit ist die siebte der zehn weitreichenden Geisteshaltungen, die gemäß der Theravada-Tradition von einem Bodhisattva entwickelt wird.
bden-pa gnyiszwei Wahrheitentwo truths(1) In Hinayana, two types of validly knowable phenomena into which all existent phenomena can be divided: superficially true and deepest true phenomena. (2) In Gelug Mahayana, two true facts that can be validly known about any existent phenomenon. (3) In non-Gelug Mahayana, all existent phenomena cognized with dualistic appearance-making and cognized without dualistic appearance-making.
bden-par grub-pawahre Existenztrue existence(1) An impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Existence established or proven (a) merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, or (b) by the power of something on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka. (2) A mode of existence that is true. Existence established or proven by (a) arising from causes and conditions, according to Jetsunpa and Kunkhyen Gelug Sautrantika, or (b) the power of something on the side of an object, according to Panchen Gelug Sautrantika and Gelug Chittamatra. Also translated as "truly established existence."
bden-par grub-pawahrhaft auffindbare Existenztrue findable existenceExistence established or proven by the power of something findable on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and findably established existence."
bden-par grub-pawahre nichtzugeschriebene Existenztrue unimputed existenceExistence established or proven merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and unimputedly established existence."
bden-snangHervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer Existenzappearance-making of true existenceDer Aspekt der geistigen Aktivität eines begrenzten Wesens der ein geistiges Hologramm wahrer Existenz entstehen lässt (erzeugt). Das Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer Existenz lässt die geistigen Hologramme der Objekte der Wahrnehmung als wahrhaft existent erscheinen, in dem Sinne, wie die Madhyamaka-Schule wahre Existenz definiert. In den Nicht-Gelug-Systemen erscheint sie lediglich mit konzeptueller Wahrnehmung und macht Erscheinungen von Objekten der Wahrnehmung zu wahrhaften als "dieses" oder "das" existierenden Dingen.
bduddämonische Kraftdemonic forceSkt: maraSomething that harms limited beings or causes interference and obstacles to constructive actions.
bKa'-'gyurKangyurKangyurThe collection of the Tibetan translations of the enlightening words of the Buddha.
bKa'-brgyudKagyüKagyuOne of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. It has two branches, Shangpa Kagyu deriving from Kyungpo Neljor and Dagpo Kagyu deriving from the line Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa.
bKa'-gdamsKadam-SchuleKadamOne of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from Atisha's visit to Tibet. After its branches were merged and reformed, it continued as the Gelug tradition.
bla-med rnal-'byorAnuttarayoga-Tantraanuttarayoga tantraSkt: anuttarayoga tantraAnuttarayoga-Tantra bezeichnet in der Sarma-Schule des tibetischen Buddhismus (aus der neuen Übersetzungsperiode) die vierte oder höchste Klasse an Tantra-Praktiken, die bestimmte innere Methoden betont, um sich selbst als Buddhagestalt zu realisieren.
bloGeisteshaltung / geistige EinstellungattitudeEin Geistesfaktor, der ein kognitives Objekt erfasst, indem er es von einem bestimmten Standpunkt aus betrachtet.
bloIntellektintellectThe mental activity that gives rise to conceptual cognition -- most commonly, to verbal conceptual thought.
blo'i gzhan-selgeistiger Ausschluss von etwas anderemmental exclusions of something elseStatic implicative negation phenomena, including audio categories, meaning/object categories, and conceptually isolated items.
blo-grosIntelligenzintelligenceThe ability to discriminate between what is correct and what is incorrect, and between what is helpful and what is harmful.
blos-byasvom Intellekt herrührtintellectually derivedDescriptive of meditation with verbal thoughts based on conceptual schemes.
blo-sbyongTraining der Geisteshaltungenattitude-trainingEin spirituelles Training in der man sich von seinen störenden Geisteshaltungen in seinem Geist reinigt und sich darin übt, sie durch konstruktive Geisteshaltungen zu ersetzen. Wird auch bezeichnet als: Reinigen der Geisteshaltungen, Geistestraining, Lojong.
blo-sbyongLojonglojongSee: attitude-training
bonBönBonThe pre-Buddhist spiritual tradition of Tibet.
bon-poBönpoBonpoEin Anhänger der Bön-Tradition
bral-baTrennen / TrennungpartingSkt: visamyogaAlso translated as: separation
brdar-btags-pa'i chos dkon-mchognominelles Darmajuwel / Dharmajuwel dem Namen nachnominal Dharma GemPrinted Dharma texts, representing the Dharma that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Dharma Gem.
brdar-btags-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchognominelles Sanghajuwelnominal Sangha GemFour or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic sangha (full or novice monks or nuns), representing the Sangha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Sangha Gem.
brdar-btags-pa'i dkon-mchognominelles Juwel / Juwel dem Namen nachnominal gemRepresentations of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems, which themselves are not actual sources of safe direction, but which serve as a basis for showing respect to them.
brdar-btags-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchognominelles Buddhajuwel / Buddhajuwel dem Namen nachnominal Buddha GemA painting or statue of a Buddha, representing a Buddha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to an actual Buddha Gem.
brten-pa'i dkyil-'khorunterstütztes Mandalasupported mandalaThe set of Buddha-figures residing inside the immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system visualized in tantra practice.
brtse-baLiebevolle Güteloving-kindnessThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one not only wishes others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one also acts towards others in a helpful manner.
brtson-'grusfreudige Ausdauerjoyful perseveranceSkt: virya(1) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to have zestful vigor for being constructive, without becoming lazy. With this mental factors, one takes joy in being constructive. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Theravada, see: "perseverance."
brtul-zhugsgezügeltes Verhaltentamed behaviorEthical behavior with which one both restrains oneself from destructive actions and engages in constructive ones.
bsam-gtangeistige Stabilitätmental stabilitySkt: dhyanaSingle-pointed placement of the mind on any constructive focal object, without any mental wandering -- a stable state of mind that is not only free of flightiness and dullness, but is also not distracted by any disturbing emotion of the plane of sensory desires. In Mahayana, when conjoined with bodhichitta, a far-reaching attitude. Some translators render the term as "concentration."
bsam-gtan dang-po'i dngos-gzhider tatsächliche Zustand der ersten Ebene geistiger Stabilitätactual state of the first level of mental stabilityA state of mind attained on the basis of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha and which temporarily blocks all disturbing emotions and attitudes directed at phenomena on the plane of sensory desires (the "desire realm"). The various types of advanced awareness arise as a byproduct of the attainment of this state of mind. Also called: "actual state of the first dhyana."
bsam-pamotivierender geistiger Rahmenmotivating mental frameworkA state of mind that accompanies a karmic urge or impulse and which is a cluster of three mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): distinguishing an object on which to focus the action, the motivating aim of what one intends to do with or to that object, and a motivating emotion or attitude.
bsam-paEhrlichkeitsinceritySincerity has two factors included in it: (1) lack of hypocrisy (g.yo-med) – not hiding our own faults, (2) lack of pretension (sgyu-med) – not pretending to have qualities that we do not have.
bsdud-pa-las gyur-pa'i gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene, die andere Dinge bilden, indem sie sich ansammelnforms of physical phenomena that make up other things by amassing togetherForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are the invisible objects, such as atoms and subatomic particles, that make up visible objects.
bsdus-grvaMengenlehreset theorySkt: duraSet theory has to do with the logical pervasions between two or more sets -- mutually exclusive, totally congruent, overlapping, etc. A set is a collection or a group of many items, like the set of all nonstatic phenomena.
bsgrub-byed-kyi yan-lagkausale Glieder, die realisierencausal links that actualizeIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the three links of craving, an obtainer, and further existence, which activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma in the moments preceding death so that the karmic results will actualize. Thus, they serve as the simultaneously acting conditions for the aggregates of a next rebirth.
bshes-gnyen bsten-pazu einem spirituellen Mentor eine gesunde Beziehung aufbauenrelating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy mannerEntrusting oneself, through mind and actions, to a fully qualified spiritual mentor. Also called: relying on a spiritual mentor, entrusting oneself to a spiritual mentor, whole-hearted commitment to a spiritual mentor. Often translated as: guru-devotion.
bskyed-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-buvon Menschhand geschaffene Wirkung, die künstlich erzeugt wurdeman-made result that is producedSomething material, such as a vase, a bruise, or a profit, that arises from someone's effort or actions, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.
bskyed-rimErzeugungsstufegeneration stageThe first stage of anuttarayoga practice, during which one uses the powers of imagination to generate oneself in the form of a Buddha-figure and performs a sadhana.
bsngo-baWidmungsgebet / Gebet der Widmungdedication prayerSkt: pranidhanaA prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal, in which the person making the prayer directs the positive force (merit) from a constructive action that he or she has done toward ripening into that attainment.
bsnyen-chengroßes Annäherungsretreatgreat approximation retreatA three-year, three-month retreat focusing exclusively on one Buddha-figure (deity) system, in which one recites tens of millions of mantras and makes millions of offerings in fire pujas.
bsnyen-sgrubuns der spezifischen Buddhagestalt anzunähern und uns selbst als sie zu realisierenapproximate and actualize oneself as a Buddha-figureIntensive tantrische Meditationspraxis, welche die Visualisation von einem selbst als Buddhagestalt, wie auch die Rezitation der dazugehörigen Mantras umfasst.
bsod-namspositive karmische Kraftpositive karmic forceSkt: punyaThe type of karmic force associated with a constructive action and which ripens intermittently into transitory happiness. Some translators render it as "merit." See: karmic force.
bsod-nams-kyi tshogsNetzwerk positiver Kraftnetwork of positive forceSkt: punyasambharaA constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the positive force on the mental continuum of a limited being, when dedicated with bodhichitta, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Form Corpus of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of positive force." Some translators render the term as "collection of merit."
btags-chosBezugsobjekt der Bezeichnungreferent objectThe validly knowable phenomena that the names and concepts for them, imputed on a basis for labeling, refer to.
btags-donDinge, auf die sich etwas bezieht / Bezugs-Dingreferent thingThe actual "thing" referred to by a name or concept, corresponding to the names or concepts for something, and which is findable, establishing its own existence by its own power, on the side of the referent object of the name or concept. In Gelug, according to Prasangika it is nonexistent and according to lower tenet systems it is existent.
btang-snyomsGleichmutequanimitySkt: upeksha(1) The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of having an equal attitude toward everyone. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the tenth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude with which one does not expect anything in return for one's help, being indifferent to pleasure and pain, and to any benefit or harm one might receive.
btang-snyomsneutrales Gefühl / neutrale Empfindungneutral feelingSkt: upekshaThat feeling which, when it arises, one neither wants to be parted from it, nor, when it stops, one wishes to meet it again.
btang-snyoms tsambloßer Gleichmutmere equanimityAn equal attitude toward everyone that is devoid of attachment to loved ones, repulsion from enemies, and indifference toward strangers, developed in common in both Hinayana and Mahayana.
bya-grub ye-shesvollbringendes tiefes Gewahrseinaccomplishing deep awarenessDas vollbringende tiefe Gewahrsein ist eine von fünf Arten des tiefen Gewahrseins, das jedes Lebewesen als ein Aspekt seiner Buddhanatur besitzt. Das tiefe Gewahrsein geht zu einem kognitiven Objekt hinaus und hat die Bereitschaft, etwas mit diesem Objekt zu erreichen, oder mit ihm etwas zu tun, oder dem Objekt etwas anzutun, oder sich in persönlicher Weise auf das Objekt zu beziehen. Es wird auch als bezeichnet als: das tiefe Gewahrsein etwas zu vollbringen.
bya-grub ye-shesGewahrsein, vollbringendesawareness, accomplishingSee: accomplishing deep awareness
byams-paLiebeloveSkt: maitri(1) The wish for someone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the ninth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude to work to bring about the welfare and happiness of others, even when doing so requires self-sacrifice.
byams-pa chen-pogroße Liebegreat loveSkt: mahamaitriThe wish for everyone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness.
byang-chubgereinigter Zustandpurified stateSkt: bodhiThe state of a shravaka arhat, pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, in which the mental continuum of the person attaining this state has been purified of either the emotional obscurations or both the emotional and the cognitive obscurations.
byang-chub-gyi semsBodhichittabodhichittaSkt: bodhicittaGewöhnlicherweise wird der Begriff mit der Bedeutung von relativem Bodhichitta verwendet: Ein Geist oder Herz, dass sich zuerst auf das Wohl aller begrenzten Wesen ausrichtet und dann auf die eigene individuelle zukünftige Erleuchtung, mit der Absicht,
byang-chub sems-dpa'BodhisattvabodhisattvaSkt: bodhisattvaJemand der müheloses Bodhichitta entwickelt hat
byang-sems 'phags-paArya-Bodhisattvaarya bodhisattvaSkt: arya bodhisattvaEin Bodhisattva der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von Leerheit erlangt hat. Siehe auch: Bodhisattva.
byang-sems sdom-paBodhisattva-Gelübdebodhisattva vowsThe set of restraints from committing certain actions (eighteen root downfalls and forty-six faulty actions) that, if committed, would be detrimental to achieving enlightenment and benefiting all others.
Bye-brag smra-baVaibhashikaVaibhashikaA Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert reflexive awareness and does assert external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.
byed-pa-potreibende KraftagentDie Person, die eine Handlung vollführt. *** [D.h. die handelnde Person. Die treibende Kraft ist eine Person, die eine Tat ausführt. Das passt nicht so (Keine Vorschläge) Fragen]
byed-pa rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buWirkung, die der Ursache im eigenen Verhalten ähneltresult that corresponds to its cause in one's behaviorThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of liking or wishing to do an action, in a particular moment, similar to what one has done in the past. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause in one's behavior" and "result that is similar to its cause in one's instinctive behavior."
byed-rgyuwirkende Ursacheacting causeSkt: karanahetuAll phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result.
bying-bageistige Trägheitmental dullnessA mental factor (subsidiary awareness) faulting the appearance-making of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Some translators render the term as "sinking."
byin-gyis rlabsInspirationinspirationSkt: adhishthana(1) A transformation that someone or something confers, literally by means of a "brightening," into a state of heightened power and ability resembling the position or status of the person or thing that confers it. (2) In the meaning of "elevation," transformation of one's body, speech, and mind, or offering substances, into pure aspects, done during a tantric ritual. Some translators render the term as "blessing."
byin-rlabsEntschlossenheit / EntschlusskraftresolutionSkt: adhisthanaOne of the ten far-reaching attitudes in the Theravada tradition. An attitude of determination with which a bodhisattva never abandons what he or she needs to do in order to benefit others.
bzod-paGeduldpatienceSkt: kshanti(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of not becoming angry at others' shortcomings, mistakes, or cruel deeds. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to be unperturbed by those who do harm and by suffering, so that one never becomes angry. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, patience becomes a far-reaching attitude.
chags-paAnhaftungattachmentSkt: sangaAnhaftung ist die störende Emotion, die die guten Qualitäten eines Objekts, das man besitzt, übertreibt und die sich nicht wünscht, das Objekt loszulassen.
chags-paklebrige Anhaftungsticky attachmentSkt: snehaThe disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses, that clings to it like glue, and does not wish to let go.
chags-pa med-paLoslösungdetachmentSkt: asangaThe constructive mental factor of bored disgust with and thus lack of longing desire for compulsive existence and objects of compulsive existence. Also translated as "nonattachment."
ched-du brjod-pabesondere Versespecial versesSkt: udanaPraises that Buddha uttered with joy for the sake of the long life of his teachings, and not for the sake of specific individuals. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
chosDharmadharmaSkt: dharma(1) Preventive measures which, if one puts into practice or achieves, prevent the experience of future suffering. (2) Buddha's teachings. (3) Any phenomenon or "thing."
chosPhänomenphenomenonSkt: dharmaA validly knowable object that holds its own individual self-nature.
chos-canMerkmalsbesitzerproperty-possessorA member of the set of phenomena possessing a certain property, such as voidness as its actual nature.
chos-dbyings ye-shestiefes Gewahrsein der Realitätdeep awareness of realitySkt: dharmadhatu-jnanaOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness of the superficial truth of something -- namely, awareness of what it is. When developed on the spiritual path, this deep awareness may also be of the deepest truth of something -- namely, its voidness. Also called: deep awareness of the sphere of reality.
chos-kyi bdag-medNichtvorhander einer "Seele" aller Phänomenelack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomenaSkt: dharma-anatmanThe total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness of all phenomena" or "identitylessness of all phenomena."
chos-kyi sdom-pa bzhivier Kennzeichen des Dharmafour hallmarks of the DharmaFour points which, if contained in a system of teachings, indicate that the system is a Buddhist one: (1) all affected (conditioned) phenomena are nonstatic (impermanent), (2) all tainted phenomena are problematic (suffering), (3) all phenomena are devoid and lacking an impossible "soul," while (4) a nirvana release is a pacification and something constructive. Also called "four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words."
chos-kyi skye-mchedWahrnehmungsanreger, die (alle) Phänomene sindcognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomenaAll validly knowable phenomena, all of which may be validly cognized by mental consciousness.
chos-kyi skye-mched-pa'i gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene, die (ausschließlich) bei den kognitiven Anregern enthalten sind, die (alle) Phänomene sindforms of physical phenomena included (only) among the cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomenaForms of physical phenomena that are not knowable by sensory consciousness, but are only knowable by mental consciousness. These include (1) those that make up other things by amassing together, (2) those existing in actual situations, (3) those arising from clearly taking them on, (4) totally imaginary forms, and (5) those arising from gaining control over the elements.
chos-kyi spyanaußersinnliches Auge des Dharmaextrasensory eye of the DharmaOne of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Gelug explanation, cognition that is able to understand the mental capacities of others, in order to be able to teach them appropriately. (2) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, a Buddha's omniscient awareness that possesses the ten forces that enable a Buddha to lead all beings to enlightenment.
chos-nyidtatsächliche Naturactual natureSkt: dharmataEin Synonym für Leerheit (Leere) oder, in einigen Mahamudra- und Dzogchen-Systemen, die Natur aller Dinge als Spiel des untrennbaren Paares von Gewahrsein und Leerheit.
chos-skuAlles umfassender KörperCorpus Encompassing EverythingSkt: dharmakayaDer allwissende Geist eines Buddha
chos-skyongDharma-SchützerDharma-protectorSkt: dharmapalaA class of forceful beings, tamed by Buddha or a spiritual lineage master such as Guru Rinpoche, and made to take an oath to protect the Dharma and its practitioners. They may be either ordinary worldly beings (non-aryas) or highly realized aryas. In some cases, they are emanations of a Buddha, appearing in the form of a Dharma-protector.
dad-paGlauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr istbelieving a fact to be trueSkt: shraddhaA constructive emotion that focuses on something existent and validly knowable, something with good qualities, or an actual potential, and considers it either existent or true, or considers a fact about it as true. Some translators render the term as "faith."
dag-pa'i snang-bareine Erscheinungpure appearanceAn appearance of something as an enlightened mind makes it appear, namely in the form of a Buddha-figure or mandala and devoid of any of the four extremes of impossible existence.
dal-baRuhepauserespiteEin vorübergehende Pause oder Unterbrechung von einem Zustand, in dem man keine Muße für Dharmapraxis hat, wie beispielsweise in den üblen Wiedergeburtszuständen. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff als "Freiheit" wieder.
dam-paheilighallowedPure and worthy of the highest respect; sacred.
dam-rdzasbindende Substanzenbonding substancesSubstanzen wie beispielsweise Alkohol und Fleisch, die während eines tantrischen Rituals gereinigt, umgewandelt und gesegnet werden und dann einer Buddha-Gestalt dargebracht werden, um eine enge Bindung (nahe Beziehung) mit dieser Gestalt beizubehalten, so wie man es versprochen hat.
dam-tshigbindende Praktikbonding practiceSkt: samayaEine bindende Praktik bezeichnet eine Verhaltensweise oder ein Geisteszustand, mit der man, wenn man sich in dieser Verhaltensweise übt oder sich an diesen Geisteszustand gewöhnt, eine enge Bindung zu einem bestimmten Tantra oder einem bestimmten spirituellen Meister aufrechterhält. Die bindende Praktik wird auch als eng bindende Praktik oder enge Bindung bezeichnet.
dangs-ba'i dad-pamit klarem Kopf daran glauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr istclearheadedly believing a fact to be trueSee: clearheaded belief in a fact
dbangErmächtigungempowermentSkt: abhishekhaA tantric ritual that activates and empowers Buddha-nature factors to grow so that, through repeated, sustained tantric practice, they will eventually transform into the Three Corpuses (Bodies) of a Buddha. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials, that will likewise grow in the same manner. The term is often translated as "initiation."
dbang-'byor-pa'i gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man Kontrolle über die Elemente erlangtforms of physical phenomena arising from gaining control over the elementsForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are actually emanated by the power of absorbed concentration.
dbang bzhi-pavierte Ermächtigungfourth empowermentAlso called: word empowerment (tshig-dbang)
dbang-gi 'bras-bubeherrschende Wirkungcommanding resultsSynonymous with dominating results.
dbang-poSensor der Wahrnehmungcognitive sensorSkt: indriyaDer Sensor der Wahrnehmung ist die dominierende Bedingung, die bestimmt, welcher Art der Wahrnehmung die Art und Weise des Gewahrseins von etwas ist. Im Falle der fünf Arten sinnlicher Wahrnehmung bezieht sich das auf die lichtempfindlichen Zellen in den Augen, die geräuschempfindlichen Zellen der Ohren, die geruchsempfindlichen Zellen der Nase, die geschmacksempfindlichen Zellen der Zunge und auf die für körperliche Empfindungen empfindlichen Zellen des Körpers. Im Falle der geistigen Wahrnehmung bezieht sich der Sensor der Wahrnehmung auf den unmittelbar vorhergehenden Augenblick der Wahrnehmung. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff Sensoren der Wahrnehmung mit "Sinnesorgane", "körperliche und geistige Fähigkeiten", "Sinneskräfte" oder "Sinnesausstattungen".
dbu-maMadhyamakaMadhyamakaSkt: madhyamakaA Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert the true existence of anything. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.
dbus-gnas-nyidausgewogen / ausgewogener Geisteven-mindedSkt: madhyasthataA tranquil state of mind that stays in the middle with regard to being either happy or unhappy, in all circumstances, such as when meeting with or parting from friends. Literally, "a state of standing in the middle."
dbyangs-kyis bsnyad-pawohlklingende Versemelodic versesSkt: geyaOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Verses that Buddha uttered during the course of and at the conclusion of his sutras. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of interpretable meaning.
dbyer-meduntrennbarinseparableTwo facts about the same attribute of an object are inseparable if, when one is the case, so is the other. The two facts may inseparably both be the case either naturally or made to be so through the power of meditation.
dbyingskognitive Sphärecognitive sphereSkt: dhatuRigpa (reines Gewahrsein) aus dem Blickwinkel seiner essentiellen Natur. Die essentielle Natur liegt dem Entstehen von Erscheinungen und dem Wahrnehmen der Erscheinungen zugrunde und gestattet, dass diese Erscheinungen entstehen und wahrgenommen werden, wobei das Entstehen der Erscheinungen mehr im Vordergrund steht. Der Begriff und "kognitiver Sphäre" ist gleichbedeutend mit "Essenz-Rigpa" und "kognitiver offener Raum"
de-bzhin gshegs-paSo-GegangenerThusly Gone OneSkt: tathagataA epithet of a Buddha -- one who has gone to the goal of enlightenment through nonconceptual cognition of voidness, the very nature of reality (thusness).
de-bzhin-nyidübereinstimmende Naturaccordant natureSkt: tathataEin Synonym für Leerheit. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Soheit" wieder.
de-kho-na-nyideigentliche Natur der Realitätvery nature of realitySkt: tattvamA synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."
de-kho-na-nyid mchod-paGabe / Opfer der ureigensten Natur der Realitätoffering of the very nature of realityOffering of a nonconceptual cognition of voidness with a blissful awareness or of one's nonconceptual blissful cognition of voidness together with one's appearance as an illusory body.
de-lta-bu byung-baErzählungen aus alter Zeitancient narrativesSkt: itivrttikaStories from ancient times that Buddha told. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
de-ma-thag rkyenunmittelbar vorausgehende Bedingungimmediately preceding conditionSkt: samanantarapratyayaThe immediately preceding moment of awareness, which produces the appearance-making and cognizing (clarity and awareness) of the next moment of awareness as its result.
de-nyidwie die Dinge sind (Soheit)how things areAlso called: thusness.
dgag-paNegierungs-Phänomennegation phenomenonAn item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the exclusion of something else, in which an object to be negated is explicitly precluded by the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon. Also translated as: "negation," "nullification," "refutation."
dge-'dunSanghaSanghaSkt: sanghaThe literal meaning of the Sanskrit term is a "community"; the literal meaning of the Tibetan translation is "those intent on a constructive goal." Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic community: full or novice monks or nuns - the four need not necessarily be all from one group or one from each group - and who have unlabored renunciation and are intent on ridding themselves of disturbing emotions and attitudes and thus attaining liberation.
dge-bakonstruktivconstructiveSkt: kushalaAls konstruktiv wird ein Geisteszustand beschrieben, bzw. werden körperliche, sprachliche oder geistige Handlungen bezeichnet, die von einer solchen konstruktiven Geisteshaltung motiviert sind, die in Form von Glück im geistigen Kontinuum der Person heranreifen, in der sie auftreten. Der der Begriff keinen Beiklang von moralischer Wertung besitzt, ist die Übersetzung des Begriffes mit dem Wort "tugendhaft" oder "tugendsam" irreführend.
dge-ba'i bshes-gnyenspiritueller Mentorspiritual mentorSkt: kalyanamitraA Buddhist teacher who has had stable realizations, who embodies the teachings in the sense of having integrated them into his or her life, and who confers vows on disciples.
dge-ba'i rtsa-baWurzel positiver Kräfteroots of positive forceThe network of positive force (collection of merit), described from the point of view of it serving as the "root" for one to grow into a Buddha.
dge-bshesGeshegesheSkt: kalyanamitra(1) In the Kadam tradition, a title given to a spiritual mentor and friend, especially those that are masters of attitude-training (lojong). (2) In the Gelug tradition, a title given to those who have completed the monastic education system.
dGe-lugsGelugGelugOne of the New Translation traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from the reforms made by Tsongkhapa.
dge-rtsaWurzeln konstruktiver Kraftroots of constructive forceSee: roots of positive force
dgra-bcom-paArhatarhatSkt: arhatEin Arhat ist ein Praktizierender der zur Klasse der Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas und Bodhisattvas gehört, und der eine wahre Beendigung der emotionalen Schleier erreicht hat und auf diese Weise die Befreiung (Nirwana) erlangt hat. Ein Arhat wird auch als "befreites Wesen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Feindzerstörer".
dkar-po chig-thuballeinig ausreichendes weißes Allheilmittelsingular sufficient white panaceaAlso called: all-curing single white epanacea, single white remedy, self-sufficient white remedy
dkon-mchog gsumDrei Seltene und Überragende KleinodienThree Rare and Supreme GemsSkt: triratnaThe Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. Also called "The Three Gems," "The Triple Gem," "The Three Jewels," and "The Three Jewels of Refuge."
dkon-mchog-gsum-la skyabs-su-'grosichere Richtung zu den Drei Juwelen einschlagentake safe direction from the Three GemsTo turn toward the direction indicated by the Three Rare and Supreme Gems (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and to put that safe direction in one's life. Some translators render this as "go for refuge to the Three Gems."
dkyil- 'khorMandalamandalaSkt: mandalaIn general, a round symbol used to represent a meaning. Most often used to represent a world system.
dmigs-medohne Ausrichtung auf ein Bezugsobjektwithout a referent aimA state of mind, such as immeasurable compassion, that lacks focus on the three circles ('khor-gsum) involved -- the action itself (in the case of compassion, wishing all beings to be free from suffering), the object, and the agent -- existing in an impossible way. Also translated as: unaimed.
dmigs-rkyenfokale Bedingungfocal conditionSkt: alambanapratyayaAn external phenomenon that presents an aspect of itself to be an object of cognition, and thus serves as a condition giving rise to a sensory cognition of it.
dmigs-yulObjekt der Ausrichtung / Ausrichtungsobjektfocal objectAn external object on which a cognition focuses and which serves as the focal condition of the cognition. Focal objects exist prior to the cognitions of them and have their own continuums different from those of the cognitions of them.
dngos-'galDichotomiedichotomyTwo mutually exclusive sets form a dichotomy if all existent phenomena must be a member of either one or the other mutually exclusive set.
dngos-grubverwirklichte Errungenschaft / verwirklichte Erlangungactual attainmentSkt: siddhiEin bedeutsames spirituelles Ziel, dass man tatsächlich erlangt hat oder wörtlich, das man in seinem eigenen geistigen Kontinuum wirklich "gemacht hat" oder "real gemacht" [effektiv gemacht] hat. Die gewöhnlichen verwirklichten Errungenschaften beziehen sich auf außersinnliche und außerphysische Kräfte, wohingegen sich die höchsten [überragenden] verwirklichten Errungenschaften auf die Erleuchtung beziehen.
dngos-gzhiwirklicher Zustandactual stateThe full definitional state of something, such as one of levels of mental constancy.
dngos-mednichtwirksames Phänomen / unwirksames Phänomennonfunctional phenomenon(1) An validly knowable, existent object that does not perform a function -- in other words, it does not produce a result -- namely, a static phenomenon. (2) A nonexistent object, such as an impossible way of existing.
dngos-powirksames Phänomenfunctional phenomenon(1) A validly knowable, existent object that performs a function -- in other words, it produces a result -- namely, a nonstatic phenomenon. (2) In the Vaibhashika system, all validly knowable, existent phenomenon, all of which at least perform the function of acting as an object for the valid cognition of them.
dngos-po brgyadacht Gruppen von Verwirklichungeneight sets of realizationsalso translated as: eight phenomena.
dngos-rgyudirekte Ursachedirect causeThe phenomenon that actually produces its result, without need for any intermediary -- for example, a visible object is the direct cause for the seeing of it.
dngos-su rtogs-paexplizites Begreifenexplicit apprehensionIn the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object of the cognition arises. Compare: implicit apprehension.
dngos-su shes-padirekte Wahrnehmungdirect cognitionAccording to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the present moment of a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object. Compare: indirect cognition.
don-dam bden-patiefste Wahrheitdeepest truthSkt: paramarthaIn the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a more superficial true fact about the same phenomenon. Some translators render this term as "ultimate truth."
don-dam-patiefste Ebenedeepest levelThe level of some phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by something more superficial about that phenomenon. Sometimes translated as "ultimate level" or "deepest ultimate level."
don-dam-pa'i byang-chub-gyi semstiefstes Bodhichittadeepest bodhichittaThe deep awareness that has nonconceptual cognition of voidness.
don-dam-pa'i chos dkon-mchogtiefstes Dharmajuweldeepest Dharma GemThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or a monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).
don-dam-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchogtiefstes Sanghajuweldeepest Sangha GemThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge).
don-dam-pa'i dkon-mchogtiefste Ebene der kostbaren Juwelendeepest level Precious GemsThe level of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are concealed by the apparent level gems.
don-dam-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchogtiefstes Buddhajuweldeepest Buddha GemA Buddha's Dharmakaya as a source of safe direction (refuge).
don-gyi 'od-gsaltatsächlicher Geist des klaren Lichtsactual clear light mindEine subtilste Ebene von Bewusstsein, die eine nicht-konzeptuelle, glückselige Wahrnehmung von Leerheit hat.
don-spyibedeutungsbezogene Kategoriemeaning categoryThe conceptual category into which fit all significances (meanings) of an audio category.
don-spyiBedeutungs-Kategorie /Objekt-Kategoriemeaning/object categoryThe conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refers. These items are also what the audio category signifies (means).
don-spyiObjekt-Kategorieobject categoryThe conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refer.
don-spyigeistige Objektsyntheseobject mental synthesis(1) The conceptual category of a commonsense object, such as a table, used when thinking of, verbalizing, imagining (visualizing), or remembering a commonsense object. (2) A specific commonsense object as a conceptual category into which fit all moments of anyone's mental or sensory cognition of any amount of parts of any of its sensibilia.
dpa'-boVira (spirituelle Helden)vira(spiritual hero)
dpa'-moVirini (spirituelle Heldinnen)virini(spiritual heroine)
dpe'i 'od-gsalVorbild eines Geistes des klaren Lichtsmodel clear light mindDas Vorbild eines Geistes des klaren Lichts ist eine subtile Ebene des Bewusstseins, die eine glückselige konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von Leerheit besitzt, die erlangt wird, wenn die subtilen Energie-Winde zum Teil im zentralen Kanal aufgelöst worden sind. Der Begriff wird auch als "annähernder Geist des klaren Lichts" übersetzt.
dpyad-sgomklar erkennende Meditationdiscerning meditationA method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind, with which one focuses on an object and generates the desired insight, understanding, or state of mind about it, through using the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) and subtle discernment (scrutiny). The method may also entail applying a line reasoning that one has already understood and become convinced of its validity. Many translators render the term as "analytical meditation."
dpyod-pasubtile Unterscheidungsfähigkeitsubtle discernmentA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that actively understands the fine details of the nature of something, having scrutinized them thoroughly. It does not imply verbal thinking, although it may be induced by verbally thinking. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "scrutiny," "analysis." and "discerning analysis."
drag-poextrem kraftvollforcefulUsing extremely strong actions or methods, such as yelling at someone or hitting someone, in order to make the person stop doing something harmful. Forceful methods are used only when all other methods to make the person stop have failed or are impossible in the situation. Some translators render the term as "wrathful," but this has an inappropriate connotation, since "wrathful," in English, is used for the Old Testament God, who, when people disobey Him, gets angry and punishes them.
drang-donexplizit hinweisende Bedeutungexplicit suggestive meaningSkt: neyarthaOne of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It suggests or leads one on to the second meaning (the implicit suggested meaning), which is dissimilar to what is actually said on face value.
drang-donauslegbare Lehre / interpretierbare Lehreinterpretable teachingSkt: neyarthaA passage in a sutra text that discusses any topic other than the most profound view of voidness, and which leads one on or points the way to the most profound view of voidness. Such passages require explanation, so that one does not confuse them as indicating the most profound view.
dran-paVergegenwärtigungmindfulnessSkt: smrti(1) The subsidiary awareness (mental factor), similar to a mental glue, that keeps a mental hold on a cognitive object, so that it is not lost. (2) The recollection of something, with which the mind keeps a mental hold on a mental hologram that resembles and represents something previously cognized. The term is often rendered as "memory" or "remembering," but has nothing to do with the recording or storage of mental information.
dran-pa nyer-bzhag bzhivier feste Ausrichtungen der Vergegenwärtigungfour close placements of mindfulnessSkt: smrtyupasthanaVon anderen Autoren als "vier Grundlagen der Achtsamkeit" übersetzt.
dri-maFleck / MakelstainSomething that obscures the Buddha-nature factors, preventing them from being fully realized.
drinGüte / gütige HandlungkindnessA beneficial action that is of help to others.
drin-dranGüte erinnernremembering kindnessRemembering the kindness of motherly love, remembering all the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers. The second of the six part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.
drin-gsoGüte zurückgebenrepaying kindnessAppreciating the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers and wishing to benefit them in return. The third of the seven part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.
dusZeittimeSkt: kalaAn interval imputed or measured in the continuum of the occurrence of a sequence of cause and effect. Since time is conceptually imputable, time is a function of and therefore relative to the mind that conceptually imputes it.
dus-kyi kun-slonggleichzeitig(e) (stattfindende) Motivationcontemporaneous motivating aimDie Motivation oder Absicht, die den Impuls begleitet, eine Handlung zu beginnen oder fortzusetzen.
dvang-ba'i dad-paGlaube an Tatsachen mit einem klaren Verstandclearheaded belief in a factEine konstruktive Emotion, die sich über eine Tatsache im Klaren ist und wie ein Wasserreiniger den Geist von störenden Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen reinigt, die er in Bezug auf ein Objekt besitzt.
dvangsLichtheitlucidityA quality of a well-concentrated mind with which the mind remains fresh in each moment.
ga'u-maTradition der Amulettdoseamulet box traditionEine Tradition der Mahamudra-Meditation, die von der Shangpa-Kagyü-Schule übermittelt wird.
gang-zagPersonpersonSkt: pudgalaAn individual being, including those from any of the six realms of samsaric existence, as well as arhats and Buddhas. A noncongruent affecting variable, synonymous with a conventional "me."
gang-zag-kyi bdag-medNichtvorhandensein einer "Seele" einer Personlack of an impossible soul of a personSkt: pudgala-anatmanThe total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. Often translated by others as "selflessness of a person" or "identitylessness of a person."
gces-zhing pham-pa'i byams-pasich liebevoll kümmernde Liebecherishing concerned loveSich liebevoll kümmernde Liebe ist ein Nebengewahrsein (Geistesfaktor), mit dem man anderen nicht nur wünscht, dass sie glücklich sein mögen und ihnen die Ursachen für Glück widerfahren mögen, sondern mit dem man auch das Wohlergehen anderer im höchsten Maße würdigt und traurig sein würde, wenn ihnen Schlimmes widerfahren würde.
gcigMonademonadAn undifferentiated, partless whole, either the size of an atom or the size of the universe, asserted by non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy as descriptive of the atman, the "soul" of a person.
gdams-ngagrichtungsweisende Anleitungenguideline instructionsBeneficial practical advice concerning spiritual practice.
gleng-bzhiethische Erzählungenethical narrativesSkt: nidanaRules, codified by Buddha for those who are ordained, concerning which actions constitute a breach of their vows. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
glo-bur-gyi dri-maflüchtiger Makelfleeting stainAn emotional or cognitive obscuration that temporarily obscures the realization of Buddha-nature.
gnadSchlüsselpunktekey pointsThe most important main points of a topic.
gnas-lugsandauernde Naturabiding natureDie dauerhafte und beständige Natur aller Phänomene; die Leerheit aller Phänomene.
gnas-skabs-kyi skyabs-gnasvorläufige Quelle einer sicheren Ausrichtungprovisional source of safe directionThe aryas with incomplete sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.
gnyis-mednichtdualnondual(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the absence (the voidness) of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which everything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources.
gnyis-med rgyudnichtduales Tantranondual tantraA division of anuttarayoga tantra, specified only in the non-Gelug schools, in which there is equal emphasis on practices for generating the physical bodies of a Buddha and practices for generating the mind of a Buddha.
gnyug-maursprünglicher Zustandprimordial stateThe state of having, with no beginning, been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. Descriptive of the clear light mind.
gnyug-semsursprünglicher Geistprimordial mindAwareness that, with no beginning, has been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. A synonym for "clear light mind."
gong-ma'i spyivertikale geistige Synthesevertical mental synthesisA collection or mental synthesis that extends over time, such as a human body over a lifetime.
grub-mtha'Lehrsystemtenet systemSkt: siddhantaA set of principles or assertions of a particular traditional Indian school of philosophy or of astronomical calculations.
grub-mtha’Lehrsystemesystems of tenetsSee: tenet system
gsalKlarheitclarityAls eine definierende Eigenschaft des Geistes bezeichnet Klarheit entweder die Fähigkeit oder die geistige Aktivität oder das geistige Ereignis, das kognitive Objekte hervorbringt - bzw. die kognitiven Objekte erscheinen lässt, so dass sie wahrgenommen werden können. Ein geistiges Hologramm des kognitiven Objekts muss noch nicht einmal in der Wahrnehmung erscheinen, da das Objekt möglicherweise implizit wahrgenommen wird. Klarheit bezeichnet nicht eine Art Licht im Kopf, das verschiedene Grade von Intensität besitzt, und das die bereits vorhandenen Objekte beleuchtet. Auch hat Klarheit nichts mit einem Wahrnehmungsobjekt zu tun, das sich im Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit befindet oder verstanden wird. Darüberhinaus impliziert das Erscheinenlassen eines kognitiven Objekts einerseits keine Passivität oder einen Mangel an Verantwortlichkeit, andererseits keinen bewussten Willen. Als ein Ereignis ereignet sich die Klarheit einfach ganz natürlich in jedem Augenblick in jedem geistigen Kontinuum.
gsal-baklar und scharfin focusThe appearance of something as being sharp and clear, not blurry.
gsang-barätselhaftenigmaticSkt: guhyaAlso translated as: secret, hidden
gsang-ba'i dkyil-'khorgeheimes Mandalasecret mandalaThe offering of a blissful awareness, or of a nonconceptual blissful awareness of voidness with a clear-light mind. Also called: hidden mandala.
gsang-mchodverborgenes Opferhidden offeringAn offering of one's blissful awareness or of one's blissful awareness of voidness, visualized in the form of an offering goddess.
gsang-sngagsverborgenes Mantrahidden mantraSkt: guhyamantraSynonymous with "mantra."
gSar-maSarma-SchulenSarmaSee: New Translation
gser-skyemsgoldenes Trankopfergolden libation(1) An offering of a liquid, most commonly alcohol, made usually to a Dharma protector and ideally offered in a golden bowl. (2) The ritual that accompanies this offering.
gsos-'debsaktivierenactivateVerursachen, dass eine karmische Tendenz zu einem manifesten karmischen Impuls wird, der seine Wirkung im nächsten Augenblick hervorbringt.
gtan-la dbab-paFeststellung / VergewisserungascertainmentEine maßgebliche [***bestimmend, entscheidend, ausschlaggebend] Wahrnehmung eines kognitiven Objekts; mit Bestimmtheit wissen, was ein Objekt der Wahrnehmung ist oder wie es existiert.
gtan-la phab-paentscheidende Erklärungendecisive explicationsSkt: upadeshaPrecise indications of the meaning of the works in The Basket of Sutras by specifying the individual and general definitions of things. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
gter-maTermatermaSee: treasure text
gter-maSchatztexttreasure textTexts planted by Indian or Tibetan masters, either in a physical location, such as inside a pillar of a temple, or in the minds of disciples and hidden there for safekeeping during times that were not conducive for their practice. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan term "terma."
gti-mugNaivitätnaivetySkt: mohaEine Unterkategorie des Gewahrseins. Das Gewahrsein von verhaltensbedingter Ursache und Wirkung oder das Gewahrsein der Realität, das lediglich destruktive Geisteszustände oder Verhaltensweisen begleitet. Eine der drei giftigen Emotionen.
gtso-semsHauptgewahrseinprincipal awarenessWithin a cognition, an awareness that consists of the composite of a primary consciousness and its accompanying set of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The principal awareness is the way of being aware of the object of the cognition that is prominent and which characterizes the type of cognition that it is occurring -- for example, relative bodhichitta and the deep awareness of total absorption on voidness.
gus-paWertschätzungappreciationEtwas hoch schätzen, gewöhnlicherweise die Freundlichkeit von jemanden. Häufig im Zusammenhang mit dem Wertschätzen seines spirituellen Mentors verwendet. Wird auch als "Respekt" bezeichnet.
gzhal-yas khangunermesslich herrlicher Palastimmeasurably magnificent palaceA palace visualized in tantra practice as part of the supporting mandala. Each architectural feature of the palace represents one or another realization gained along the tantra path, and inside the palace reside one or more Buddha-figures.
gzhan-dbangabhängiges Phänomendependent phenomenonSkt: paratantraA validly knowable object that arises dependently on causes and conditions. All nonstatic phenomena. Often translated literally as "other-powered phenomenon."
gzhan gces-par 'dzin-paandere wertschätzen / sich um das Wohl der anderen kümmern / das Wohl der anderen liegt uns am Herzencherishing othersAndere Wertschätzen ist die Geisteshaltung mit der man andere Wesen als die wertvollsten und wichtigsten Wesen betrachtet (das Wohl anderer liegt einem am Herzen); man empfindet das Gefühl von Zuneigung hauptsächlich für andere und kümmert sich vornehmlich um andere Wesen.
gzhan-sems shes-pa'i mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein, den Geist anderer zu erkennenadvanced awareness of knowing other's mindsWahrnehmung der Gedanken und Geisteszustände anderer. Eine der sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt.
gzhan-stongAnderesleerheitother-voidnessThe natural, beginningless absence from the clear light level of mental activity of "other" levels of mental activity, which are all limited by fleeting stains.
gzhiEbene der Basisbasis levelDie Ebene der Basis ist die Ebene von etwas, wie beispielsweise der Buddhanatur, die ganz im Allgemeinen auftritt, unabhängig davon, ob man eine Errungenschaft auf dem buddhistischen spirituellen Weg erreicht hat oder nicht.
gzhi'i rig-pagrundlegendes Rigpabasis rigpaDas grundlegende Rigpa ist ein reines Gewahrsein (Rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel, dass das reine Gewahrsein eine Form von Buddhanatur oder Arbeitsgrundlage zum Erlangen der Erleuchtung ist.
gzhi-mthungemeinsame Grundlagecommon locusAuch übersetzt als: gemeinsamer Nenner
gzhi-snang-gi rig-paErscheinungen hervorbringendes grundlegendes Rigpaappearance-making basis rigpaReines Gewahrsein (rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel seines Aspektes spontan Erscheinungen hervorzubringen. Synonym mit dem Fachbegriff: strahlendes Rigpa.
gzugsFormen physische Phänomeneforms of physical phenomenaSkt: rupaNonstatic phenomena that can either (1) transform into another form of physical phenomenon when two or more of them come into contact with each other, such as water and earth which can transform into mud, or (2) be known as what they are by analyzing their directional parts, such as the sight of a vase seen in a dream. Forms of physical phenomena include the nonstatic phenomena of forms and eye sensors, sounds and ear sensors, smells and nose sensors, tastes and tongue sensors, phyiscal sensations and body sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Equivalent to the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena.
gzugsAnsichten, AnblickesightsSkt: rupaNonstatic phenomena that can be explicitly cognized by eye consciousness -- namely, colors and shapes. Equivalent to "forms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes." One of the eleven types of forms of physical phenomena.
gzugs-bsnyangeistige Ableitungmental derivativeSkt: pratibimba(A) In Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, a fully transparent appearing object, which is a mental aspect, similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity, through which that external entity is directly cognized also as an appearing object of the cognition. (2) In conceptual cognition, a static conceptual category that is mentally constructed from all individual objective entities that fit into it and thus is a semitransparent, static, metaphysical entity. It is the appearing object through which a fully transparent mental representation of a specific objective entity is cognized. (B) In non-Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, the opaque, directly cognized appearing object, which is a mental aspect similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity that the cognition indirectly cognizes as its focal object, but not as an additional appearing object. (2) In conceptual cognition, a conceptually isolated item, an opaque metaphysical entity that stands for the mentally synthesized commonsense object and category in the cognition and which is the appearing object of the cognition.
gzugs-khamsEbene der ätherischen Formenplane of ethereal formsSkt: rupadhatuSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for subtle forms of physical phenomena. Usually translated by others as "form realm."
gzugs-kyi phung-poAggregat der Formen physischer Phänomeneaggregate of forms of physical phenomenaSkt: rupa-skandhaEiner von fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge aller Arten von Anblicken, Klängen, Gerüchen, Geschmäcken, körperlichen Sinnesempfindungen, physischen Sensoren, und Formen physischer Phänomene, die Anreger von lediglich geistiger Wahrnehmung sind. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor wird auch als "Aggregat der Formen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Ansammlung des Körpers" oder "Anhäufung der Leiblichkeit".
gzugs-kyi skye-mchedkognitive Anreger, die Anblicke sindcognitive stimulators that are sightsForms of physical phenomena that may be cognized by either visual or mental consciousness.
gzugs-med khamsEbene der formlosen Wesenplane of formless beingsSkt: arupadhatuSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings lack any gross body. Usually translated by others as "formless realm."
gzugs-skuKörper der FormenCorpus of FormsSkt: rupakayaA network of forms in which a Buddha appears in order to benefit others. It includes both the subtle forms of a Corpus of Full Use and the grosser forms of a Corpus of Emanations, Also called: Corpus of Enlightening Forms, Form Body, Body of Forms.
ka-dagursprüngliche Reinheitprimal purityThe essential nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which refers to its being pure of all stains, without a beginning.
kha-'donRezitationspraxisrecitation practiceIn tantra, the meditation practice with which one recites a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings.
khamsEbene / SphäreplaneSee: three planes of samsaric existence
khams-gsumdrei Ebenen der samsarischen Existenzthree planes of samsaric existenceSkt: tridhatuA threefold division of samsaric rebirth states: the planes of (1) sensory desires, (2) ethereal forms, and (3) formless beings. Sometimes called "the three realms."
kha-na ma-tho-banicht lobenswerte Handlunguncommendable actionSkt: avadyaAn action that ripens into the experience of suffering by the person who commits it or into a hindrance to his or her spiritual practice. An action that cannot be spoken about with praise.
khong-khroÄrger / Wut / FeindseligkeitangerSkt: kroddhaEine störende Wurzelemotion, die auf ein anderes begrenztes Wesen ausgerichtet ist oder auf das eigene Leiden oder auf Situationen die Leiden nach sich ziehen. Die störende Wurzelemotion des Ärgers reagiert ungeduldig auf diese Lebewesen, Leiden oder Situationen und wünscht sich, diese loszuwerden, indem sie diese schädigt, verletzt oder nach ihnen schlägt. Der Ärger basiert darauf, das er die Objekte, auf die er ausgerichtet ist, ihrer Natur nach als unattraktiv und abstoßen betrachtet.
khridausführliche ErklärungdiscourseAn oral teaching on a spiritual topic, often concerning tantra.
khro-bokraftvolle Gottheitforceful deitySkt: kroddhaAn emanation of a Buddha in a form of great strength, usually surrounded by flames representing deep awareness, and terrifying, so as to chase away disturbing emotions, interferences, and other harm. Often translated by others as "wrathful deity," although there is no connotation here of "wrath" as in "the wrath of God." Although the Sanskrit and Tibetan terms, here, mean literally "angry," this does not refer to anger as a disturbing emotion, but rather to the strong force of anger to get rid of something detrimental to spiritual well-being and progress.
khyabumfassendpervasive"x" is pervasive with "y" if, whenever "x" is the case, so is "y". Used in such formulations as "If "x" is the case, then it is pervasive that "y" is the case."
khyab-paautomatisch / gleichzeitigpervasionThe intersection of two sets of phenomena.
khyab-par 'du-byed-kyi sdug-bsngalalles umfassendes beeinflussendes Leidenall-pervasively affecting sufferingDas Leiden, das einfach dadurch entsteht, dass man befleckte Aggregate besitzt, die als Grundlage dafür dienen, das man das Leiden des Leidens erlebt und das Leiden des Wandels. Solch ein Leiden ist alles durchdringend, da es jeden Augenblick samsarischer Erfahrung beeinflusst.
klongkognitiver offener Raumcognitive open spaceEin kognitiver offener Raum ist Rigpa (d.h. reines Gewahrsein) vom Blickwinkel seiner essentiellen Natur aus. Die essentielle Natur des reinen Gewahrsein liegt dem Hervorbringen der Erscheinungen zu Grunde und gestattet ihr die Erscheinungen wahrzunehmen, wobei das Wahrnehmen der Erscheinungen mehr im Vordergrund steht. Der Begriff "kognitiver offener Raum" ist gleichbedeutend mit "Essenz-Rigpa" und "kognitiver Sphäre".
klong-sdeLongdelongdeySee: open space division
kun-'byung bden-pawahrer Ursprungtrue originSkt: samudaya-satyaAlso translated as: true causes
kun-'groimmer arbeitendes Nebengewahrseinever-functioning subsidiary awarenessAccording to Asanga, a set of five subsidiary awarenesses that accompany every moment of cognition: feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, an urge, contacting awareness, and paying attention or taking to mind.
kun-btagsvöllig konzeptionelle Phänomenetotally conceptional phenomenaSkt: parikalpita(1) In the context of the Chittamatra tenet-system, all static phenomena other than the various types of voidness, true stoppings, and nirvana, plus all non-existent phenomena. (2) In the context of the Madhyamaka tenet-system, all non-existent phenomena, especially true existence.
kun-btags-pa'i gzugsvollkommen imaginäre Formen physischer Phänomenetotally imaginary forms of physical phenomenaForms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which appear in certain mental states, such as the sensory objects appearing in dreams and the conceptually implied objects in visualizations and imaginings.
kun-daTropfen der Jasminblütejasmine flower dropsSkt: kundaDrops of white bodhichitta; drops of subtle creative energy.
kun-dkris bzhivier bindende Faktorenfour binding factorsFactors which, when they accompany someone's acting in breach of a vow, bind that person to the full karmic result, in the sense of guaranteeing that the full karmic result will follow.
kun-gzhiBasis für allesbasis for allSkt: alayaEin Synonym für Rigpa (reines Gewahrsein), das hauptsächlich in Schatztexten der Kategorie des Geistes verwendet wird.
kun-gzhi rnam-shesalles umfassendes grundlegendes Bewusstseinall-encompassing foundation consciousnessSkt: alayavijnanaEine unspezifisches, nichthinderliches, individuelles Bewusstsein, das aller Wahrnehmung zugrunde liegt, und das dieselben Objekte wahrnimmt, die den Wahrnehmungen zugrunde liegen, das aber eine nichtbestimmende Wahrnehmung dessen ist, was ihm erscheint, und dem es an Klarheit in Bezug auf seine Objekte mangelt. Dieses Bewusstsein trägt die karmischen Vermächtnisse des Karmas und die geistigen Eindrücke seiner Erinnerungen, und zwar in dem Sinne, das sie dem Bewusstsein zugeschrieben sind. Der Begriff wird auch als "grundlegendes Bewusstsein" übersetzt und von einigen Übersetzern als "Speicher-Bewusstsein" wiedergegeben. Der Gelug-Schule zufolge wird es nur von der Chittamatra-Schule angeführt, den Nicht-Gelug-Schulen zufolge wird es sowohl von der Chittamatra-Schule als auch vom Madhyamaka-Lehrsystem behauptet.
kun-gzhi ye-shesAlaya des tiefen Gewahrseinsdeep awareness alayaIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for "mind-itself": the pure aspect of mind that is an aspect of Buddha-nature.
kun-mkhyenAllwissendes Gewahrsein eines Buddhaomniscient awarenessA Buddha's unceasing nonconceptual cognition simultaneously of all validly knowable phenomena and their voidnesses -- in other words, of the two truths about all knowable phenomena.
kun-rdzob bden-paoberflächliches wahres Phänomsuperficial true phenomenonSkt: samvrtisatyaIn den Lehrsystemen der Hinayana-Schulen bezeichnet der Begriff "oberflächliches wahres Phänomen" ein wahres Phänomen, das ein tiefer liegendes wahres Phänomen verschleiert oder verbirgt. Das oberflächliche wahre Phänomen wird auch als relativ wahres Phänomen, konventionell wahres Phänomen oder offensichtlich wahres Phänomen bezeichnet.
kun-rdzob bden-paoberflächliche Wahrheitsuperficial truthSkt: samvrtisatyaIn the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that veils or conceals a deeper true fact about the same phenomenon. Also called: relative truth, conventional truth, apparent truth, surface truth.
kun-rdzob-gyi byang-chub-gyi semskonventionelles Bodhichittaconventional bodhichittaSiehe: relatives Bodhichitta
kun-rdzob-pa'i chos dkon-mchogoffensichtliches Dharma-Juwelapparent Dharma GemDie zwölf Text-Kategorien von Unterweisungen, die von der erleuchtenden Sprache eines Buddha als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung verkündet wurden.
kun-rdzob-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchogoffensichtliches Sangha-Juwelapparent Sangha GemDie individuelle Person irgendeines Aryas, die als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung fungiert, unabhängig davon, ob sie Laie, Mönch oder Nonne ist.
kun-rdzob-pa'i dkon-mchogoffensichtliche Ebeneapparent level Precious GemsDie Ebene der drei kostbaren und höchsten Juwelen, die für die begrenzten Wesen offensichtlich sind und die eine tiefere Juwelen-Ebene verbergen.
kun-rdzob-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchogoffensichtliches Buddha-Juwelapparent Buddha GemDer Korpus an Formen eines Buddha als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung.
kun-shes rnam-shesspezifische Alaya des Gewahrseinsspecific-awareness alayaIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for alayavijnana. See: all-encompassing foundation for all.
kun-slongMotivationmotivating aimSynonymous with intention. See: intention.
lamEbene des Pfadespathway levelSkt: margaIn the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of it in the context of someone engaged in the practices for attaining enlightenment. In some usages, the level of a Mahayana arya with a seeing or accustoming pathway mind.
lamPfadgeistpathway mindSkt: margaA level or state of mind that acts or functions as a pathway toward liberation or enlightenment. Some translators render this term as "path," but it refers to mental states, not to a series of spiritual practices. Also called: pathway of mind.
lam-bdenwahrer Pfadgeisttrue pathway mindSkt: marga-satyaAlso called: true path
lam-lngafünf Arten von Bodhisattva-Pfadgeistfive bodhisattva pathway mindsAlso called: five paths
lam-rimLam-rimlam-rimGraded path; graded stages of the path; graded stage of motivation; graded stages of pathway minds. A course of training in the Mahayana sutra teachings through which one makes progress by developing graded stages of motivation, which act as pathway minds leading to enlightenment.
lasKarmakarmaSkt: karma(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, equivalent to a subcategory of the mental factor (subsidiary awareness), an urge. It is the mental factor that brings the mind in the direction of a specific physical, verbal, or mental action. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, with respect to mental karmic actions, it is the mental factor of the urge that brings the mind in the direction of that action. With respect to physical or verbal karmic actions, it is (a) the revealing form of the physical impulse of the physical action or the sound of the words of the verbal action, plus (b) the nonrevealing form of the subtle invisible "vibration" of the action, which continues during and after the action. Some translators render the term "karma" as "action." (3) A general term used loosely for behavioral cause and effect. Also called: karmic impulse.
las-'brasverhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkungbehavioral cause and effectMit dem Begriff "verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung" wird die Grundsatz (Grundprinzip) von Karma bezeichnet, nach dem bestimmte Handlungen bestimmte Wirkungen hervorbringen. Die Ursache ist unser Verhalten - also die Art und Weise wie wir handeln, sprechen und denken - und die Wirkung ist das, was wir erleben (bzw. was uns widerfährt). Verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung bezieht sich auf die Verbindung, die zwischen unserem Verhalten und dem, was wir als Wirkung erleben, besteht.
las-kyi rlungkarmische Windewinds of karmaIn the Kalachakra system, the subtle energy-winds that carry the impulses of karma -- either the karmic impulses that draw one into actions or the karmic impulses with which one carries out physical or verbal actions.
las-rungTauglichkeits-Retreatserviceability retreatAn intensive tantric meditation practice, done over many meditation sessions, during which one performs the sadhana and recites the mantra of a Buddha-figure ten thousand, one hundred thousand, or many hundreds of thousands of times, depending on the number of syllables in the mantra. When completed and finished off with the appropriate fire puja, this intensive practice makes the mind fit to be used (fit to be put into service) for more advanced tantric practices with that Buddha-figure.
ldan-min 'du-byednichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablenoncongruent affecting variableDer Begriff "nichkongruente beeinflussende Variable" bezeichnet eine von drei Arten nichtstatischer Phänomene - und zwar jener nichtstatischer Phänomene die mit dem Hauptbewusstsein und den Arten von Nebengewahrsein der Wahrnehmung, der sie erscheinen, keine fünf Dinge gemeinsam haben und die weder Formen physischer Phänomene sind noch Weisen, in denen man sich etwas gewahr ist [sich einer Sache gewahr zu sein]. Für eine ausführliche Erklärung vergleichen Sie bitte den Artikel: Kongruente und nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablen.
ldog-pakonzeptuell isoliertes Elementconceptually isolated itemWerden auch als Unterscheider oder Isolate bezeichnet.
len-paHerbeiführerobtainerSkt: upadanaA set of four disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes: (1) obtainer desire, (2) an obtainer deluded outlook, (3) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (4) asserting one's identity, and which, when occurring at the time of death, constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.
lhaGötterwesendivine beingSkt: devaA limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."
lha'i mig-gi mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen Augesadvanced awareness of the divine eyeEine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. (1) Erläuterungen der Karma-Kagyü-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um eine Wahrnehmung der unterschiedlichen Wirkungen von Karma auf verschiedene Wesen, wie beispielsweise ihre zukünftigen Wiedergeburten. (2) Der Gelug-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um die Wahrnehmung grober (offensichtlicher) Formen und subtiler Formen, einschließlich jener, die sich in großer Entfernung in Raum und Zeit befinden.
lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen Ohrsadvanced awareness of the divine earWahrnehmung, die in der Lage ist Klänge über jede Distanz hinweg zu hören und zu verstehen, unabhängig von der Sprache, in der sie gesprochen werden. Eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt.
lha'i spyanaußersinnliches göttliches Augeextrasensory divine eyeCognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).
lhag-bcas-kyi mya-ngan 'dasNirvana mit Überrestnirvana with residueSkt: sopadhishesha-nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that a shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, attains during his lifetime and which lasts only so long as the person is alive. This is so called because the person still has left a residue of tainted aggregates. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the same as asserted by the Hinayana systems, but in reference only to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state either during subsequent attainment (post-meditation) periods, when meditating on something other than voidness, or when not meditating at all. In reference to Buddhas, their Corpuses of Form.
lhag-bsamaußergewöhnlicher Entschlussexceptional resolveSkt: adhyashayaThe full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."
lhag-bsamaußerordentliche Ehrlichkeitexceptional sincerityExceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).
lhag-med mya-ngan 'dasNirvana ohne Überrestnirvana without residueSkt: nirupadhishesha-nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats, or a Buddha, attains immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. No longer having a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuum extinguishes, like a spent candle. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the state that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats attain immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. Although they no longer have a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuums now go on in a purified form. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state during total absorption on voidness, when there is no appearance-making of truly established existence. In reference to Buddhas, their Deep Awareness Dharmakayas.
lhag-mthongGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher Wahrnehmungsfähigkeitexceptionally perceptive state of mindSkt: vipashyanaA state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight."
lha ma-yinMöchtegern-Gottwould-be divineSkt: asuraAlso called: anti-gods
lhan-cig byed-pa'i rkyengleichzeitig wirkende Bedingungsimultaneously acting conditionSkt: sahakaripratyayaAn item that must exist prior to the arising of something and which assists in making the arising happen, but which does not transform into what arises, for instance water for a sprout.
lhan-skyesautomatisch auftretend, automatisch erscheinendautomatically arisingSkt: sahajaNaturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.
lhan-skyesgemeinsam entstehend / mit entstehendco-arisingSkt: sahaja??? Alex: what is this?
lhan-skyesgleichzeitig auftretensimultaneously arisingSkt: sahajaTwo items simultaneously arise if, when one of them arises or happens, the other does also, at the same time. The two items may arise simultaneously either naturally or through the power of meditation. Also called: innate.
lhun-grubspontan Erscheinungen hervorbringenspontaneously establishing appearancesThe functional nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which is that it automatically, without any effort, gives rise to pure appearances.
lhun-grub sbubs-kyi rig-paRigpa der all-umfassenden spontanen Präsenzrigpa of all-embracing spontaneous presencePure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its resultant level as the Dharmakaya of a Buddha.
lkog-gyurverschleiertes Phänomenobscure phenomenonA validly knowable phenomenon that cannot be apprehended through the force of personal experience, but can be apprehended through the force of a line of reasoning.
log-'tshofalscher Lebenserwerb / falsche Methode des Lebenserwerbswrong livelihoodA dishonest means of earning a livelihood or procuring offerings.
log-ltaGeisteshaltung, verzerrte, feindseligeattitude, distorted antagonisticSee: distorted antagonistic thinking
log-ltaverzerrte, feindselige Geisteshaltungdistorted antagonistic thinkingThe action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.
log-ltaverzerrte Auffassungdistorted outlookThe disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."
log-shesverzerrte Wahrnehmungdistorted cognitionA way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.
longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i skuKörper vollen GebrauchsCorpus of Full UseSkt: sambhogakaya(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."
lta-baAuffassungoutlookA way of regarding and understanding objects, for instance as "me" and "mine."
lta-baAnsicht / Auffassung / SichtviewIn the description of a Buddhist system in terms of the view of reality, a way of meditating, and way of behaving that it espouses, the main way for regarding and understanding reality. See also: outlook.
lta-ba ngan-pa drug-cu re-gnyiszweiundsechzig falsche Ansichtensixty-two wrong viewsA set of sixty-two incorrect positions regarding the past, present and future of the self, the universe, and so on, propounded by the eighteen non-Buddhist extremeists and refuted in Buddhism. Sometimes translated by others as the sixty-two bad views.
lta-ba nye-bar len-paherbeiführende verblendete Auffassungobtainer deluded outlookA set of three disturbing deluded outlooks on life that constitute the second of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) a distorted outlook, (2) an extreme outlook, (3) holding a deluded outlook as supreme.
lta-ba nyon-mongs-canverblendete Auffassungdeluded outlookOne of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.
lta-sgom-spyod gsumSicht der Wirklichkeit, eine Meditations- und Verhaltensweiseview of reality, way of meditating, and way of behavingA way to describe a Buddhist system that specifies it in terms of its main way for regarding and understanding reality, its main topic of meditation, and its main manner of acting in the world.
lungmündliche Übertragungoral transmissionA ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony insures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them need to understand their meaning.
lung-bstan-paenthüllende Berichterevelatory accountsSkt: vyakaranaOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Buddha's revelations of what has happened in the past or prophesies of what will occur in the future. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of definitive meaning.
lus-cankörperliches Wesenembodied beingSkt: dehinA being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."
lus-dkyilKörpermandalabody mandalaEin Netzwerk von Buddhagestalten, die innerhalb des Körpers einer Buddhagestalt angeordnet sind.
lus phra-mosubtiler Körpersubtle bodyWithin the gross body of humans, the invisible system of energy-winds, energy-channels, energy-nodes (chakras), and creative energy-drops.
lus shin-tu phra-mosubtilster Körpersubtlest bodyThe subtlest life-supporting energy-wind that accompanies each moment of subtlest mind.
ma-'ong-paNoch-nicht-Stattfindennot-yet-happeningThe future occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon.
ma-dag-pa'i snang-baunreine Erscheinungimpure appearanceAn appearance of something as a nonenlightened mind makes it appear, namely in only a mundane form and with true existence.
ma-ha yo-gaMahayogamahayogaWithin the Nyingma classification scheme of nine vehicles of mind, the class of tantra leading to dzogchen practice but with the main emphasis and detail on generation stage practice.
man-ngagQuintessenz-Lehrenquintessence teachingsSkt: upadeshaTeachings, either oral or written, that present the essential, most profound points of a more extensive topic.
ma-rig kun-brtagsdoktrinär bedingte Unwissenheitdoctrinally based unawarenessThe mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Also called: doctrinally based ignorance.
ma-rig-paUnwissenheitunawarenessSkt: avidya(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, not knowing. (2) According to Dharmakirti, knowing in an inverted (incorrect) manner. In both cases, unawareness is of either behavioral cause and effect, or of the lack of an impossible "soul" or voidness. Translators often render the term as "ignorance."
ma-rigs lhan-skyesautomatisch erscheinende Unwissenheitautomatically arising unawarenessDie automatisch erscheinende Unwissenheit ist ein Geistesfaktor mit dem man entweder die verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung oder die Art und Weise in der das Selbst und alle Phänomene existieren nicht erkennt oder verkehrt erkennt, und der in dem geistigen Kontinuum einer Person entsteht, ohne dass der Person ein fehlerhaftes Lehrsystem beigebracht worden ist. Dieser Geistesfaktor wird auch als automatisch erscheinende Ignoranz bezeichnet.
mar-shesMuttermother-awarenessThe recognition of all beings as having at some time been one's mother. The first of the seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.
ma-yin dgagimplizierendes Negierungs-Phänomenimplicative negation phenomenonAn exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as "affirming negation."
mchedLicht-Streuunglight diffusionAuch übersetzt als: heller werdend, rote Erscheinung
mchod-paGabe / OpfergabeofferingSomething presented, with respect and the intention to bring happiness and benefit, to someone else.
mchod-paOpferritual / Ritual zum Darbringen von Gabenoffering ritualSkt: pujaEine tantrische Zeremonie, in der speziell gesegnete Gaben dargebracht werden, um seinen tantrischen Meister zu ehren, den man als untrennbar von der Buddhagestalt betrachtet.
mchod-rtenStupastupaSkt: stupaA monument within which are kept the relics of a great Buddhist master. Translated as a reliquary monument.
mdoSutrasutraSkt: sutra(1) Texts by Shakyamuni Buddha, both Hinayana and Mahayana, that discuss themes of practice.(2) Within the context of the Three Baskets (Tripitaka), the texts of Buddha that especially concern the training in higher concentration. (3) Within the context of Buddha's teachings divided into sutra and tantra, the division that does not entail visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure. (3) Within the context of the twelve scriptural categories, the texts that present what Buddha had to say in a brief and condensed format. Also called: expositions on themes of practice.
mdo'i gsang-lamverborgener Pfad des Sutrahidden path of sutraThe mahamudra teachings concealed in the Mahayana sutras and passed down in lineage from Maitripa to Marpa to Milarepa to Gampopa.
mdo'i phyag-chenSutra-Mahamudrasutra mahamudraMeditations on the nature of the mind with regard to only gross and subtle minds -- in other words, sensory and mental consciousness -- and not with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.
mDo-sde-paSautrantikaSautrantikaA Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that asserts the true existence of both reflexive awareness and external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.
mdun-bskyedErzeugung vor einemfront-generationThe part of a self-initiation in which one generates in front of oneself the supported and supporting mandalas from which one will receive the full empowerment.
mdzad-paerleuchtende Tatenenlightening deedsAccording to Mahayana, a set of twelve actions or deeds in the life of a Buddha, with which a Buddha demonstrates to all limited beings the way to achieve enlightenment.
med-dgagnichtimplizierendes Negierungs-Phänomennonimplicative negation phenomenonAn exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they do not leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as a "nonaffirming negation."
med-paNichtexistierendenonexistentsThings that cannot be validly known.
med-snangHervorbringen von Erscheinungen nichtwahrer Existenzappearance-making of non-true existenceGemäß der Nyingma-Schule ist das Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen nichtwahrer Existenz der Aspekt der sinnlichen oder nichtkonzeptuellen geistigen Aktivität eines begrenzten Wesens das ein Objekt der Wahrnehmung erscheinen lässt (erzeugt), ohne die Objekte zu wahrhaft als "dieses" oder "das" Existierendes erscheinen zu lassen, in dem Sinne, wie die Madhyamaka-Schule wahre Existenz definiert.
med-snangErscheinungen von nichtwahrer Existenzappearances of non-true existenceErscheinungen von nicht wahrer Existenz sind im Nyingma-System geistige Hologramme von Objekten der Wahrnehmung, die Objekte nicht so erscheinen lassen als seien sie wahrhaft als "dies" oder "das" existierende Dinge. Die Erscheinungen von nichtwahrer Existenz entstehen lediglich bei der sinnlichen und nichtkonzeptuellen geistigen Wahrnehmung auf.
me-long lta-bu'i ye-shesspiegelgleiches tiefes Gewahrseinmirror-like deep awarenessOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that takes in all the information about an object of cognition. Also called: deep awareness that is like a mirror.
mi-'gyur rdo-rje'i skuunveränderlicher Vajra-KörperImmutable Vajra CorpusIn some Kagyu mahamudra systems, synonymous with "Vajra Corpus" in the meaning of the unchanging nature of the other four Corpuses of a Buddha.
mi-bde-baUnglücklichseinunhappinessSkt: du:kha (duhkha)That feeling which, when it arises, one wants to be parted from it.
mi-bslu-banichttrügerisch / untrügerischnonfallaciousNot incorrect.
mi-dge-baschädlich / destruktivdestructiveSkt: akushalaStates of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.
mi-gnas-pa'i mya-ngan 'dasnichtverweilendes Nirvananonabiding nirvanaSkt: apratisthita-nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting only so long as he is alive. In this state, a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems, including Gelug Prasangika, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting forever, in which a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue.
ming 'dogs-pageistiges Bezeichnen / geistiges Zuschreibenmental labeling"Geistige Bezeichnen" (Benennen) oder "geistiges Zuschreiben" bezeichnet den Vorgang, bei dem einer Grundlage (wie z.B.: vier Beinen und einem sich darauf befindlichem flachen Brett), mittels der konzeptuellen Wahrnehmung, eine Audiokategorie (wie z.B. das Wort oder der Name "Tisch") oder die Bedeutung / Objekt-Kategorie (wie z.B. "Tisch" als ein individuelles Objekt) zugeschrieben wird.
ming-dang gzugs-kyi yan-lagbenennbare Geisteskräfte mit oder ohne feste Formlink of nameable mental faculties with or without gross formSkt: namarupa-angaThe fourth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The four mental aggregates -- consciousness, feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, and other affecting variables -- some of which are merely potentials -- together with the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena during a rebirth on the plane of sensory desires or the plane of ethereal forms, or without this aggregate during a rebirth on the plane of formless beings, during the period of time in the development of a foetus from the moment of conception up until the moment just before the cognitive faculties of seeing, hearing, and so on are differentiated.
mi-rtag-paNichtstatischseinnonstaticnessSkt: anityaNichtstatischsein bezeichnet die nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variable, die sich unter dem Einfluss von Ursachen und Umständen von Augenblick zu Augenblick verändert. Manchmal wird der Begriff als "Unbeständigkeit" oder "Vergänglichkeit" übersetzt.
mi-rtag-panichtstatisches Phänomennonstatic phenomenonSkt: anityaNichtstatische Phänomene sind Phänomene, die von Uraschen und Bedingungen beeinflusst und getragen werden und die sich folglich von Augenblick zu Augenblick verändern. Zudem erzeugen nichtstatische Phänomene Wirkungen. Ihre Kontinuitätsströme haben möglicherweise einen Anfang, aber kein Ende, oder sie haben einen Anfang und kein Ende, oder sie haben keinen Anfang, aber ein Ende, oder sie haben kein Anfang und kein Ende. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "vergängliche Phänomene" oder "unbeständige Phänomene".
mi-rtag-pa phra-mosubtile Unbeständigkeitsubtle impermanenceA nonstatic phenomenon's drawing closer each moment to its ultimate end, like a time bomb, based on the fact that the cause for the phenomenon's final disintegration or end is its coming into being, its arising.
mi-rtag-pa rags-pagrobe Unbeständigkeitgross impermanenceThe final destruction or disintegration of a nonstatic phenomenon.
mi-shes sgribSchleier des Nicht-Wissensobscurations of not knowingMental blocks that come from not knowing the Dharma in general or specifically not knowing about the emotional and cognitive obscurations. These mental blocks prevent the attainment of liberation and enlightenment.
mi-slob lamPfadgeist, der keines weiteren Trainings mehr bedarfpathway mind needing no further trainingSkt: ashaiksha-margaThe level of mind of shravaka arhats, pratyekabuddha arhats, and Buddhas, with which they have attained their respective purified states (bodhi) of liberation or enlightenment, and which require no further training in order to attain that purified state. Other translators sometimes render this term as "path of no learning."
mngon-'dod-kyi dad-paGlauben an eine Tatsache mit einem Streben in diese Richtung / wobei man sie anstrebtbelief in a fact with an aspirationEine konstruktive Emotion, die sowohl eine Tatsache über etwas als wahr betrachtet, wie auch den Wunsch, den man in Bezug auf ein bestimmtes Objekt hegt, wie beispielsweise, dass man ein lebensbejahendes Ziel erreichen kann und dass man es erreichen wird.
mngon-byang-gi skuKörper manifester ErleuchtungCorpus of Manifest EnlightenmentSkt: abhisambhodhikayaAccording to some dzogchen systems, the appearance-making aspect of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure appearance. In other words, the appearance-making aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.
mngon-gyuroffensichtliches Phänomenobvious phenomenonA validly knowable phenomenon that can be cognized by valid nonconceptual straightforward cognition. Also defined as a validly knowable phenomenon that be apprehended through the force of personal experience.
mngon-par grub-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lagGlieder, die sich aus dem Realisierten ergebenresultant links of what is actualizedIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the two links of conception and aging and dying in a future rebirth thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.
mngon-par skabs yod-pa'i gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene die in wirklichen Situationen existierenforms of physical phenomena existing in actual situationsForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are spaces that are in between objects and either too large or too small to be seen, such as the space in between astronomical bodies or in between atoms.
mngon-par ‘du-byed med-paFehlen der Einflussvariabeln einer Handlunglack of an action’s affecting variablesThe voidness or total lack of true existence of the three affecting variables (three circles) involved with any action: an act to be done, an agent and an action that occurs.
mngon-rtogsvorangehende Praxis der Verwirklichungantecedent practice for realizationEine Visualisationspraxis bei der man sich selbst als eine Buddhagestalt vorstellt, für die man eine Ermächtigung erhalten hat. Man führt die Visualisationspraxis aus, um sich selbst als die Buddhagestalt zu realisieren. [***verwirklichen besser? Realisieren nach Glossar] Synonym mit "Sadhana".
mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein / erhöhtes Gewahrseinadvanced awarenessSkt: abhijnaNichtkonzeptuelle einfache (nackte / bloße) Wahrnehmung von Orten, Zeiten und Entfernungen die verborgene Phänomene sind und von Situationen, die äußerst verborgene Phänomene sind. Ein allgemeiner Begriff, der sich sowohl auf die fünf Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins bezieht, wie auch auf die sechs außersinnlichen Augen, die man beide als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Manchmal wird der Begriff auch mit "erhöhtem Gewahrsein" oder "außersinnlicher Wahrnehmung" übersetzt.
mngon-sumbloße Wahrnehmungbare cognitionSkt: pratyakshaBloße Wahrnehmung bezeichnet die Wahrnehmung eines kognitiven Objekts, ohne das die Wahrnehmung durch ein Medium, ein Allgemeinbild oder eine Kategorie stattfindet.
mngon-sumeinfache Wahrnehmungstraightforward cognitionSkt: pratyakshaNach Gelug Prasangika, die Wahrnehmung eines Objektes, die, ohne dass man sich auf eine schlussfolgernde Argumentationskette verlassen muss, im ihr unmittelbar vorhergehenden Augenblick entsteht. Die einfache (nackte / bloße) Wahrnehmung kann entweder konzeptuell oder nichtkonzeptuell sein.
mngon-sum tshad-magültige bloße Wahrnehmungvalid bare cognitionSkt: pratyakshapramanaBare cognition that is fresh and nonfallacious. See: bare cognition.
mngon-sum tshad-magültige einfache Wahrnehmungvalid straightforward cognitionSkt: pratyakshapramanaStraightforward cognition that is nonfallacious. See: straightforward cognition.
mnyam-bzhagvöllige Vertiefungtotal absorptionSkt: samahitaA state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like space. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "meditative equipoise."
mnyam-nyid ye-shesgleichsetzendes tiefes Gewahrseinequalizing deep awarenessOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that is aware of several items as belonging equally to the same category, or as fitting into the same pattern. Also called: deep awareness of the equality of things.
mos-pafeste Überzeugungfirm conviction(1) According to Asanga, the mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that focuses on a fact that one has validly ascertained to be like this and not like that, and which makes one's belief that a fact is true so firm that others' arguments or opinions will not dissuade one. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the term means "regard": the mental factor that takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.
mthar-'dzin-pa'i lta-baextreme Auffassungextreme outlookSkt: antagrahadrshtiThe disturbing attitude that regards one's five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist or nihilistic way. (1) According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook that views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives. (2) According to Tsongkhapa, a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional "me" and considers it either as having a truly existent identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives.
mthar-thugletztendliche Ebene / höchste Ebeneultimate levelThe final, most profound level of something. Sometimes also translated as "deepest level" or "ultimate deepest level."
mthar-thug-gi skyabs-gnasletztendliche Quelle der sicheren Ausrichtungultimate source of safe directionThe Buddhas, as the only ones with full sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.
mthar-thug theg-paletztendliches Fahrzeug des Geistesultimate vehicles of mindAccording to the tenets of the Chittamatra Followers of Scripture, three vehicles of mind that lead to three different final goals -- shravaka arhatship, pratyekabuddha arhatship, and Buddhahood -- which, once one has been attained, do not allow for the person who has attained it to achieve one of the other two goals. Thus, shravaka arhats and pratyekabuddha arhats cannot attain enlightenment.
mthong-lamPfadgeist des Sehensseeing pathway mindThe level of mind of arya sharavakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they first attain a joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and with which they rid themselves of one or both sets of doctrinally based obscurations. Often translated as "path of seeing."
mtshan bzang-po gsum-cu rtsa-gnyisZweiunddreißig hervorragende Zeichenthirty-two excellent signsAuch übersetzt als "32 Hauptmerkmale".
mtshan-ma med-paFehlen von Anzeichenlack of a signThe voidness or total lack of truly existent causes for any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any sign of truly existent causes from which a phenomenon arose.
mtshungs-ldankongruentcongruentDer Begriff "kongruent" bezieht darauf, welche Beziehung die verschiedenen Weisen, in denen man sich einer Sache gewahr ist, die in derselben Wahrnehmung auftreten, untereinander haben. [die einem in der selben Wahrnehmung erscheinen]. In demselben Moment der Wahrnehmung haben zwei oder mehr der Gewahrseinsarten insgesamt fünf Dinge gemeinsam. Bitte vergleichen Sie auch: Kongruente beeinflussende Variablen.
mtshungs-ldan lngakongruente beinflussende Variablen teilensharing five congruent factors*****Def****Für eine ausführliche Erklärung vergleichen Sie bitte den Artikel: Kongruente und nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablen.
mtshungs-ldan med-panichtkongruentnoncongruentDer Begriff "nichtkongruent" beschreibt die Beziehung zwischen nichtstatischen Komponenten [Bestandteile] einer Wahrnehmung, in der zwei oder mehr dieser Komponenten fünf Dinge nicht gemeinsam haben.
mu-stegs-panicht-budhhistischer Extremistnon-Buddhist extremistSkt: tirthikaA follower of a non-Buddhist Indian school of philosophy that asserts either an eternalist position of an unchanging static soul (atman) of a person or a nihilist position that denies the continuity of a person after death and/or the workings of karmic cause and effect.
mya-ngan-'dasNirvananirvanaSkt: nirvanaAn extinguished state of release -- either an acquired one, in which all samsaric sufferings and their causes have been removed, or a naturally occurring one, in which all stains of impossible existence have always been removed. The Tibetan term means, literally, "a state beyond sorrow."
myong-ba rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buWirkung, die der Ursache in der eigenen Erfahrung ähneltresult that corresponds to its cause in one's experienceThe experience of a situation in which something similar to one's previous action happens back to oneself. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause on one's experience."
nang-gi dkyil-'khorinneres Mandalainner mandalaA world-system represented by parts of the human body and used as an object of offering.
nang-mchodinneres Opferinner offeringAn offering made of the flesh of various animals and various bodily fluids and wastes, representing either the five tainted aggregates and five bodily elements or the ten energy-winds, and which are specially "elevated" and transformed into pure nectar.
ngar-'dzinBeschäftigung mit dem "Ich"self-preoccupationAn attitude of thinking only about oneself, as if one were the only one in the world, and not thinking about anyone else; narcissism.
nges-'byungEntsagungrenunciationSkt: naishkramya(1) The definite determination to be free of samsara and to gain liberation, and with which one is willing to give up true suffering and true causes. Also translated as "determination to be free." (2) In Theravada, the mental factor to give up all attachment to worldly possessions, social status, and even one's body. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.
nges-donendgültige Lehre / eindeutige Lehredefinitive teachingSkt: nitarthaA passage in a sutra text that discusses the most profound view of voidness, and to which all other passages in all other sutra texts eventually lead or point. Such passages do not need to be explained as indicating anything more profound.
nges-donimplizit hingewiesene Bedeutungimplicit suggested meaningSkt: nitarthaOne of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the meaning that is dissimilar to the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It is the meaning suggested by the literal (explicit suggestive) meaning and to which one is led by that literal meaning.
ngo-boessentielle Naturessential natureDie allgemeine Art von Phänomen, die eine Sache ist - beispielsweise ein Anblick, ein Klang und so weiter. [So ist beispielsweise die essentielle Natur des schönen Anblicks eines Sonnenuntergangs, der Anblick]
ngo-bo'i rig-paEssenz-Rigpaessence rigpaEssenz-Ripga ist das reine Gewahrsein vom Standpunkt her, dass es ursprünglich rein ist und als offener Raum dient, in dem das strahlende Rigpa fungiert.
ngo-bo gciggleiche essentielle Natursame essential natureThe relationship between two facts about the same attribute of a phenomenon. In a sense, the two facts are referring to the same phenomenon from two points of view. The two facts may be naturally inseparable, such as the two truths about the phenomenon, or they may constitute a joined inseparability arising from the power of meditation, such as a blissful awareness and an awareness of voidness. Some translators render the term as "one by nature."
ngo-bo-nyid skuKörper der essentiellen NaturCorpus of Essential NatureSkt: svabhavakaya(1) In the Gelug non-Kalachakra system, the voidness of a Buddha's omniscient mind and its state of being parted from the two sets of obscurations. (2) In the Gelug Kalachakra system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind. (3) In the Non-Gelug systems, the inseparability of all the Corpuses of a Buddha - equivalent to the inseparability of the two truths. Also called: Body of Essential Nature, Nature Body.
ngo-tsha med-pamoralische Selbstwürde, kein Gefühl vonno sense of moral self-dignitySee: no moral self-dignity
ngo-tsha shes-pamoralische Selbstwürdemoral self-dignitySkt: hriAs defined by Asanga, the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how one's actions reflect on oneself.
nyamssegensreiche Erfahrungboon experienceIn mahamudra meditation, an experience of bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality, and bareness that arises as a bonus result of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha. With this experience, the meditator still has a dualistic sense of there being the meditator on the one side and, on the other, these four as things to be meditated on or experienced.
nyan-thosShravakashravakaSkt: shravakaLiterally, "listeners" to Buddha's teachings - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being) of either the shravaka or pratyekabuddha class. They practice, based on having listened to Buddha's teachings. Some translators render the term as "hearer."
nyan-thos 'phags-paArya-Shravakaarya shravakaSkt: arya shravakaEin Arya-Shravaka ist ein Pratyekabuddha der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier edlen Wahrheiten erlangt hat. Siehe auch: Shravaka.
nyan-thos dgra-bcomShravaka-Arhatshravaka arhatSkt: shravaka arhatA shravaka that has attained liberation. See also: shravaka.
nye-ba'i rgyuunmittelbare Ursachenimmediate causesThe causes that are very close in time to bringing about a result.
nye-brgyudnahe Linienear lineageThe lineage of a teaching that did not begin with Buddha himself, but began with an Indian or Tibetan master, usually through a pure vision.
nyer-len-gyi phung-poherbeiführende Aggregateobtaining aggregatesAggregate factors of a limited being that include the causes that will obtain for that being further samsaric rebirth.
nyer-len-gyi rgyuherbeiführende Ursacheobtaining causeSkt: upadanahetuThe cause from which a result is obtained and which transforms into the result. For example, a seed is the obtaining cause for a sprout, and a network of positive force (a collection of merit) is the obtaining cause for a Corpus of Forms (Form Body) of a Buddha. Some translators render the term as "material cause," but this term does not refer to the physical elements that make up something.
nyer-thobSchwellethresholdAuch übersetzt als: dem Erreichen nahe, schwarze Erscheinung
nyes-byasfehlerhafte Handlungfaulty actionsA set of forty-six actions that one vows to avoid and which, if committed, would be detrimental to one's practice of either one of the six far-reaching attitudes or to one's benefiting others. Also called: secondary bodhisattva vows.
nyon-mongsstörende Emotion oder Geisteshaltungdisturbing emotion or attitudeSkt: kleshaA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that, when it arises, causes oneself to lose peace of mind and incapacitates oneself so that one loses self-control. An indication that one is experiencing a disturbing emotion or attitude is that it makes oneself and/or others feel uncomfortable. Some translators render this term as "afflictive emotions" or "emotional afflictions."
nyon-mongs kun-brtagsdoktrinär bedingte störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungendoctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudesDisturbing emotions and attitudes that arise based on having been taught and having accepted a non-Buddhist Indian tenet system or a less sophisticated Indian Buddhist tenet system.
nyon-mongs lhan-skyesautomatisch erscheinende störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungenautomatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudesAutomatisch erscheinende störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen sind störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, die im geistigen Kontinuum einer Person entstehen, ohne dass der Person ein fehlerhaftes Lehrsystem beigebracht worden ist.
nyon-sgribemotionale Schleieremotional obscurationsSkt: kleshavaranaFleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing phenomena without accompanying disturbing emotions or attitudes. They include the disturbing emotions and attitudes, as well as their tendencies (seeds), and prevent the attainment of liberation from samsara, Also translated as "obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes"and "obscurations preventing liberation."
nyon-yidverblendetes Gewahrseindeluded awarenessA primary consciousness that is aimed at the alayavijnana in the Chittamatra system, or at the alaya for habits in the dzogchen system, and grasps at it to be the "me" to be refuted.
phan-semsWohlwollenbenevolenceThe mental factor of wishing to benefit others, wishing others well. Often translated by others as "altruism."
pha-rol-tu phyin-paweitreichende Geisteshaltungenfar-reaching attitudeSkt: paramitaA mental factor that brings one to the far shore of samsara, either to liberation or to enlightenment. There are either six or ten far-reaching attitudes. Also called "perfection." Theravada and Mahayana give slightly different lists of these. According to Mahayana, the six are the far-reaching attitudes of (1) generosity, (2) ethical self-discipline, (3) patience, (4) joyful perseverance, (5) mental stability, and (6) discriminating awareness (wisdom). The Mahayana list of ten adds the far-reaching attitudes of (7) skill in means, (8) aspirational prayer, (9) strengthening, and (10) deep awareness.
pho-baPhowaphowaAlso called: transference of consciousness.
phrag-dogEifersuchtjealousySkt: irshyaA disturbing emotion that focuses on other peoples' accomplishments – such as their good qualities, possessions, or success – and is the inability to bear their accomplishments, due to excessive attachment to one's own gain or to the respect one receives. Also translated as "envy."
phung-poAggregateaggregateSkt: skandhaEin Netzwerk aus vielen Elementen, die allesamt nichtstatische Phänomene sind. Siehe auch: Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung.
phung-poAggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrungaggregate factors of experienceSkt: skandhaDie fünf Netzwerke (fünf Aggregate), die alle jene nichtstatischen Phänomene bilden [***ausmachen, begründen, festlegen, erzeugen] , die jeden Augenblick eines Geisteskontinuums eines jeden begrenzten Wesens ausmachen.
phung-po lngafünf Aggregat-Faktorenfive aggregate factorsSkt: pancaskandhaThe five networks that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that could make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being: the aggregates of (1) forms of physical phenomena, (2) feelings of levels of happiness, (3) distinguishing, (4) other affecting variables, and (5) primary consciousnesses.
phyag-rgya chen-poMahamudramahamudraSkt: mahamudraLiterally, "the great seal," a Mahayana meditation practice that focuses on the nature of the mind.
phyi'i dkyil-'khoräußeres Mandalaouter mandalaA round, flat-bottomed bowl, held bottom side up, with three mounds of grain, placed one atop the other on its surface and contained within progressively smaller concentric metal rings, and crowned with an ornamental diadem. It is used as an offering to a spiritual master in request for a teaching, the conferring of a set of vows, and for the conferring of a tantric empowerment. It is also used as an offering of appreciation at the conclusion of these three occasions. It is also offered 100,000 times as a preliminary practice for building up positive force for success in the practice of tantra.
phyi'i mchod-paäußere Gabe / Opfergabenouter offeringsOfferings of specially consecrated external objects such as water, flowers, incense, and so on.
phyi-donäußeres Phänomenexternal phenomenonSkt: bahyarthaA nonstatic phenomenon that arises from a natal source different from the natal source of the consciousness that cognizes it -- namely, from a natal source that is not connected with the mental continuum of the individual who cognizes it.
rang bces-par 'dzin-paSelbstbezogenheit / sich nur um das eigene Wohl kümmernself-cherishingThe attitude with which one considers oneself as the most important being and has affection for and takes care of only oneself.
rang-byung ye-shesselbstentstehendes tiefes Gewahrseinself-arising deep awarenessIn Nyingma, the aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that automatically arises with awareness of its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with reflexive deep awareness.
rang-bzhinfunktionelle Naturfunctional natureThe nature of a phenomenon defined in terms of the function that the phenomenon performs.
rang-bzhinSelbstnaturself-natureSomething on the side of an object or phenomenon that (1) establishes the existence, in general, of the object or phenomenon and (2) establishes, as well, what the object or phenomenon is. A self-nature may do this either by its own power alone, or by its own power in conjunction with mental labeling. The term may also be translated as "self-establishing nature."
rang-bzhin dbyer-mednatürliche Untrennbarkeitnatural inseparabilityThe relationship between two items, in which when one is the case or is occurring, then automatically so is the other.
rang-bzhin gnas-rigsnatürlich andauernde Familieneigenschaftennaturally abiding family-traits(1) In the Chittamatra system, the seeds that, without beginning, are imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain one of the three purified states. (2) In the Madhyamaka systems, the voidnesses imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being.
rang-bzhin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-banatürlicherweise nicht lobenswerte Handlungennaturally uncommendable actionA negative action which, because it is destructive by nature, ripens into the experience of suffering by anyone who commits it.
rang-bzhin-gyi mya-ngan 'dasnatürliches Nirvananatural nirvanaEquivalent to voidness (emptiness), the natural state of all phenomena being released from impossible ways of existing. Asserted only by the Mahayana tenet systems.
rang-bzhin-gyis grub-paExistenz, die durch Selbstnatur begründet istexistence established by self-natureExistence of something established or proven by the fact that the referent object of the imputation of it can be found upon searching for it. For example, the existence of a table established or proven by the fact that when one searches for the object that the mental label "table" refers to, one can find the object, a "table." Also translated as "self-established existence," it is often translated by others as "inherent existence."
rang-gi mtshan-nyidindividuelle definierendes charakteristisches Merkmalindividual defining characteristic markSkt: svalakshanaSomething findable on the side of an object that establishes the identity or features of that object and which serves as the basis for that object being labeled by the names, words, and concepts for it, as well as for its qualities.
rang-mtshanobjektive Entitätobjective entitiesSkt: svalakshanaIn the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their not being merely imputed by conceptual cognition. They include all nonstatic phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all nonstatic phenomena and are deepest true phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include not only all nonstatic superficial true phenomena, but also the static deepest true phenomena of voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug tradition, the appearing objects of only valid nonconceptual cognitions, although they are what actually appears and can be validly cognized in both valid nonconceptual and conceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid nonconceptual cognition. Also translated as "individually characterized phenomena."
rang-ngoeigenes Angesicht/Anlitzown faceThe manner of existence and good qualities of pure awareness (rig-pa) as can be cognized by reflexive deep awareness.
rang-ngo shes-paGewahrsein seines eigenen Angesichtsawareness of its own faceDas Gewahrsein seines eigenen Angesichts bezeichnet bei einem reinen Gewahrsein (Rigpa) die nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von seiner eigenen Natur.
rang-rgyalPratyekabuddhapratyekabuddhaSkt: pratyekabuddhaLiterally, "self-realizers" or "self-evolvers" - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being). They live during dark ages when the teachings of a Buddha are no longer available. They do not study with Buddhist spiritual teachers, because there are none at such times, and they teach others only subtly, through gestures, since people are not receptive. Living either singly ("like a rhinoceros") or in small groups, they must rely on their instincts from previous lives to recall and master the Dharma. Some translators render the term as "solitary Buddhas."
rang-rgyal 'phags-paArya-Pratyekabuddhaarya pratyekabuddhaSkt: arya prtatyekabuddhaA pratyekabuddha that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: pratyekabuddha.
rang-rgyal dgra-bcomPratyekabuddha-Arhatpratyekabuddha arhatSkt: pratyekabuddha arhatA pratyekabuddha that has attained liberation. See also: pratyekabuddha.
rang-rigreflexives Gewahrseinreflexive awareness(1) The cognitive faculty within a cognition, asserted in the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, that takes as its cognitive object the consciousness within the cognition that it is part of. It also cognizes the validity or invalidity of the cognition that it is part of, and accounts for the ability to recall the cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug schools, this cognitive faculty becomes reflexive deep awareness -- that part of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes the two truths of that nonconceptual cognition.
rang-rig ye-shesreflexives tiefes Gewahrseinreflexive deep awareness(1) In Kagyu and Sakya, that aspect of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes its own two-truth nature. (2) In Nyingma, that aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that cognizes its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with self-arising deep awareness.
rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yodeigenständig erkennbarself-sufficiently knowableA validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.
rang-snangreflexive Erscheinungreflexive appearanceAn appearance of a cognitive object that arises automatically from a person's clear light mind itself. Such an appearance may be either impure (with an appearance of truly established existence) or pure (without such an appearance).
rang-stongSelbstleerheitself-voidnessThe absence of any phenomenon existing, by "self"-nature, in an impossible manner.
ras-bris-kyi dkyil-'khorStoffmandalacloth mandalaEin Stoffmandala ist ein zwei-dimensionales Symbol, das auf ein Stück Stoff gemalt worden ist. Das Stoffmandala lässt sich mit einer architektonischen Blaupause eines dreidimensionalen Palastes, der Umgebung und den Buddhagestalten vergleichen, die sich in einem symbolischen Weltensystems befinden. Das Stoffmandala wird bei der Übertragung von tantrischen Ermächtigungen verwendet.
rdo-rje-i skuVajra-KörperVajra CorpusSkt: vajrakayaIn some dzogchen systems, the voidness factor of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure awareness (rigpa); the unchanging nature of the other corpuses of a Buddha. Also called Vajra Body.
rdo-rje slob-dpontantrischer Meistertantric masterSkt: vajracaryaA spiritual mentor who confers on disciples tantric vows. According to some commentaries, a spiritual mentor who confers on disciples empowerments and subsequent permissions from any of the classes of tantra.
rdo-rje theg-paVajrayanaVajrayanaSkt: vajrayanaThe Diamond-strong Vehicle of Mind, within Mahayana, that makes use of the tantra methods. Synonymous with "Mantrayana" and "Tantrayana."
rdul-phran-gyi dkyil-'khorMandala aus gestreutem Sandpowdered sand mandalaA two-dimensional representation, made of powdered colored minerals, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.
rdzasUrsprungsquelle // Geburtsquellenatal sourceSkt: dravyaThat which gives rise to something, such as a womb for a baby or an oven for a loaf of bread.
rdzogs-byed-kyi lasvervollständigendes Karmacompleting karmaDas vervollständigende Karma ist ein geistiger Drang oder Impuls, der von einer relativ schwachen Motivation begleitet wird, und daher, als Wirkung dieses geistigen Drangs, lediglich die Kraft hat [Stärke besitzt] jene Umstände heranzureifen, die die Bedingungen für eine zukünftige Wiedergeburt vervollständigen.
rdzogs-chenDzogchendzogchenDas Dzogchen bezeichnet ein Mahayana-System oder eine Mahayana-Praxis in den Nyingma-, Bön-, Karma-Kagyü-, Drugpa-Kagyü- und Drigung-Kagyü-Traditionen. Die Praktiken befassen sich damit einen Zugang zu Rigpa zu erlangen, d.h. zu seinem eigenen reinen Gewahrsein, und zu erkennen, dass dieses bereits vollständig alle guten Qualitäten besitzt. Dzogchen wird als "die große Vollendung" übersetzt.
rdzogs-rimStufe der Vollständigkeit / Vollständigkeitsstufecomplete stageSkt: sampannakrama(1) Die zweite Stufe von Praktiken des Anuttarayoga-Tantra, in der jetzt alles vollständig ist, um sich in Praktiken zu üben, die als unmittelbare Ursache für das Erlangen der Erleuchtung dienen [fungieren]. Diese Praktiken beinhalten das Arbeiten mit den Chakren, Kanälen und Winden des subtilen Körpers. (2) in einigen Nicht-Gelug-Texten bezeichnet die Stufe der Vollständigkeit die nichtkonzeptuelle Meditation über die Leerheit der zuvor, während der ersten Stufe des Anuttarayoga-Tantra, erzeugten Visualisationen. Diese Meditation über ein nicht abzählbares endgültiges Phänomen wird, auf der selben Stufe der Praxis, gleichzeitig mit der Visualisation durchgeführt, and vervollständigt die Visualisationspraxis auf diese Weise. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Vollendungsstufe".
rdzu-'phrulaußerphysische Emanationextraphysical emanationsSkt: rddhiPhysical bodies having abilities that are beyond the usual capacity of the body -- such as the ability to run great distances at an incredible speed, to fly, to increase or decrease in size, to multiply, to walk on water, to pass beneath the earth, and so on -- which are produced (emanated) from karma, recitation of mantra, the power of specially consecrated substances, or the power of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).
rdzu-'phrul-gyi mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein außerphysischer Emanationadvanced awareness for extraphysical emanationEine Wahrnehmung, die in der Lage ist, viele verschiedene simultane Emanationen zu erzeugen, die irgendeinen der folgenden drei Arten ist: (1) körperliche Emanationen, die aus den Elementen Erde, Wasser, Feuer, Wind und Raum zusammengesetzt sind, (2) sprachliche Emanationen - in der Weise sprechen, dass verschiedene Menschen die Worte in ihrer eigenen Sprache und auf ihrem Verständnisniveau verstehen können, oder (3) geistige Emanationen von Gedanken und Ebenen des Geistes, wie zum Beispiel das Gewahrsein vieler Bedeutungsebenen eines Absatzes in einem Dharma-Text. Hierbei handelt es sich um eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, die als ein Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebenen geistiger Stabilität (dem ersten Dhyana) .
reg-paKontaktbewusstseincontacting awarenessSkt: sparshaThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that differentiates that the object of a cognition is pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.
rga-shiAltern und Sterbenaging and dyingIn a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.
rgod-paFlatterhaftigkeit des Geistes / geistige Flatterhaftigkeitflightiness of mindThe mental factor with which the mind wanders to an object of attraction, due to desire for it or attachment, and which faults the mental abiding of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Sometimes translated as "mental agitation."
rgyal-baGlorreiche, derTriumphant OneSkt: jinaAn epithet of a Buddha - one who has triumphed over the emotional and cognitive obscurations. Some translators render the term as "Victorious One."
rgyanFiligranschmuckfiligreeSkt: alamkaraA piece of jewelry made of fine, intricately intertwined wires. A word used in the titles of many Buddhist texts to indicate that the subject matter is presented in a manner resembling a filigree, in which the various topics are intricately intertwined, resulting in a beautiful, elegant presentation of the material. Usually translated by others as "ornament."
rgyas-'gyur-gyi rigssich entwickelnde Familieneigenschaftenevolving family-traits(1) In the Chittamatra system, the tendencies (seeds) that, newly gained by listening, contemplating and meditating on Buddha's teachings, are imputable on the basis of the stained minds of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain arya pathway minds. (2) In the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka system, the factors, imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being, that are fit to become the essential nature of a deep awareness Dharmakaya. (3) In the Prasangika-Madhyamaka system, the factors imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being that are fit to become the essential natures of a Corpus of Forms and a deep awareness Dharmakaya of a Buddha.
rgyas-padie guten Eigenschaften anderer anregen (Wachstum)stimulating others' good qualitiesAlso translated as "increase."
rgyuUrsachecauseSkt: hetuA nonstatic phenomenon able to bring about the production or arising of something.
rgyu'i kun-slongursächliche Motivationcausal motivating aimWas jemand beabsichtigt, gerade bevor er/sie damit beginnt etwas zu tun; diese Motiviation ist die Ursache dafür, dass die Person die entsprechende Handlung dann ausführt.
rgyu'i rkyenursächliche Bedingungencausal conditionsSkt: hetupratyayaAll the causes that have the power to produce a specific result.
rgyu'i skyabs-'groursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren Richtungcausal taking of safe directionMit dem Begriff "ursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung" wird das Einschlagen einer sicheren Ausrichtung (Zufluchtnahme) bezeichnet, in der die Quellen einer sicheren Ausrichtung die Personen oder Phänomene sind, die als Ursachen für die eigene Erlangung der drei Juwelen, wirken, nämlich von Buddha, Dharma und Sangha, die bereits von anderen erlangt worden sind. Der Begriff "ursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung" ist synonym mit dem Begriff "bloßes Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung".
rgyudTantratantraSkt: tantra(1) An everlasting stream of continuity. On the causal level, the mental continuum, with its various aspects of Buddha-nature. On the pathway level, the continuity of practices involving Buddha-figures. On the resultant level, the continuity of the various corpuses or bodies of a Buddha. (2) The texts that discuss the above topics.
rgyu-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lagaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt der Ursachelink of loaded consciousness at the time of the causeThe first phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. The first part of the third link of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness.
rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-buWirkung, die der Ursache entsprichtresult that corresponds to its causeSkt: nishyandaphalamA result that in some way resembles its cause, either in the wish to repeat its causal action or in the experience of something happening back to one that resembles what one did.
rgyunStrom von Kontinuitätstream of continuityEine Abfolge von Momenten von etwas.
rig-gnas lngafünf Hauptgebiete des Wissensfive major fields of knowledge**a) Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, b) Medizin, c) Sprachen und Grammatik, d) Logik und e) geheime oder außerordentliche Selbsterkenntnis
rig-pareines Gewahrseinpure awarenessIn the dozgchen system, the subtlest level of awareness, which is totally untainted by any of the fleeting stains of mental obscurations. It is devoid of all grosser levels of awareness and yet permeates all of them, and it spontaneously establishes pure appearances. Often left untranslated as "rigpa."
rigs-'dra'I rgyuUrsache der gleichen Artsimilar family causeSkt: sajatiyakaranamDie Ursache gleicher Art ist eine Ursache, die zur selben Familie oder Kategorie von Phänomen gehört wie die Wirkung. Zum Beispiel ist die Vorlage zur Herstellung einer Vase die Ursache gleicher Art für die Vase, die man gerade herstellt.
rigs-nges-pa'i byang-semsBodhisattva- Arhats eindeutiger Linie / Bodhisattva-Arhats der bestimmten Liniebodhisattva arhats of definite lineageBodhisattvas who have been definite about their lineage as bodhisattvas from before attaining arhatship and thus who have attained arhatship as bodhisattvas and not as shravakas or pratyekabuddhas before developing bodhichitta.
rigs-pa bzhivier Axiomefour axiomsThe four axioms for examining a Dharma teaching in order to accept its validity: (1) dependency, (2) functionality, (3) establishment by reason, and (4) the nature of things.
rigs-spyigeistige Artsynthesekind mental synthesisThe type of phenomenon that a specific individual item is an instance of, such as "a table" imputed on a specific instance of something having legs and a flat surface. This is equivalent to the conventional identity of something.
ring-brgyudentfernte Liniedistant lineageThe lineage of a teaching that began with Buddha himself.
rjes-dpagschlussfolgernde Wahrnehmunginferential cognitionSkt: anumanaA valid conceptual way of cognizing an obscure object through reliance on a correct line of reasoning as its basis.
rjes-snanganschließende Erlaubnissubsequent permissionA tantric ritual for a specific Buddha-figure, received in order to strengthen further the Buddha-nature factors that were previously activated with a full empowerment. Usually called by its Tibetan name, "jenang."
rjes-thobnachfolgende Erlangungsubsequent attainmentA state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like an illusion. It is attained only upon rising from total absorption on space-like voidness and may occur either while still in meditation or after arising from meditation. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "subsequent realization." Other translators often render the term as "post-meditation."
rkyenBedingungconditionSkt: pratyayaA nonstatic phenomenon that helps shape the conventional identity of something that is produced or arises from causes.
rlungEnergiewindenergy-windSkt: pranaAlso called: energy-wind breaths
rlung phra-mosubtiler Energiewindsubtle energy-windsSubtle forms of energy that move within the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which are the "mount" (the physical basis) for consciousness, either in nonconceptual or conceptual cognition, transporting it through the subtle body. Through anuttarayoga complete stage practices, one can cause them to enter, abide, and dissolve in the central energy-channel and thereby make manifest the subtlest clear light mind.
rmad-du byung-bafabelhafte Berichtefabulous accountsSkt: adbhutadharmaDescriptions of such marvelous, wondrous things as the wisdom, extra-physical powers and saintly deeds of the Buddhas, pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers), and shravakas (listeners). One of the twelve scriptural categories.
rmongs-chaBenommenheitdumbfoundednessIn the dzogchen system, a nominal disturbing attitude, equivalent to automatically arising unawareness regarding phenomena, which obscures rigpa's (pure awareness's) knowing its own nature. Some translators render it as "bedazzlement" or "stupidity," but it has nothing to do with intelligence.
rmongs-paVerwirrungbewildermentEin naiver Geisteszustand des Nicht-Wissens in Bezug auf das, was geschieht.
rmugs-pageistige Umnebelungfoggy-mindednessThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly.
rNal-'byor spyod-paYogacharaYogacharaAnother name for the Chittamatra school of Indian Buddhism.
rnam-'phrulwundersame Emanationmiraculous emanationsSkt: vikurvana(1) In mahamudra and dzogchen texts, a descriptive synonym for the mental aspects (mental appearances, mental holograms) that are produced by the clarity aspect of the mind and which are directly cognized by conceptual or nonconceptual cognition. (2) A synonym for extraphysical emanations.
rnam-g.yenggeistige Abschweifung / Abschweifungmental wanderingA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mind to lose concentration and to go on and on, uncontrollably from one object to another, due to any reason.
rnam-grangs ma-yin-pa'I don-damNicht (mit Worten) fassbares letztendliches Phänomennondenumerable ultimate phenomenonVoidnesses that are validly cognized nonconceptually. They are "nondenumerable" in the sense that they cannot be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts, thus they are voidnesses that are "beyond words and beyond concepts."
rnam-grangs-pa'I don-dammit Worten fassbare letzendliche Phänomenedenumerable ultimate phenomenonVoidnesses that are validly cognized conceptually. They are "denumerable" in the sense that they can be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts.
rnam-pageistiges Erscheinungsbildmental aspectSkt: akaraA nonstatic mental hologram, asserted by all Indian Buddhist tenet systems other than Vaibhashika, that is a likeness of an object of cognition, and which both conceptual and nonconceptual mental activity produces in order to cognize the object; the "mental shape" of the appearing object of a cognition. (1) According to Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika, they are fully transparent so that through them, one directly cognizes external objects. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are opaque and thus allow only indirect cognition of external objects.
rnam-par rig-byed-kyi gzugsoffenbarende Formrevealing formSkt: vijnaptirupaA form of physical phenomenon, asserted in the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that shows (reveals) the motivation behind it, and which may be a constructive, destructive or unspecified phenomenon. Examples are the shape of one's body when performing an action, the sound of the words when one speaks, the expression on someone's face, and so on. In general, such a phenomenon may be either one of the five sensory objects or one of the five sensory cognitive sensors.
rnam-par rig-byed ma-yin-pa'i gzugsnichtoffenbarende Formnonrevealing formSkt: avijnaptirupaA subtle form of physical phenomenon, asserted only by the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that is caused by a strong constructive or destructive motivation, but which does not show ("reveal") that motivation. Such a phenomenon is part of a mental continuum, but is not felt on that continuum; it does not degenerate from moment to moment; it can only be an object of mental cognition; and it must be either constructive or destructive. Examples are vows and one aspect of karmic impulses.
rnam-shesBewusstseinconsciousnessSkt: vijnanaEine Gruppe der Weise, etwas gewahr zu sein, die lediglich die essentielle Natur seines Objektes wahrnimmt, wie beispielsweise eine Ansicht, ein Klang oder ein Geistesobjekt etc. Das Bewusstsein kann dabei entweder sinnlich oder geistig sein
rnam-shesUnterteilungen machendes Bewusstseindividing consciousnessA consciousness that makes dualistic appearances, dividing a moment of experience into an appearance of independently existing consciousness (subject) and object. It is a Kagyu/Nyingma explanation. The Tibetan is rnam-shes, the same as the usual word for consciousness. It is defined like this only in some very special places.
rnam-shesPrimärbewusstseinprimary consciousnessSkt: vijnanaDas Primärbewusstsein ist, innerhalb (des Vorgangs) der Wahrnehmung eines Objektes, das Gewahrsein, das sich lediglich auf die essentielle Natur eines Objektes ausrichtet [konzentriert]. Das Primärbewusstsein hat die Identitäts-Natur eines individualisierenden Gewahrsein.
rnam-shesspezifisches Gewahrseinspecific awarenessSkt: vijnanaIn the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that is aware of the specific type of awareness of an object that has arisen and the specific object that it is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the details that have arisen and one is aware of in a cognition.
rnam-shes-kyi phung-poAggregat des Primärbewusstseinsaggregate of primary consciousnessesSkt: vijnana-skandhaEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des geistigen Bewusstseins oder irgendeiner der fünf Arten sinnlichen Bewusstseins, die Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnten. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor umfasst auch alle Vorgänge verblendeten Gewahrseins und alle Vorgänge des alles umfassenden grundlegenden Bewusstseins innerhalb der philosophischen Systeme, die diese beiden bestätigen. Das Aggregat des Primärbewusstseins für auch als "Aggregat des Bewusstseins" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat des Hauptbewusstseins".
rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-bugereifte Wirkungripened resultSkt: vipakaphalamA nonobstructive unspecified item conjoined with the mental continuum of a limited being, such as the body, consciousness, and feelings of happiness and unhappiness, and which comes from a ripening cause that was also conjoined with his or her mental continuum.
rnam-smin-gyi rgyureifende Ursacheripening causeSkt: vipakahetuA destructive or tainted constructive phenomenon that, unless one has rid one's mental continuum forever of craving, has the power to produce the nonobstructive unspecified items contained in the five aggregate factors of future rebirth states, such as the body, the types of consciousness, and the feelings.
rNying-maNyingmaNyingmaThe Old Translation Period tradition of Tibetan Buddhism deriving from Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava.
rtag-paStatischseinstaticnessSkt: nityaThe noncongruent affecting variable of not changing from moment to moment. Sometimes translated as "permanence."
rtag-pastatisches Phänomenstatic phenomenonSkt: nityaPhenomena that are unaffected by causes and circumstances and, consequently, do not change from moment to moment and do not produce any effects. Somewhat similar to unchanging facts, they are imputed about some validly knowable phenomenon and only exist and can be validly known so long as the basis for their imputation lasts. Sometimes translated as "static abstractions." Some translators render the term as "permanent phenomena."
rten-'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyiszwölf Glieder des abhängigen Entstehenstwelve links of dependent arisingThe twelve-part mechanism whereby the existence of all samsaric phenomena, especially those of future rebirth, are established by reliance on unawareness: (1) unawareness, (2) affecting impulses, (3) loaded consciousness, (4) nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, (5) stimulators of cognition, (6) contacting awareness, (7) feeling a level of happiness, (8) craving, (9) an obtainer, (10) further existence, (11) conception, and (12) aging and dying.
rten-cing 'brel-bar 'byung-babedingtes Entstehendependent arisingSkt: pratityasamutpadaThe reliance of something on something other than itself for establishing its existence. (1) The reliance of all samsaric phenomena on unawareness for establishing their existence; (2) the reliance of all functional, nonstatic phenomena on causes and conditions for establishing their existence; (3) the reliance of both static and nonstatic phenomena on their parts for establishing their existence; (4) the reliance of all phenomena on mental labeling for establishing their existence. Also translated as "dependent origination."
rten-pa'i dkyil-'khorunterstützendes Mandalasupporting mandalaThe immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system, together with the environment around it, visualized in tantra practice.
rtog-bcaskonzeptuellconceptualTogether with a concept.
rtog-med shes-panichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmungnonconceptual cognitionCognition of an object, without that cognition being through the medium of a universal, a category, or a mental label.
rtog-paKonzeptconceptA general term for a universal, a category, or a mental label. A concept of something need not be verbal. For example, one has a concept of what a pretty face looks like, what one's mother looks like, what a good soup tastes like, what a properly tuned guitar sounds like, what a valid line of reasoning is, what one plus one equals, and so on.
rtog-pakonzeptuelle Wahrnehmungconceptual cognitionDie Wahrnehmung eines Objekts durch das Medium einer metaphysischen Einheit, und zwar durch ein Allgemeines, eine Kategorie oder eine geistige Bezeichnung. Die konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung schreibt dem Objekt eine metaphysischen Einheit zu, die den geistigen Aspekt, den sie annimmt ähnelt, und sie vermischt und verwechselt die beiden.
rtog-pagrobes Feststellengross detectionThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that investigates something roughly, such as detecting if there are mistakes on a page. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "investigation."
rtogs-pabegreifenapprehendEin Objekt sowohl korrekt als auch entschlussfreudig [***bestimmt] kognitiv annehmen.
rtogs-paVerwirklichungrealizationA stable, correct understanding of some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, which brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it. Compare: "attainment".
rtogs-pastabile Verwirklichungstable realizationIn mahamudra meditation, the state of mind in which the meditator has nonconceptual bare cognition of there being no dualism of meditator and meditation.
rtogs-par brjod-paerläuternde Berichteillustrative accountsSkt: avadanaTeachings of Buddha given with examples for ease of comprehension by the listener. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
rton-pa bzhivier Grundlagen des Vertrauenfour placements of confidenceDon’t place your confidence on the person, place it on his or her teachings; don’t place your confidence on his or her words, place it on their meanings; don’t place your confidence on their interpretable meanings, place it on their definitive meanings; (to understand them) don’t place your confidence on your dividing consciousness, place it on your deep awareness.
rtsa-ba'i bla-maWurzelgururoot guruThe spiritual teacher that inspires one the most, such that his or her inspiration serves as the root giving sustenance to one's spiritual growth.
rtsal-gyi rig-pastrahlendes Rigpaeffulgent rigpaStrahlendes Rigpa bezeichnet das reine Gewahrsein (rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel seines Aspektes spontan Erscheinungen hervorzubringen. Strahlendes Rigpa ist synonym mit dem Begriff "Erscheinungs-hervorbringendes grundlegendes Rigpa".
rtsa-ltungÜbertretung der Wurzelgelübderoot downfallA transgression of a root bodhisattva or root tantric vow, which, if it is a full transgression, acts as a root for falling to rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.
rtsol-bcaserarbeitetlaboredA state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated by working oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.
rtsol-medmühelosunlaboredA state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated instantly without needing to work oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.
rtsol-med byang-semsmüheloses Bodhichittaunlabored bodhichittaA bodhichitta aim that arises automatically and effortlessly, without need to build up to it through steps or by relying on lines of reasoning.
saBhumi-Geistbhumi-mindSkt: bhumiEine Ebene des Geistes eines Arya-Bodhisattvas.
sa-bcuzehn Ebenen eines höchst verwirklichten Geistesten levels of highly realized mindsSkt: dasha-bhumialso translated as: ten bhumi minds
sa-bonkarmisches Vermächtniskarmic legacySkt: bijaA general term for all karmic aftermath that ripen into a result intermittently -- namely, karmic potentials and karmic tendencies.
sa-bonkarmische Tendenzkarmic tendencySkt: bijaA type of karmic aftermath that is ethically neutral (unspecified as being either constructive or destructive), which is imputable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result only intermittently. Literally, a "karmic seed."
sa-bon-gyi ngo-bor gyur-bakarmische Kraft, die die essentielle Natur angenommen hat, eine karmischen Tendenz zu seinkarmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendencyA synonym for "karmic potential."
sangs-rgyasBuddhaBuddhaSkt: buddhaEin vollkommen erleuchtetes Wesen; ein Wesen, das in seinem geistigen Kontinuum die emotionalen und kognitiven Schleier vollständig und ein für allemal beseitigt hat.
sangs-rgyas-kyi rigsBuddhanaturBuddha-natureLiterally: Buddha caste-trait, Buddha family-trait. A factor imputable on the stained mind of a limited being (sentient being) that transforms into or allows for the attainment of enlightenment.
sangs-rgyas-kyi zhingBuddhafeldBuddha-fieldSkt: BuddhakshetraDas Buddhafeld ist ein nicht-samsarische Bereich, in dem die Umstände für eine ununterbrochene intensive spirituelle Praxis am förderlichsten sind, um die Buddhaschaft zu erlangen. Das Buddhafeld ist in dem Sinne ein Feld, das es sich dabei um einen Ort handelt, an dem man eine unglaublich große Menge positiver Kraft (Verdienst) anbauen und entwickeln kann.
sbom-poschwerwiegende Handlungenthick actionsA set of eight actions that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: secondary tantric vows.
sbyin-paGroßzügigkeitgenerositySkt: dana(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of wishing to give material things to all beings, so that they may be happy, without investigating whether or not they are worthy to receive them. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to wish to give to others all that is one's own – one's body, material wealth, and the roots of one's constructive actions. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. Also translated as "giving."
sbyin-sregFeuerpujafire-pujaA tantric ritual, performed mostly upon completion of a mantra-recitation retreat of a Buddha-figure for which one has received an empowerment, during which one tosses into a fire a large number of specific substances, accompanied by elaborate visualizations. It is mostly performed in order to purify any mistakes one has made during the retreat.
sbyor-ba bzhivier Gruppen von angewendeten Verwirklichungenfour sets of applied realizationsAlso translated as: four yogas
sbyor-bcas dbyer-medverbundene Untrennbarkeitjoined inseparabilityThe relationship between two items that do not naturally occur simultaneously and inseparably, but are made to do so through the power of meditation. Once the attainments of both are joined, then whenever one is the case or is occurring, so is the other.
sbyor-lamPfadgeist der Anwendungapplying pathway mindSkt: prayogamargaDie Ebene des Geistes von Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas und Bodhisattvas mit der sie das vereinigte Paar von Shamatha und Vipashyana anwenden, wobei Vipashyana dabei nicht-konzeptuell auf Leerheit ausgerichtet ist - oder, ganz allgemein, auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier Edlen Wahrheiten. Den Pfadgeist der Anwendung haben sie durch den Pfadgeist des Aufbauens erlangt, um eine nichtkonzeptuelle Ausrichtung auf Leerheit zu erlangen. Andere Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Pfad der Vorbereitung".
sdig-panegative karmische Kraftnegative karmic forceSkt: papaDie Art von karmischer Kraft die mit einer destruktiven Handlung verbunden ist und mit kurzen Unterbrechungen als Unzufriedenheit und als Leiden unter Problemen und Schmerz heranreift. Die negative karmische Kraft wird auch als "negatives karmisches Potenzial" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff als "Sünde". Siehe: karmische Kraft.
sdom-paGelübdevowSkt: samvara(1) In the Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Madhyamaka schools other than Gelug Prasangika, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to restrain from a certain type of detrimental behavior, which, during a specific ceremony, one has formally promised to restrain from. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug-Prasangika systems, a non-revealing form on a person's mental continuum that performs the same function as in (1) by shaping one's behavior.
sdug-bsngal-baleidvolle Phänomenemiserable phenomenaSkt: du:kha (duhkha)One of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.
sdug-bsngal-gyi sdug bsnalLeiden des Leidenssuffering of sufferingThe suffering of gross pain or unhappiness.
sel-baauschließenexcludeto eliminate
semsGeistmindSkt: chittaThe cognitive activity of merely giving rise to an appearance or mental hologram of something knowable and cognitively engaging with it.
semsSemsemAll levels of awareness (levels of mind) that are tainted with the fleeting stains of the emotional and cognitive obscurations. All levels of awareness other than rigpa. Translated as "limited awareness."
sems-byungNebengewahrseinsubsidiary awarenessSkt: caitikaBei einem Nebengewahrsein handelt es sich um eine Art des Wahrnehmens eines Objektes, welche ein Primärbewusstsein begleitet [die gleichzeitig stattfindet, wenn auch das Primärbewusstsein aktiv ist]. Das Nebengewahrsein hat mit dem Primärbewusstsein fünf Dinge gemeinsam. Zudem befähigt das Nebengewahrsein zur Wahrnehmung des Objektes oder hilft bei der Wahrnehmung des Objektes. Das Nebengewahrsein wird auch als "Geistesfaktor" bezeichnet.
sems-canbegrenztes Wesenlimited beingSkt: sattvaA being still having limited awareness. Any being other than a Buddha. Often rendered as "sentient being."
sems-nyidGeist selbst, dermind-itselfIn the Kagyu and Nyingma systems, the deepest nature of the mind.
sems-pageistiger Drang / geistiger Antriebmental urgeSkt: cetanaThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mental activity to face an object or to go in its direction. In general, it moves a mental continuum to cognitively take an object. It is equivalent to mental karma and, according to Sautrantika, Chittamatra, Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, and the non-Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka schools, it is equivalent to physical and verbal karmas as well.
sems phra-mosubtile geistige Aktivitätsubtle mindMental consciousness, both conceptual and nonconceptual.
sems-rgyudgeistiges Kontinuummental continuumSkt: santanaThe stream of continuity of mental activity (mind, awareness) of an individual being, which has no beginning, which continues even into Buddhahood, and, according to Mahayana, has no end. According to the Hinayana tenets, it comes to an end when an arhat or Buddha dies at the end of the lifetime in which the person attains liberation or enlightenment. Also called a "mind-stream."
sems-sdeSemdesemdeySee: mind division
sems shin-tu phra-mosubtilste geistige Aktivität / subtilster Geistsubtlest mindSee: clear light awareness
Sems-tsam-paChittamatraChittamatraA Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert external phenomena, but which does assert the true existence of dependent phenomena. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism; the Mind-Only School.
sgomMeditationmeditationSkt: bhavanaThe repeated practice of generating and focusing on a beneficial state of mind in order to build it up as a habit.
sgom-lamPfadgeist des Sich-Gewöhnensaccustoming pathway mindSkt: bhavanamargaDie Ebene des Geistes von Arya-Shravakas, Arya-Pratyekabuddhas und Arya-Bodhisattvas mit der sie sich selbst an das vereinigte Paar von Shamatha und Vipashyana gewöhnen. Vipashyana richtet sich dabei nicht-konzeptuell auf Leerheit aus - oder, ganz allgemein, auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier Edlen Wahrheiten. Dadurch befreien sie sich automatisch selbst von einer Gruppe oder von beiden Gruppen.
sgraGeräusch / KlangsoundSkt: shabdaAn object explicitly cognized by ear consciousness.
sgra-spyiHörkategorieaudio categoryDie konzeptuelle Kategorie des Klanges eines Wortes oder Namens, in die der Klang aller Arten, ein Wort oder Namen auszusprechen, hineinpasst, unabhängig von Stimme, Lautstärke oder Art der Aussprache mit der das Wort oder der Name gesprochen wird.
sgribSchleierobscurationSkt: avaranaA fleeting stain that temporarily "covers" or accompanies mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing objects without suffering or other limitations. Some translators render the term as "obstacle."
sgrib-pa lngafünf Schleierfive obscurationsA set of five mental factors that prevent the attainment of the three higher trainings, in ethical self-discipline, absorbed concentration, and discriminating awareness. According to Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend, (1) flightiness of mind and regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) indecisive wavering, (4) intentions toward sensory objects, and (5) malice. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, (1) regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) sleepiness, (4) flightiness of mind, and (5) indecisive wavering. Also called: five obstacles.
sgro-'dogsVerfälschung / verfälschende HinzufügunginterpolationThe projection or superimposition, onto an object, of a quality or a conventional or ultimate identity that it doesn't have. For instance, to superimpose true existence onto the conventionally existent "me." Literally, the term means "sticking feathers on to something." Some translators render it as "exaggeration," but it is not the exaggeration of something present. Rather, it is the adding of something that is not there, as if it were present.
sgrub-pavollendete Qualitäten/ ErrungenschaftaccomplishmentDas Erlangen eines spirituellen Zieles
sgrub-parealisierenactualizeEin spirituelles Ziel erlangen. Die Verwirklichung eines spirituellen Zieles wirklich (tatsächlich) geschehen lassen. Wird auch mit den Begriffen "erlangen", "Erlangung", "Erreichung", "Errungenschaft" und "Verwirklichung" übersetzt.
sgrub-paBestätigungs-Phänomenaffirmation phenomenonEin Element oder eine Wahrheit über ein Element, das in Bezug auf seine Begründung von etwas definiert wird, ohne dass ein Objekt negiert wird, das explizit durch den Klang ausgedrückt wird.
sgrub-thabsSadhanasadhanaSkt: sadhanaLiterally, a method of actualization, namely a meditation method for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. Performing a sadhana entails recitation of a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings. Synonymous with "self-generation" and "antecedent practice for realization."
sha'i spyanaußersinnliches fleischliches Augeextrasensory flesh eyeCognition that is able to see great distances without obstruction, to see through solid objects such as walls, to see in all directions at the same time, and so on. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).
shakya'i thub-paShakyamuniShakyamuniSkt: ShakyamuniThe Able One of the Shakya Clan, the Sage of the Shakya Clan, an epithet of Buddha
shar-baerscheinendawnA verb used for the arising of a cognitive appearance on a mental continuum, in analogy with the sun rising at dawn, except that the cognitive appearance is not already existing somewhere hidden in the mind in some unconscious manner and then comes up to consciousness when it dawns. Also translated as "to arise."
shes-byagültig erkennbare Phänomenevalidly knowable phenomenaPhenomena that can be the objects of valid cognition. Synonymous with "existents."
shes-bzhinWachsamkeitalertnessSkt: samprajanyaWachsamkeit ist der Geistesfaktor mit dem geprüft wird, in welcher Verfassung sich die Vergegenwärtigung in Bezug auf ihr geistiges Festhalten am Fokus-Objekt [***Objekt der Ausrichtung] befindet. Der Geistesfaktor achtet darauf, ob das geistige Festhalten aufgrund von Flatterhaftigkeit des Geistes oder geistiger Trägheit zu locker, zu schwach oder zu angespannt geworden ist. Wachsamkeit ist jedoch mehr als nur ein reflexives Bewusstsein oder eine implizites Begreifen, das lediglich bemerkt, was in der Meditation passiert. Der Geistesfaktor Wachsamkeit gleicht einer Alarmanlage, die eine die Aufmerksamkeit wiederherstellende Reaktion auslöst, um jegliche Fehler zu korrigieren.
shes-paWahrnehmungcognition(1) Der Akt des Wahrnehmens oder Erkennens einer Sache, aber ohne dabei notwendigerweise zu wissen, was diese Sache ist oder bedeutet. Sie ist entweder gültig oder ungültig, konzeptuell oder nichtkonzeptuell. "Wahrnehmung" ist der allgemeinste Begriff dafür, etwas zu wissen [erkennen]. (2) Das "Paket" des Hauptbewusstseins, seiner begleitenden Geistesfaktoren (Arten von Nebengewahrsein) und das kognitive Objekt, was allen gemein ist. Einigen Lehrsysteme zur Folge beinhaltet eine Wahrnehmung auch ein reflexives Gewahrsein.
shes-paWeisen, in denen man sich etwas gewahr istways of being aware of somethingEine von drei Arten nichtstatischer Phänomene - alle Arten geistiger Aktivität, die ein Objekt wahrnehmen.
shes-pa mngon-gyur-bamanifeste Wahrnehmungmanifest cognitionA cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, both to the person and to the consciousness of the manifest cognition. Both the person and the manifest consciousness cognitively take it _ both cognize or "know" it. See also: subliminal cognition.
shes-rabunterscheidendes Gewahrseindiscriminating awarenessSkt: prajnaThe mental factor that decisively discriminates between what is correct and what is incorrect, or between what is helpful and what is harmful, or between what is appropriate or what is inappropriate, or between what is reality and what is not reality. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.
shes-rab-kyi spyanaußersinnliches Auge des unterscheidenden Gewahrseinsextrasensory eye of discriminating awarenessCognition that is able to "see" voidness nonconceptually. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana)..
shes-sgribkognitive Schleiercognitive obscurationsSkt: jneyavaranaKognitive Schleier sind flüchtige Befleckungen, welche die geistige Aktivität (oder genauer gesagt: die geistige Aktivität des klaren Lichtes) "verdecken" oder begleiten, wobei sie verhindern, dass die geistige Aktivität die beiden Wahrheiten gleichzeitig wahrnehmen kann. Der Begriff "kognitive Schleier" wird auch als "Schleier in Bezug auf alles Wissbare" und "Hindernisse, die die Allwissenheit verhindern" und "Hindernisse vor der Allwissenheit" übersetzt.
shin-sbyangsGefühl der Leistungsfähigkeitsense of fitnessThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling totally fit to do something, and which is both exhilarating and blissful, physically and mentally, but in a nondisturbing way.
shin-tu lkog-gyurextrem verschleiertes Phänomenextremely obscure phenomenonA validly knowable phenomenon that can be apprehended through authoritative texts or speech, such as the enlightening words of the Buddha, or that can be apprehended through the words of persons who are valid sources of information.
shin-tu rgyas-paepische Darstellungenepic presentationsSkt: vaipulyaPresentations of the vast and profound aspects of such topics as the six far-reaching attitudes (six perfections) and ten arya bodhisattva levels of bhumi-mind (ten bhumis) of The Basket of the Mahayana or Bodhisattva Sutras. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
shugs-la rtogs-paimplizites Begreifenimplicit apprehensionIn the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object itself does not arise; only a cognitive appearance of the basis for imputation of the involved object arises. Compare: explicit apprehension.
shugs-la shes-paindirekte Wahrnehmungindirect cognitionAccording to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object, which no longer exists. Compare: direct cognition.
skad-cigMomentmomentSkt: kshanaThe smallest unit of time.
skal-mnyam-gyi rgyuUrsachen des gleichen Statusequal status causeCauses for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena as they are -- either in the same ethical category or on the same plane of existence.
skuKörper eines BuddhaCorpus of a BuddhaSkt: kayaEin Netzwerk erleuchtender Merkmale oder Aspekte eines Buddha, wie beispielsweise die des Körpers, der Sprache oder des Geistes eines Buddha, die er beim Erreichen der Erleuchtung erlangt und die anderen Wesen dabei helfen, die Erleuchtung ebenfalls zu erlangen.
sku-bzhivier Körper eines BuddhaFour Corpuses of a Buddha(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), and (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha.
sku-gnyiszwei Körper eines BuddhaTwo Corpuses of a Buddha(1) A Corpus of Forms (Rupakaya) and (2) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.
sku-gsumdrei Körper des BuddhaThree Corpuses of a BuddhaSkt: trikaya(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), and (3) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.
sku-lngafünf Körper eines BuddhaFive Corpuses of a Buddha(I) In some presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha (Svabhavakaya), and Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya) of a Buddha. (II) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and Corpus of Great Bliss (Mahasukhakaya) of a Buddha. (III) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and (5) Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence of a Buddha. (IV) In yet other systems, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya), and (5) Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment (Abhisambhodhikaya) of a Buddha.
skur-'debsZurückweisung / NichtanerkennenrepudiationA conceptual denial of something that is true or is present.
skyab-'gro tsam-pa-babloßes Einschlagen der sicheren Richtungmere taking of safe directionSynonymous with "causal taking of safe direction."
skyabssichere Richtung / sichere Ausrichtungsafe directionSkt: sharanaA direction that one puts in one's life that will protect one from true suffering and its true causes, and, when one reaches the goal of this direction, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "refuge."
skyabs-'grosichere Richtung einschlagen / in ihnen eine sichere Ausrichtung suchen / einen sicheren Weg in Richtung ...einschlagen / in eine sichere Richtung gehentake safe directionTo put a direction in one's life, which, when one goes in it, protects one from true suffering and its true causes and which, when one reaches its endpoint, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "take refuge," but it has no connotation of merely opening up and passively receiving protection.
skyabs-'gro khyad-par-babesonderes Einschlagen der sicheren Richtungspecial taking of safe directionSynonym for "resultant taking of safe direction."
skyabs-yulObjekte, die eine sichere Richtung weisenobjects that indicate a safe directionA general term for the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.
skye-mchedAnreger der Wahrnehmungstimulators of cognitionSkt: ayatanaThe focal conditions and dominating conditions that give rise to the six types of cognition -- namely, the cognitive objects and cognitive sensors of each of the six cognitive faculties. In the case of the five sensory faculties, the objects and sensors are forms of physical phenomena, such as sights and photosensitive cells. In the case of the mental faculty, the objects may be any validly knowable phenomenon, while the sensors are the immediately preceding moments of mental cognition. Usually counted as the twelve stimulators of cognition, but in the list of the twelve links of dependent arising, referred to as the six stimulators of cognition, in which case the two cognitive stimulators of each cognitive faculty are counted as one.
skye-mched bcu-gnyiszwölf Anregertwelve stimulators of cognitionSkt: dvadasha ayatanaThe twelve classes of nonstatic phenomena that serve as focal and dominating conditions for the six types of cognition -- namely, (1) sights, (2) eye sensors, (3) sounds, (4) ear sensors, (5) smells, (6) nose sensors, (7) tastes, (8) tongue sensors, (9) physical sensations, (10) body sensors, (11) (all) phenomena, and (12) mnd sensors.
skye-mched-kyi yan-lagdas Glied der Wahrnehmungsanregerlink of stimulators of cognitionSkt: ayatana-angaThe fifth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The stimulators of cognition during the period of time in the development of a fetus from when the six different stimulators of cognition are differentiated up until but just before the aggregate of distinguishing is differentiated.
skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-budurch Menschenhand geschaffene Folgenman-made resultSkt: purushakaraphalamA result that arises as the direct result of the effort of a limited being, but which does not ripen from karma.
skyes-pa'i rabsBerichte von früheren Lebenpast life accountsSkt: jatakaAccounts of the difficult ascetic practices that Buddha performed in his previous lives while engaging in the conduct of the bodhisattvas. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
skye-sridEmpfängnis-Existenzconception existenceThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience conception. It lasts only one moment. Some translators render the term as "birth existence."
smin-pareifen / heranreifenripenSkt: vipaka(1) A karmic cause developing or growing to the point at which it can bear fruit, which means produce its result. This is ripening in its definitional sense. (2) A karmic causal factor on a mental continuum exhausting and finishing its presence there as it produces its fruit.
smin-padas HeranreifenripeningSkt: vipakaThe process whereby a karmic cause gives rise to its result. See: ripen.
smon-lamGebet der Aspirationaspirational prayerSkt: pranidhanaEin Gebet zum Erlangen eines spirituellen Zieles oder für das Erlangen der Umstände, die förderlich sind, um das Ziel zu erreichen.
smon-pa med-paFehlen von Hoffnunglack of a hopeDie Abwesenheit oder das vollständige Fehlen von wahrhaft existenten Wirkungen irgendeines Phänomens; wörtlich: das Fehlen von wahrhaft existenten Wirkungen, die man sich von einem Phänomen erhoffen könnte.
smon-semsanstrebendes Bodhichittaaspiring bodhichittaEin Bodhichitta-Geist (ein vom Erleuchtungsgeist erfülltes Bewusstsein oder Herz), der, wenn man sich auf seine eigene individuelle Befreiung hin ausrichtet, einhergeht mit dem Anstreben, der Aspiration oder dem Wunsch eben diese Erleuchtung zu erlangen.
smon-sems dam-bca'-canStufe des Versprechens des anstrebenden Bodhicittapledged state of aspiring bodhichittaThe advanced level of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the bais of the Buddha-nature factors oon one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit all beings by means of it, and then pledges never to give up this bodhichitta aim until one reaches that enlightenment. Abbreviated as: pledged aspiring bodhichitta.
smon-sems smon-pa-tsamlediglich anstrebender Zustand des anstrebenden Bodhichittamerely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichittaThe initial state of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own future enlightenment and merely has the intention to attain it and to benefit all beings by means of it. Also called: the mere state of aspiring bodhichitta.
snangErstarren der Erscheinungappearance congealmentAuch übersetzt als: Erscheinung, weiße Erscheinung
snang-baErscheinungappearanceDas geistige Hologramm (geistige Darstellung) eines sich im Äußeren oder Inneren befindenden Objektes der Wahrnehmung, das im Geist entsteht.
snang-baHervorbringen von Erscheinungen / Erscheinungs-Hervorbringenappearance-makingDer Aspekt der geistigen Aktivität der ein geistiges Hologramm eines Objektes der Wahrnehmung entstehen lässt (erzeugt).
snang-bakognitives Entstehencognitive arisingEine kognitive Erscheinung, die in einem geistigen Kontinuum erschienen ist.
snang-bageistige Darstellung / geistige Repräsentationmental representationSomething that appears in a conceptual cognition. (1) In Gelug, a static, fully transparent conceptually isolated item through which the cognition cognizes the external object that the hologram resembles; equivalent to a mental aspect. (2) In non-Gelug, a static, partially transparent mentally synthesized commonsense object and category through which the cognition cognizes a conceptually isolated item (a mental aspect) that stands for a commonsense object.
snang-la ma-nges-paunentschiedene Wahrnehmungnondetermining cognitionA cognition of an object, in which (a) the involved object is an objective entity, (b) a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the involved object arises, but (c) there is no ascertainment (certainty, decisiveness) of what the involved object is or that the cognition of it has occurred. Also called: inattentive cognition.
snang-yulerscheinendes Objektappearing objectDas erscheinende Objekt ist ein geistiges Hologramm (geistige Darstellung) eines sich im Äußeren oder Inneren befindenden Objektes der Wahrnehmung, das durch die Wahrnehmung hervorgebracht wird. Das erscheinende Objekt ist gleichbedeutend mit dem kognitiv aufgenommenen Objekt. Manchmal wir dieser Fachbegriff synonym mit dem Begriff "geistiges Erscheinungsbild" verwendet, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass eine Wahrnehmung das "geistige Erscheinungsbild" seines ihm erscheinenden Objektes annimmt.
sna-thung spu-sud-kyi nges-'byungkurzlebige, hocherregte Entsagungshort-lived all-excited renunciationThe enthusiastic and fanatic giving up of everything worldly, often based on blind faith that an external source will save us.
sngagsMantramantraSkt: mantraSets of syllables and, often, additional Sanskrit words and phrases, all of which represent enlightening speech and which, when repeated, protect the mind from destructive states. While repeating the mantras of a Buddha-figure, one imagines having the abilities to communicate perfectly to everyone the complete means for eliminating suffering and reaching enlightenment. Mantras shape the breath, and consequently the subtle energy-winds, enabling one to bring the winds under control for use in meditation practice.
sngags-btusMantra-Ansammlung, Mantra-Sammlungmantra-gatheringA tantric ritual for giving disciples confidence in the accuracy of a mantra, in which the vowels and consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet are written with colored powder in a grid on the surface of a metal mirror and the tantric master reads out, one by one, the grid location of the consonant and vowel for each syllable of the main mantra. After each specification of the consonant and vowel of a syllable, an assistant takes some colored powder from the mirror and uses it to write the syllable on the surface of another metal mirror.
sngags-kyi phyag-chenMantra-Mahamudramantra mahamudraMeditations on the nature of the mind with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.
sngon-'grovorbereitende Übungen / vorbereitende Praxispreliminary practicesPractices, such as prostration, usually repeated 100,000 times, done as a method to build up positive force and cleanse negative force so as to have more success in tantra practice. Also called "ngondro."
sngon-dus-kyi srid-paExistenz vor dem Todepredeath existenceThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after conception until the moment immediately before death.
sngon-gnas rjes-dran-gyi mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein der Erinnerung an vergangene Situationenadvanced awareness of recollection of past situationsWahrnehmung vergangener Leben. Eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt.
snying-po'i phyag-chenEssenz-Mahamudraessence mahamudraA pathway of mahamudra practice concerning the nature of the mind in which specially qualified disciples receive the inspiration of the realizations all the lineage masters through receiving a vajra deep awareness empowerment and thereby achieve realization of mind-itself, equivalent to a seeing pathway mind. As "those for whom it happens all at once," they achieve enlightenment simultaneously with this realization. Also known as "the singular sufficient white panacea."
snying-rjeMitgefühlcompassionSkt: karunaMitgefühl ist der Wunsch, dass jemand frei sein möge vom Leiden und den Ursachen des Leidens.
snying-rje chen-pogroßes Mitgefühlgreat compassionSkt: mahakarunaGroßes Mitgefühl bezeichnet den Wunsch, das jedes Wesen frei sein möge vom Leiden und den Ursachen des Leidens.
snying-thigdie Kategorie der Herzessenzheart essence divisionAnother name for the quintessence teachings division of treasure texts, and for the texts contained in this division.
so-mafrisch und reinfresh and cleanArising anew in each moment without being stained by any mental constructs -- descriptive of pure awareness (rig-pa) in the dzogchen systems.
sor-rtog ye-shesindividualisierendes tiefes Gewahrseinindividualizing deep awarenessDas individualisierende tiefe Gewahrsein ist eine von fünf Arten des tiefen Gewahrseins, die alle Wesen als einen Aspekt ihrer Buddhanatur besitzen. Das individualisierende tiefe Gewahrsein ist das tiefe Gewahrsein, welches ein Objekt auswählt und seiner einzigartigen und individuellen Qualitäten gewahr ist. Es wird auch als tiefes Gewahrsein der Individualität der Dinge bezeichnet.
so-so'i skye-bogewöhnliches Wesenordinary beingA limited being who has not yet attained the state of an arya. In other words, someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths.
so-thar sdom-paPratimoksha-Gelübdepratimoksha vowsSkt: pratimokshasamvaraThe vows of either a layman or laywoman, a novice or full monk, or a provisional, novice, or full nun. The ethical self-discipline of keeping them purely provides the basis for the individual being keeping them to attain liberation from samsara.
spong-baAufgebenriddanceSkt: haniA static state in which an emotional obscuration or a cognitive obscuration has been removed forever from a mental continuum. Equivalent to a true stopping (true cessation). Translated by others as "abandonment."
spros-bralZustand getrennt von geistiger Fabrikationstate parted from mental fabricationThe state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs.
spros-pageistige Fabrikationmental fabricationSkt: prapancaAn appearance of truly established existence that mental activity in a conceptual cognition produces and projects due to the habits of grasping for truly established existence.
sprul-skuAusstrahlungskörperCorpus of EmanationsSkt: nirmanakayaThe network of grosser forms, which are emanations of a Buddha's Corpus of Full Use, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach ordinary beings with the karma to be able to meet with them. Also translated sometimes as "Emanation Body."
spyiKategorie / Klasse / Gruppe / GattungcategoryEine Kategorie, Gruppe oder Gattung ist ein Phänomen, dass den Einzelwesen zugeschrieben wird, die der Kategorie, Gruppe oder Gattung zugeschrieben wird. Einige Übersetzter geben den Begriff mit "Allgemeines" oder "Allgemeinheit" wieder.
spyikonzeptuelle Kategorieconceptual categoryEine konzeptuelle Kategorie ist eine Gruppe von individuellen Elementen, die eine gemeinsam definierende Eigenschaft gemeinsam haben [***teilen]. Die konzeptuelle Kategorie wird durch eine geistige Synthese individueller Elemente [+++Gegenstände], die Beispiele der konzeptuellen Kategorie sind, geistig konstruiert (geistig fabriziert). Oder die konzeptuelle Kategorie wird durch eine geistige Synthese räumlicher, sensorischer oder zeitlicher Teile, die auf sie zugeschrieben (mit denen sie bezeichnet sind), geistig konstruiert. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Allgemeines" oder "Allgemeinheit" wieder.
spyigeistige Synthesemental synthesisThe imputation of a conceptual category in which the bases for imputation are the individual sensibilia of a commonsense object, the parts of any of the sensibilia of a commonsense object, the moments in the continuum of a commonsense object, or items sharing a common defining characteristic. Synonymous with "conceptual category" and "category."
spyi-mtshanmetaphysische Entitätenmetaphysical entitiesSkt: samanyalakshanaIn the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their being merely imputed by conceptual cognition and which are superficial (relative, conventional) true phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all static phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include all static phenomena other than voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug system, they are the appearing objects of only conceptual cognitions, although they are not the actual cognitive appearances in those cognitions. They may be validly cognized not only by valid conceptual cognition, but also implicitly by valid nonconceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid conceptual cognition. Also translated as "generally characterized phenomena."
sred-paBegierdecravingSkt: trshnaThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a strong longing desire to experience something in the future that one may or may not be experiencing at present. The Sanskrit term means, literally, "thirst."
srid-pazwanghafte Existenzcompulsive existenceExistence under the control of karma and disturbing emotions and attitudes. Synonym for uncontrollably recurring existence, samsara.
srid-paWeiterexistenzfurther existenceSkt: bhavaSee: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence
srid-sredBegierde in Bezug auf Weiterexistenzcraving in relation to further existenceOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire for a neutral feeling, which one is experiencing, to continue surviving and not degenerate. (2) A strong longing desire for one's own body composed of five aggregates to continue surviving as a basis for craving in relation to what is desirable and craving because of fear. (3) Holding on to objects of the future.
stobsStärkenstrengtheningSkt: balaThe special discriminating awareness employed for expanding one's discriminating awareness and not letting it be crushed by countering factors, such as attachment to anything. One of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes (ten perfections).
stongfrei von etwas/ ohne/ bar einer Sache/ leerdevoidTotally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic, whether that characteristic is a possibly existing one or an impossible one.
stong-nyid rtogs-paLeerheit verwirklichen / Leerheit erkennenrealize voidnessTo gain a stable, correct understanding of voidness, either conceptually or nonconceptually, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it.
stong-paBlöße / "Nacktheit oder Blöße"starknessThe quality of something standing out sharply and dramatically in its appearance, without anything adorning it (like a rock mountain in a desert, totally devoid of any vegetation); the quality of being barren.
stong-pa-nyidLeerheitvoidnessSkt: shunyataEine Abwesenheit einer unmöglichen Art zu existieren. Die unmögliche Art zu existieren hat es zu keiner Zeit jemals [überhaupt nie] gegeben. Dieser Begriff wird von Übersetzern häufig mit dem Begriff "Leere" übertragen. [ausgedrückt]
stong-sangbloße Abwesenheitbare absenceBloße Abwesenheit bezeichnet den natürlichen Zustand ohne Konzepte oder konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung, was der natürliche Zustand ist oder die Natur des Gewahrseins (Geist).
thabs-mkhasGeschick bezüglich der Mittelskill in meansSkt: upayakaushalyaThe special discriminating awareness concerning the most effective and appropriate internal methods for actualizing the Buddha's teachings and the most effective and appropriate external methods for making limited beings ripe for attaining liberation and enlightenment. In Mahayana, when conjoined with a bodhichitta, the seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes.
thad-ka'i spyihorizontale geistige Synthesehorizontal mental synthesisA kind mental synthesis that extends over many instances of the same type of phenomenon, such as many tables.
tha-mal 'du-'dzigewöhnliche Aufregungordinary commotionThe emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to the eight transitory things in life: praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly.
tha-mal-gyi shes-panormales Gewahrseinnormal awarenessIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for clear light mind, which is "normal" in the sense that it is the primordial, natural state that has always been the case.
thar-paBefreiungliberationSkt: mokshaThe state of an arhat; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of true suffering and the true origins of suffering, and thus a true stopping of samsara; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of the emotional obscurations.
tha-snyadKonventionconventionSkt: vyavaharaEin Wort oder ein Satz, der innerhalb der Gesellschaft oder von einem anderen Menschen in der Sprache oder in Gedanken übereinstimmend verwendet wird, um sich auf etwas zu beziehen.
tha-snyad spyod-yulkonventionelles allgemein verständliches Objektconventional commonsense objectBei dem Begriff "konventionelles allgemein verständliches Objekt" handelt es sich wörtlich um: Konventionelle Objekte, die wir tatsächlich erfahren, wenn wir sie wahrnehmen. Es handelt sich also um ein Objekt der gewöhnlichen Erfahrung, auf die ein Wort oder Konzept hinweist, und das sich über die Sinnesdaten von einem oder mehrerer Sinne erstreckt.
theg-chenMahayanaMahayanaSkt: mahayanaLiterally, a "Vast Vehicle of Mind" - levels or states of mind that, with a vast motivation of bodhichitta, employ vast methods for reach the vast goal of enlightenment. Some translators render the term as "Greater Vehicle."
theg-dmanHinayanaHinayanaSkt: hinayanaLiterally, a "Modest Vehicle of Mind" -- levels and states of mind with a modest motivation - renunciation - and, with modest methods, lead to the modest goal of liberation. Some translators render the term as "Lesser Vehicle."
theg-paFahrzeug des Geistesvehicle of mindSkt: yanaA level of state of mind that acts as either (1) a vehicle for bringing one to the spiritual goal of either liberation or enlightenment, or (2) the resultant goal of liberation or enlightenment to which one is brought.
the-tshomsunentschlossenes Schwankenindecisive waveringThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that entertains two opinions about what is true – in other words, wavering between accepting or rejecting what is true. One of the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes. Sometimes translated as "doubt."
thig-lekreative Energietropfencreative energy-dropsSkt: binduSubtle forms of pure essence, found in the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which, through anuttarayoga complete stage practice, can function as the seed for generating of a blissful awareness.
thob-paAneigung / ErrungenschaftacquirementDas Erlangen oder Erhalten von etwas, wie beispielsweise eines Gelübdes oder einer spirituellen Errungenschaft, die dem geistigen Kontinuum der Person zugeschrieben wird, die das Gelübde erhalten hat oder die Errungenschaft erlangt hat. Eine Aneignung oder Errungenschaft ist eine nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variable - ein nicht-statisches Phänomen, das weder eine Form materieller Phänomene, noch eine Art des Gewahrseins von etwas ist.
thob-pa'i mya-ngan 'daserlangtes Nirvana / errungenes Nirvanaacquired nirvanaErloschene Zustände der Erlösung aus allen samsarischen Leiden und ihren wahren Ursachen, die durch die Kraft der Meditation erlangt werden.
thod-rgalVorwärtssprungleap-aheadThe practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "leaps ahead" from the attainment of break-through, and during which effulgent rigpa gives rises to and cognizes itself as a rainbow body. During this stage, effulgent rigpa becomes increasingly more prominent, while essence rigpa is also prominently maintained. This stage is equivalent to an accustoming pathway of mind (path of meditation).
thos-paZuhörenlisteningSkt: shrutaAt the time when the Buddhist teachings were only available in oral form, hearing the recitation of the teachings. Nowadays, also reading the teachings. By means of listening to the teachings, one learns about them.
thregs-chodDurchbruchbreak-throughMit Durchbruch wir im Dzogchen-System die Praxis und Ergebnisstufe bezeichnet, in der man die Ebene des begrenzten (gewöhnlichen) Geistes "durchbricht" und sowohl das Essenz-Rigpa erkennt, als auch Zugang zum Essenz-Rigpa erhält, dadurch den Pfadgeist des Sehens (Pfad des Sehens) erlangt und ein Arya wird.
thub-paFähige, derAble OneSkt: muniEin Beiname des Buddha - jemand der imstande war, das Ziel der Erleuchtung zu erreichen und der in der Lage ist, allen Lebewesen soviel wie möglich zu nutzen.
thugs-rjeFähigkeit, auf andere einzugehenresponsivenessThe influencing nature of pure awareness (rigpa) - namely, that it responds to others effortlessly and spontaneously with compassionate communication. See: responsive awareness.
Thun-drug rnal-'byorYoga in sechs SitzungenSix-Session YogaIn Gelug, a practice, recited six times daily, required of those who have received an anuttarayoga empowerment, through which they keep the nineteen closely bonding practices for the five Buddha-families.
ting-nge-'dzinvertiefte Konzentrationabsorbed concentrationSkt: samadhiVollendete Konzentration, die vollständig ins Objekt vertieft oder versunken ist. auf ein Objekt der Ausrichtung vertieft oder in es versunken ist.
ting-nge-'dzingeistiges Fixierenmental fixationSkt: samadhiThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of maintaining mental placement on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Also called "mentally fixating" and "concentration," it accompanies all cognitions and varies in intensity from very weak to very strong. When perfected, it becomes "absorbed concentration."
ting-nge-'dzin-gyi mchod-paGabe / Opfergaben der tiefen Konzentrationofferings of absorbed concentrationOfferings made of various aspects of one's Dharma practice, visualized in the form of the outer offerings. Also called: offerings of samadhi.
tsambloß / lediglichmereOnly this, without anything more.
tshad-magültige Wahnehmungvalid cognitionSkt: pramana(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a fresh, nonfallacious cognition. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a nonfallacious cognition.
tshad-minungültige Wahrnehmunginvalid cognition(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a cognition that is not fresh, or one that is fallacious, or one that is both not fresh and fallacious. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a fallacious cognition.
tshigs-su bcad-pametrische Versemetered versesSkt: gathaTwo-to-six-lined verses composed by Buddha. One of the twelve scriptural categories.
tshogsrituelles freigebiges Festmahlritual bountiful feastA specially consecrated torma offered to one's tantric master, inseparable from the Buddha-figure, during a tantra ceremonial round of offering.
tshogs-'khorzeremonielle Folge der Darbringung eines rituellen Festmahlsceremonial round of offering a ritual feastSkt: ganacakraEine zeremonielle Folge der Darbringung eines rituellen Festmahls ist ein tantrisches Ritual, das Teil einer Puja ist, in der man seinem spirituellem Meister, der als untrennbar von der Buddhagestalt betrachtet wird, speziell geweihte Gaben darbringt, die üblicherweise auch ein Torma beinhalten. Im Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra umfassen diese Gaben gesegneten Alkohol und Fleisch.
tshogs-lamPfadgeist des Aufbauensbuilding-up pathway mindSkt: sambharamargaDer Pfadgeist des Aufbauens ist eine Ebene des Geistes eines Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas oder Bodhisattvas, mit der sie, neben anderen guten Qualitäten, das vereinigte Paar eines still gewordenen und zur Ruhe gekommenen Geisteszustand (Shamatha) und eines Geisteszustandes von außergewöhnlicher Wahrnehmungsfähigkeit (Vipashyana), der konzeptuell auf Leerheit ausgerichtet ist - oder sich ganz allgemein auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier edlen Wahrheiten ausrichtet, aufbauen. Der Pfadgeist des Aufbauens trifft nur auf Shravakas und Pratyekabuddhas zu, sobald diese eine mühelose Entschlossenheit frei zu sein entwickelt haben, bzw. trifft er auf Bodhisattvas zu, sobald sie müheloses Bodhichitta erlangt haben. Andere Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Pfad der Ansammlung" wieder.
tshogs-shingreichhaltiges Feldbountiful fieldA bountiful field for growing positive force, and that is shortened to bountiful field. It is usually translated as merit-field by others. Bountiful here means that it gives abundant crop.
tshogs-spyigeistige Sammelsynthesecollection mental synthesisMit dem Begriff geistige Sammelsynthese wird ein Ganzes bezeichnet, das auf räumliche, sinnliche und/oder zeitliche Teile zugeschrieben wird.
tshor-baEmpfinden verschiedener Grade von Glücklichseinfeeling a level of happinessSkt: vedanaOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The subsidiary awareness that accompanies each moment of sensory or mental cognition of a limited being before attaining liberation and with which that being experiences the ripenings of its own karma in the form of something within the spectrum of extreme unhappiness, through neutral, to extreme happiness. Also called "feeling."
tshor-ba'i phung-poAggregat der Empfindungen eines Grades an Glücklichseinaggregate of feelings of levels of happinessSkt: vedana-skandhaEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren) der Empfindung eines Grades an Glücklichsein, das Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnte. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor wird auch als "Aggregat der Empfindung" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Ansammlung der Gefühle" oder "Anhäufung der Gefühlsempfindungen". Siehe: Empfindung eines Grades an Glücklichsein
tshul-khrimsethische Selbstdisziplinethical self-disciplineSkt: shila(1) In Theravada, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to avoid doing any harm to others, by keeping one's vows, free from anger or ill-will even if others harm one. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge to safeguard the actions of one's body, speech, and mind, which comes from having turned one's mind away from any wish to cause harm to others and from the disturbing and destructive mental factors that had motivated one to harm others. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.
yang-dag-par blangs-pa-las byung-ba'i gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man sie eindeutig übernimmtforms of physical phenomenon arising from clearly taking them onForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are acquired on a mental continuum, such as the nonrevealing forms of vows and of karmic actions.
yang-srid sgrub-pa'i laskarmischer Impuls, der eine weitere Existenz realisiertkarmic impulse for further existenceA karmic impulse that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling the aftermath to ripen into a next rebirth. Abbreviated as "further existence."
yan-lag-gi dam-tshigzusätzliche bindende Praktikenauxiliary bonding practicesDie zusätzlich bindenden Praktiken sind eine Gruppe von neun Praktiken und Geisteshaltungen, die man im Rahmen einer Ermächtigung in eine Praxis des Anuttarayoga-Tantra nimmt und von der man verspricht sie einzuhalten, um eine enge Verbindung mit der Tantra-Praxis aufrechtzuerhalten.
yan-lag-gi sbom-pozusätzliche schwerwiegende Handlungenauxiliary thick actionsDie zusätzlichen schwerwiegende Handlungen sind eine Gruppe von Handlungen, die man bei einer Ermächtigung in eine Praxis des Yoga-Tantra oder des Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra gelobt zu vermeiden, und die, wenn man die Handlungen ausführt, die Meditationspraxis schwächen und das Fortschreiten auf dem Tantra-Pfad erschweren.
ye-don kun-gzhiursprüngliches tiefstes Alayaprimordial deepest alayaIn the dzogchen system, a synonym for basis rigpa. The source of all appearances of samsara and nirvana.
ye-shestiefes Gewahrseindeep awarenessSkt: jnana(1) In the context of the five types of deep awareness, a type of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. It is "deep" in the sense that it is a fundamental way in which the mind works and has always been there, primordially, with no beginning and no end. (2) When contrasted with "discriminating awareness" (Tib. shes-rab) in the non-Gelug usage of the term, the principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the deepest truth of something (its inseparable voidness and appearance), beyond all words and concepts. (3) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, when contrasted with "discriminating awareness," principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the two truths of something. (4) In the context of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness, in the Gelug usage, either the principal awareness that explicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness (deepest truth) during total absorption or the principal awareness that implicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness during subsequent attainment.
ye-shes 'phrin-las skuKörper tiefen Gewahrseins erleuchtenden EinflussesCorpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening InfluenceIn some dzogchen systems, the spontaneous, effortless positive influence that a Buddha's omniscient mind exerts on others. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence. Some translators render the term as "Wisdom Activity Body."
ye-shes chos-skuKörper des tiefen allumfassenden GewahrseinsCorpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing EverythingSkt: jnana-dharmakayaMit dem Begriff "Körper des tiefen allumfassenden Gewahrseins" wird der Aspekt des tiefen Gewahrseins des Geistes eines Buddha bezeichnet, der zeitgleich und ohne Unterbrechung der zwei Wahrheiten gleichermaßen gewahr ist. Er wird auch als Körper des
ye-shes-kyi spyanaußersinnliches Auge des tiefen Gewahrseinsextrasensory eye of deep awarenessA Buddha's omniscient awareness that is able to "see" the two truths about all phenomena. One of the five types of extrasensory eyes, possessed only by Buddhas.
ye-shes-kyi tshogsNetzwerk des tiefen Gewahrseinsnetwork of deep awarenessSkt: jnanasambharaA constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the moments of conceptual or nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths or of voidness, on the mental continuum of a limited being, when followed by a bodhichitta dedication, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Dharmakaya of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of deep awareness." Some translators render the term as "collection of wisdom" or "collection of insight."
ye-shes lngafünf Arten des tiefen Gewahrseinsfive types of deep awarenessFive types of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The five are (1) mirror-like, (2) equalizing, (3) individualizing, and (4) accomplishing deep awareness, and (5) deep awareness of reality. Some translators render this term as "five Buddha-wisdoms." Compare: "deep awareness" (1).
yidallgemeines Gewahrseingeneral awarenessIn the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that gives rise to and is aware of the appearing (the arising in general) of an awareness of an object and an object that one is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the general features of an entire sensory or mental field that one cognizes, so that one gets an overview.
yid-'ong byams-paherzerwärmende Liebeheartwarming loveThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one has a feeling of closeness and warmth toward anyone one meets.
yi-dagsKlammergeist [Hungergeist]clutching ghostSkt: pretaOne of the three worse rebirth states, characterized by the suffering of being unable to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, and caused primarily by miserliness. Translated by most others as "hungry ghost," which is a literal rendering of the Chinese translation for the term, adopted by the Chinese in reference to the spirits of departed ancestors that suffered when not presented with regular offerings of food.
yi-damBuddhagestalt / BuddhaformBuddha-figureSkt: ishtadevataEine Buddhagestalt oder Buddhaform ist eine von einem Buddha ausstrahlende oder hervorgehende Gestalt mit mannigfaltigen Gesichtern, Armen und Beinen, als die sich ein Tantra-Praktizierender selbst visualisiert. Die Visualisation wird durchgeführt, um eine enge Bindung zu der Gestalt zu entwickeln, und so mittels dieser Praxis, die Erleuchtung in Form dieser Gestalt zu erlangen zu können.
yid-byed bral-baZustand getrennt vom geistigen Aufnehmenstate parted from taking to mindThe state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs -- in other words, equivalent to the state parted from mental fabrication.
yid-ches-kyi dad-paGlaube an eine Tatsache auf der Grundlage der Vernunft /aus Vernunftsgründenbelief in a fact based on reasonEine konstruktive Emotion, die eine Tatsache über etwas als wahr betrachtet, wobei sie sich auf die Gründe stützt, die die Tatsache durch logisches Denken untermauern.
yid-ches-kyi dad-paGlauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr ist, auf Grundlage der Vernunftbelieving a fact to be true based on reasonSee: belief in a fact based on reason
yid-kyi rang-bzhin gyi gzugsFormen physischer Phänomene, die die funktionelle Natur des Geistes habenforms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mindThe type of subtle phenomena that the body of an arhat in a pure land is: although still included among cognitive stimulators that are forms of physical phenomena, they are visible only to the eye consciousness of arhats in pure lands. Although they are not ways of being aware of anything, their functional nature is similar to that of forms of physical phenomena that can be known only by mental consciousness. Synonymous with "mental bodies."
yid-kyi rnam-shesgeistiges Bewusstseinmental consciousnessSkt: manovijnanaA primary consciousness that can take any existent phenomenon as its object and which relies on merely the previous moment of cognition as its dominating condition and not on any physical sensors.
yid-la byed-paAufmerksamkeitattentionSkt: manasiImmer arbeitender geistiger Faktor der die geistige Aktivität mit einem spezifischen kognitiven Objekt in Anspruch nimmt. Die kognitive (d.h. das Wahrnehmen, Denken und Erkennen betreffende) Beschäftigung mit dem Objekt besteht möglicherweise lediglich darin, dem Objekt einen Grad an Aufmerksamkeit zu geben (stark oder schwach), oder sich in bestimmter Weise auf das Objekt auszurichten (sorgfältig, mühelos etc.), oder das Objekt in bestimmter Weise zu betrachten (übereinstimmend oder nicht übereinstimmend). Wird auch bezeichnet als: aufmerksam sein, Beachtung.
yid-la byed-pageistig Aufnehmentaking to mindSee: attention
yid-lusgeistiger Körpermental bodyThe type of body that arhats in pure lands have. See: forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind.
yod-paExistierendeexistentsValidly knowable phenomena.
yongs-grubvollkommen begründete Phänomenethoroughly established phenomenaSkt: parinishpanna(1) In the context of the Mahayana tenet system, a synonym for deepest truths. Specifically, in the Chittamatra system, the various voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvana. (2) In the Buddhist medical system, hereditary, congenital diseases; genetic disorders.
yon-tangute Eigenschaftengood qualitiesSkt: gunaHelpful aspects or beneficial talents of a person that are corrections of inadequacies.
yul-gyi 'od-gsalobjekthaftes klares Lichtobject clear lightVoidness as the object cognized by clear light awareness.
zag-bcasbefleckttaintedSkt: sashravaSomething that derives from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is related in some way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. According to Vasubandhu, they give rise to further tainted phenomena; while according to Asanga, only some do that. Also translated as "mixed with confusion. Some translators render this term as "contaminated."
zag-bcas kyi phung-pobefleckte Aggregatetainted aggregatesThe five aggregate factors of experience that derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or are related in some with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Some translators render the term as "contaminated aggregates."
zag-medunbeflecktuntaintedSkt: anashravaSomething that does not derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is not related in any way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Also translated as "unmixed with confusion" or "dissociated from confusion." Many translators render this term as "uncontaminated."
zag-med-kyi phung-pounbefleckte Aggregateuntainted aggregatesAggregate factors of someone's experience that do not include the causes that will obtain for that being any further samsaric rebirths.
zag-pa zad-pa'i mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein darüber, dass die befleckten Faktoren erschöpft sindadvanced awareness of the depletion of tainted factorsEine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das [oder die - für die Art] man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Wahrnehmung des eigenen Zustandes, dass man die emotionalen Verdunkelungen, die die Befreiung aus Samsara verhindern, für immer losgeworden ist.
zang-thalalles durchdringendall-permeatingAlles durchdringend bezieht sich auf die Qualität von Rigpa (reines Gewahrsein), das alle Vorgänge begrenzter Wesen (sem) ohne Behinderungen wechselseitig und völlig durchdringt. Das geschieht in gleicher Weise wie Öl einen Sesamsamen durchdringt.
zang-zingaufregendupsettingA way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with craving for one's own tainted, obtainer aggregate factors of experience.
zang-zing med-panichtaufregendnonupsettingA way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with an arya's total absorption on voidness.
zhal-lungpersönliche Anleitungenpersonal instructionsAdvice on how to practice meditation, emphasizing the quintessential points.
zhen-pakonzeptuell anklammernconceptually clingIm Kontext konzeptueller Wahrnehmung bezeichnet "konzeptuell anklammern" das Implizieren eines tatsächlichen Objektes einer Kategorie, das mit der Kategorie übereinstimmt, so als ob die Kategorie an das "konzeptuell implizierte Objekt" angehängt wäre.
zhen-yulkonzeptuell erfasstes Objektconceptualized objectDas "konzeptuell erfasste Objekt" bezeichnet das Objekt in Bezug auf das eine konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung ein Allgemeines (Allgemeinbild), eine Kategorie oder eine geistige Bezeichnung hervorbringt, mit deren Hilfe man denkt. Wörtlich bedeutet der Begriff: Das Objekt an dem sich ein Konzept anklammert. Das "konzeptuell erfasste Objekt" wird auch als "impliziertes Objekt" oder "konzeptuell impliziertes Objekt" bezeichnet.
zhe-sdangFeindseligkeithostilitySkt: dveshaA subcategory of anger: anger directed primarily, although not exclusively, at limited beings. One of the three poisonous emotions and attitudes. See: anger.
zhi-gnasstill gewordener und zur Ruhe gekommener Geisteszustandstilled and settled state of mindSkt: shamathaA state of mind, attained through meditation, in which the mind is stilled of all mental flightiness and mental dullness, is settled down on an object and remains there, and is accompanied by an exhilarating sense of fitness. Also called a "serenely stilled and settled state of mind," "shamatha." Some translators render the term as "calm abiding" or "mental quiescence."
zhi-gnasShinezhinaySee: stilled and settled state of mind
zung-'brelverbundenes Paarjoined pairEin Paar von Elementen, untrennbar miteinander verbunden, in welchem die anfängliche Erlangung des einen vor der anfänglichen Erlangung des anderen stattfindet.
zung-'jugvereintes Paarunified pairSkt: yuganaddhaA pair of items, joined inseparably, in which the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously. Sometimes used as a general term whether the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously or sequentially.

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