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Startseite > Glossar > Glossar Tibetischer Fachbegriffe

Tibetisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

Nur für einige ausgewählte tibetische Begriffe wurden auch die Entsprechungen des Sanskrit aufgenommen, außerdem wurden die diakritischen Zeichen für die Transliteration des Sanskrit weggelassen, um eine Anzeige in allen Browsern zu ermöglichen.

Wählen Sie einen der folgenden Buchstaben. Es werden dann alle Glossareinträge mit diesem Anfangsbuchstaben angezeigt:

' A B C D G K L M N P R S T Y Z alles

TibetischDeutschEnglischSanskritDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)
lamEbene des Pfadespathway levelSkt: margaIn the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of it in the context of someone engaged in the practices for attaining enlightenment. In some usages, the level of a Mahayana arya with a seeing or accustoming pathway mind.
lamPfadgeistpathway mindSkt: margaA level or state of mind that acts or functions as a pathway toward liberation or enlightenment. Some translators render this term as "path," but it refers to mental states, not to a series of spiritual practices. Also called: pathway of mind.
lam-bdenwahrer Pfadgeisttrue pathway mindSkt: marga-satyaAlso called: true path
lam-lngafünf Arten von Bodhisattva-Pfadgeistfive bodhisattva pathway mindsAlso called: five paths
lam-rimLam-rimlam-rimGraded path; graded stages of the path; graded stage of motivation; graded stages of pathway minds. A course of training in the Mahayana sutra teachings through which one makes progress by developing graded stages of motivation, which act as pathway minds leading to enlightenment.
lasKarmakarmaSkt: karma(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, equivalent to a subcategory of the mental factor (subsidiary awareness), an urge. It is the mental factor that brings the mind in the direction of a specific physical, verbal, or mental action. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, with respect to mental karmic actions, it is the mental factor of the urge that brings the mind in the direction of that action. With respect to physical or verbal karmic actions, it is (a) the revealing form of the physical impulse of the physical action or the sound of the words of the verbal action, plus (b) the nonrevealing form of the subtle invisible "vibration" of the action, which continues during and after the action. Some translators render the term "karma" as "action." (3) A general term used loosely for behavioral cause and effect. Also called: karmic impulse.
las-'brasverhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkungbehavioral cause and effectMit dem Begriff "verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung" wird die Grundsatz (Grundprinzip) von Karma bezeichnet, nach dem bestimmte Handlungen bestimmte Wirkungen hervorbringen. Die Ursache ist unser Verhalten - also die Art und Weise wie wir handeln, sprechen und denken - und die Wirkung ist das, was wir erleben (bzw. was uns widerfährt). Verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung bezieht sich auf die Verbindung, die zwischen unserem Verhalten und dem, was wir als Wirkung erleben, besteht.
las-kyi rlungkarmische Windewinds of karmaIn the Kalachakra system, the subtle energy-winds that carry the impulses of karma -- either the karmic impulses that draw one into actions or the karmic impulses with which one carries out physical or verbal actions.
las-rungTauglichkeits-Retreatserviceability retreatAn intensive tantric meditation practice, done over many meditation sessions, during which one performs the sadhana and recites the mantra of a Buddha-figure ten thousand, one hundred thousand, or many hundreds of thousands of times, depending on the number of syllables in the mantra. When completed and finished off with the appropriate fire puja, this intensive practice makes the mind fit to be used (fit to be put into service) for more advanced tantric practices with that Buddha-figure.
ldan-min 'du-byednichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablenoncongruent affecting variableDer Begriff "nichkongruente beeinflussende Variable" bezeichnet eine von drei Arten nichtstatischer Phänomene - und zwar jener nichtstatischer Phänomene die mit dem Hauptbewusstsein und den Arten von Nebengewahrsein der Wahrnehmung, der sie erscheinen, keine fünf Dinge gemeinsam haben und die weder Formen physischer Phänomene sind noch Weisen, in denen man sich etwas gewahr ist [sich einer Sache gewahr zu sein]. Für eine ausführliche Erklärung vergleichen Sie bitte den Artikel: Kongruente und nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablen.
ldog-pakonzeptuell isoliertes Elementconceptually isolated itemWerden auch als Unterscheider oder Isolate bezeichnet.
len-paHerbeiführerobtainerSkt: upadanaA set of four disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes: (1) obtainer desire, (2) an obtainer deluded outlook, (3) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (4) asserting one's identity, and which, when occurring at the time of death, constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.
lhaGötterwesendivine beingSkt: devaA limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."
lha'i mig-gi mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen Augesadvanced awareness of the divine eyeEine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. (1) Erläuterungen der Karma-Kagyü-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um eine Wahrnehmung der unterschiedlichen Wirkungen von Karma auf verschiedene Wesen, wie beispielsweise ihre zukünftigen Wiedergeburten. (2) Der Gelug-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um die Wahrnehmung grober (offensichtlicher) Formen und subtiler Formen, einschließlich jener, die sich in großer Entfernung in Raum und Zeit befinden.
lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-sheshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen Ohrsadvanced awareness of the divine earWahrnehmung, die in der Lage ist Klänge über jede Distanz hinweg zu hören und zu verstehen, unabhängig von der Sprache, in der sie gesprochen werden. Eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt.
lha'i spyanaußersinnliches göttliches Augeextrasensory divine eyeCognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).
lhag-bcas-kyi mya-ngan 'dasNirvana mit Überrestnirvana with residueSkt: sopadhishesha-nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that a shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, attains during his lifetime and which lasts only so long as the person is alive. This is so called because the person still has left a residue of tainted aggregates. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the same as asserted by the Hinayana systems, but in reference only to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state either during subsequent attainment (post-meditation) periods, when meditating on something other than voidness, or when not meditating at all. In reference to Buddhas, their Corpuses of Form.
lhag-bsamaußergewöhnlicher Entschlussexceptional resolveSkt: adhyashayaThe full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."
lhag-bsamaußerordentliche Ehrlichkeitexceptional sincerityExceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).
lhag-med mya-ngan 'dasNirvana ohne Überrestnirvana without residueSkt: nirupadhishesha-nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats, or a Buddha, attains immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. No longer having a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuum extinguishes, like a spent candle. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the state that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats attain immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. Although they no longer have a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuums now go on in a purified form. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state during total absorption on voidness, when there is no appearance-making of truly established existence. In reference to Buddhas, their Deep Awareness Dharmakayas.
lhag-mthongGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher Wahrnehmungsfähigkeitexceptionally perceptive state of mindSkt: vipashyanaA state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight."
lha ma-yinMöchtegern-Gottwould-be divineSkt: asuraAlso called: anti-gods
lhan-cig byed-pa'i rkyengleichzeitig wirkende Bedingungsimultaneously acting conditionSkt: sahakaripratyayaAn item that must exist prior to the arising of something and which assists in making the arising happen, but which does not transform into what arises, for instance water for a sprout.
lhan-skyesautomatisch auftretend, automatisch erscheinendautomatically arisingSkt: sahajaNaturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.
lhan-skyesgemeinsam entstehend / mit entstehendco-arisingSkt: sahajaGemeinsam mit jedem Moment der Erfahrung entstehend, zum Beispiel ein glückseliges Gewahrsein selber oder ein glückseliges Gewahrsein der Leerheit, welches mit der Praxis der Vollendungsstufe des Annuttara-Yoga-Tantra erreicht wird.
lhan-skyesgleichzeitig auftretensimultaneously arisingSkt: sahajaTwo items simultaneously arise if, when one of them arises or happens, the other does also, at the same time. The two items may arise simultaneously either naturally or through the power of meditation. Also called: innate.
lhun-grubspontan Erscheinungen hervorbringenspontaneously establishing appearancesThe functional nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which is that it automatically, without any effort, gives rise to pure appearances.
lhun-grub sbubs-kyi rig-paRigpa der all-umfassenden spontanen Präsenzrigpa of all-embracing spontaneous presencePure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its resultant level as the Dharmakaya of a Buddha.
lkog-gyurverschleiertes Phänomenobscure phenomenonA validly knowable phenomenon that cannot be apprehended through the force of personal experience, but can be apprehended through the force of a line of reasoning.
log-'tshofalscher Lebenserwerb / falsche Methode des Lebenserwerbswrong livelihoodA dishonest means of earning a livelihood or procuring offerings.
log-ltaGeisteshaltung, verzerrte, feindseligeattitude, distorted antagonisticSee: distorted antagonistic thinking
log-ltaverzerrte, feindselige Geisteshaltungdistorted antagonistic thinkingThe action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.
log-ltaverzerrte Auffassungdistorted outlookThe disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."
log-shesverzerrte Wahrnehmungdistorted cognitionA way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.
longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i skuKörper vollen GebrauchsCorpus of Full UseSkt: sambhogakaya(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."
lta-baAuffassungoutlookA way of regarding and understanding objects, for instance as "me" and "mine."
lta-baAnsicht / Auffassung / SichtviewIn the description of a Buddhist system in terms of the view of reality, a way of meditating, and way of behaving that it espouses, the main way for regarding and understanding reality. See also: outlook.
lta-ba ngan-pa drug-cu re-gnyiszweiundsechzig falsche Ansichtensixty-two wrong viewsA set of sixty-two incorrect positions regarding the past, present and future of the self, the universe, and so on, propounded by the eighteen non-Buddhist extremeists and refuted in Buddhism. Sometimes translated by others as the sixty-two bad views.
lta-ba nye-bar len-paherbeiführende verblendete Auffassungobtainer deluded outlookA set of three disturbing deluded outlooks on life that constitute the second of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) a distorted outlook, (2) an extreme outlook, (3) holding a deluded outlook as supreme.
lta-ba nyon-mongs-canverblendete Auffassungdeluded outlookOne of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.
lta-sgom-spyod gsumSicht der Wirklichkeit, eine Meditations- und Verhaltensweiseview of reality, way of meditating, and way of behavingA way to describe a Buddhist system that specifies it in terms of its main way for regarding and understanding reality, its main topic of meditation, and its main manner of acting in the world.
lungmündliche Übertragungoral transmissionA ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony insures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them need to understand their meaning.
lung-bstan-paenthüllende Berichterevelatory accountsSkt: vyakaranaOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Buddha's revelations of what has happened in the past or prophesies of what will occur in the future. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of definitive meaning.
lus-cankörperliches Wesenembodied beingSkt: dehinA being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."
lus-dkyilKörpermandalabody mandalaEin Netzwerk von Buddhagestalten, die innerhalb des Körpers einer Buddhagestalt angeordnet sind.
lus phra-mosubtiler Körpersubtle bodyWithin the gross body of humans, the invisible system of energy-winds, energy-channels, energy-nodes (chakras), and creative energy-drops.
lus shin-tu phra-mosubtilster Körpersubtlest bodyThe subtlest life-supporting energy-wind that accompanies each moment of subtlest mind.

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