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Startseite > Glossar > Glossar Englischer Fachbegriffe

Englisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles

EnglischDeutschDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)Tibetisch / Sanskrit
AbhisambodhikayaAbhisambodhikayaSee: Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment
abiding natureandauernde NaturDie dauerhafte und beständige Natur aller Phänomene; die Leerheit aller Phänomene.Tib: gnas-lugs
abiding traitsandauernde EigenschaftenSee: naturally abiding family-traits
Able OneFähige, derEin Beiname des Buddha - jemand der imstande war, das Ziel der Erleuchtung zu erreichen und der in der Lage ist, allen Lebewesen soviel wie möglich zu nutzen. Tib: thub-pa
Skt: muni
Able Sagefähige Weise, derSee: Able One
absence, absoluteAbwesenheit, absoluteSee: absolute absence
absence, bareAbwesenheit, bloßeSee: bare absence
absolute absenceabsolute AbwesenheitDie Abwesenheit von etwas Unmöglichem; die Abwesenheit von etwas, das nie existiert hat und das niemals existieren kann.
absolute nullificationabsolute NegierungDie Widerlegung der Möglichkeit, dass etwas existieren könnte.
absorbed concentrationvertiefte KonzentrationVollendete Konzentration, die vollständig ins Objekt vertieft oder versunken ist. auf ein Objekt der Ausrichtung vertieft oder in es versunken ist.Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
absorption, totalVertiefung, völligeSee: total absorption
absorption on voidness, clear lightVertiefung in Leerheit mit dem klaren LichtSee: clear light absorption on voidness
abstraction, nonstaticAbstraktion, nichtstatischeSee: noncongruent affecting variable
abstraction, staticAbstraktion, statischeSee: static phenomenon
access clear light mental activityZugang zur geistigen Aktivität des klaren LichtsZugang zur geistigen Aktivitäten des klaren Lichts erlangt man durch fortgeschrittene Meditationspraktiken des Anuttarayoga-Tantra der Vollständigkeitsstufe -- und zwar im Sinne einer Beendigung der gröberen Ebenen des Geistes, so dass der Geist nur auf der Ebene des zugrunde liegende klaren Lichts operiert, welche die subtilste Ebene geistiger Aktivität ist und die bereits seit anfangloser Zeit wirksam ist. Findet man Zugang zur geistigen Aktivität des klaren Lichts, erkennt man dann sowohl diese subtilste Ebene des Geistes, als das, was sie ist, und verwendet sie auch, um Objekte zu erkennen [wahrzunehmen].
access rigpaZugang zu Rigpa finden / in den Zustand von Rigpa eintretenEin Dharma-Praktizierender verwirklicht die Rigpa-Ebene des Geistes (die Ebene des reinen Gewahrseins) durch spezielle Methoden, die ein Dzogchen-Meister in persönlicher Interaktion mit einem vollständig vorbereiteten Dzogchen-Praktizierenden verwendet. Das geschieht in dem Sinne, dass diese zugrundliegende subtilste, unbefleckte Ebene geistiger Aktivität, die seid anfangsloser Zeit wirkt, zum alleinige Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit gemacht wird. Und dann erkennen beide - sowohl der Meister, als auch der vorbereitete Schüler - Rigpa als das, was es ist und machen beide Gebrauch von seinen natürlichen Merkmalen.
accomplishedverwirklichtSee: highly accomplished
accomplishing awarenessvollbringendes GewahrseinSee: accomplishing deep awareness
accomplishing deep awarenessvollbringendes tiefes GewahrseinDas vollbringende tiefe Gewahrsein ist eine von fünf Arten des tiefen Gewahrseins, das jedes Lebewesen als ein Aspekt seiner Buddhanatur besitzt. Das tiefe Gewahrsein geht zu einem kognitiven Objekt hinaus und hat die Bereitschaft, etwas mit diesem Objekt zu erreichen, oder mit ihm etwas zu tun, oder dem Objekt etwas anzutun, oder sich in persönlicher Weise auf das Objekt zu beziehen. Es wird auch als bezeichnet als: das tiefe Gewahrsein etwas zu vollbringen. Tib: bya-grub ye-shes
accomplishmentvollendete Qualitäten/ ErrungenschaftDas Erlangen eines spirituellen ZielesTib: sgrub-pa
accordant natureübereinstimmende NaturEin Synonym für Leerheit. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Soheit" wieder. Tib: de-bzhin-nyid
Skt: tathata
accounts, fabulousBerichte, fabelhafteSee: fabulous accounts
accounts, illustrativeBerichte, erläuterndeSee: illustrative accounts
accounts, past lifeBerichte von früheren LebenSee: past life accounts
accounts, revelatoryBerichte, enthüllendeSee: revelatory accounts
accustoming pathway mindPfadgeist des Sich-GewöhnensDie Ebene des Geistes von Arya-Shravakas, Arya-Pratyekabuddhas und Arya-Bodhisattvas mit der sie sich selbst an das vereinigte Paar von Shamatha und Vipashyana gewöhnen. Vipashyana richtet sich dabei nicht-konzeptuell auf Leerheit aus - oder, ganz allgemein, auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier Edlen Wahrheiten. Dadurch befreien sie sich automatisch selbst von einer Gruppe oder von beiden Gruppen.Tib: sgom-lam
Skt: bhavanamarga
acquired nirvanaerlangtes Nirvana / errungenes NirvanaErloschene Zustände der Erlösung aus allen samsarischen Leiden und ihren wahren Ursachen, die durch die Kraft der Meditation erlangt werden. Tib: thob-pa'i mya-ngan 'das
acquirementAneigung / ErrungenschaftDas Erlangen oder Erhalten von etwas, wie beispielsweise eines Gelübdes oder einer spirituellen Errungenschaft, die dem geistigen Kontinuum der Person zugeschrieben wird, die das Gelübde erhalten hat oder die Errungenschaft erlangt hat. Eine Aneignung oder Errungenschaft ist eine nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variable - ein nicht-statisches Phänomen, das weder eine Form materieller Phänomene, noch eine Art des Gewahrseins von etwas ist. Tib: thob-pa
acting causewirkende UrsacheAll phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result.Tib: byed-rgyu
Skt: karanahetu
action, faultyHandlung, fehlerhafteSee: faulty actions
action, karmicHandlung, karmischeSee: karmic action
action, naturally destructive uncommendableHandlung, natürlicherweise destruktive nicht lobenswerteSee: naturally uncommendable action
action, prohibited uncommendableHandlung, verbotene nicht lobenswerteSee: prohibited uncommendable action
action, thickHandlung, schwerwiegendeSee: thick actions
action, uncommendableHandlung, nicht lobenswerteSee: uncommendable action
activateaktivierenVerursachen, dass eine karmische Tendenz zu einem manifesten karmischen Impuls wird, der seine Wirkung im nächsten Augenblick hervorbringt. Tib: gsos-'debs
actual attainmentverwirklichte Errungenschaft / verwirklichte ErlangungEin bedeutsames spirituelles Ziel, dass man tatsächlich erlangt hat oder wörtlich, das man in seinem eigenen geistigen Kontinuum wirklich "gemacht hat" oder "real gemacht" [effektiv gemacht] hat. Die gewöhnlichen verwirklichten Errungenschaften beziehen sich auf außersinnliche und außerphysische Kräfte, wohingegen sich die höchsten [überragenden] verwirklichten Errungenschaften auf die Erleuchtung beziehen. Tib: dngos-grub
Skt: siddhi
actual clear light mindtatsächlicher Geist des klaren LichtsEine subtilste Ebene von Bewusstsein, die eine nicht-konzeptuelle, glückselige Wahrnehmung von Leerheit hat. Tib: don-gyi 'od-gsal
actualitytatsächlicher ZustandSee: actual nature
actualizationRealisierungSee: actualize
actualizerealisierenEin spirituelles Ziel erlangen. Die Verwirklichung eines spirituellen Zieles wirklich (tatsächlich) geschehen lassen. Wird auch mit den Begriffen "erlangen", "Erlangung", "Erreichung", "Errungenschaft" und "Verwirklichung" übersetzt.Tib: sgrub-pa
actual naturetatsächliche NaturEin Synonym für Leerheit (Leere) oder, in einigen Mahamudra- und Dzogchen-Systemen, die Natur aller Dinge als Spiel des untrennbaren Paares von Gewahrsein und Leerheit. Tib: chos-nyid
Skt: dharmata
actual statewirklicher ZustandThe full definitional state of something, such as one of levels of mental constancy.Tib: dngos-gzhi
actual state of the first level of mental stabilityder tatsächliche Zustand der ersten Ebene geistiger StabilitätA state of mind attained on the basis of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha and which temporarily blocks all disturbing emotions and attitudes directed at phenomena on the plane of sensory desires (the "desire realm"). The various types of advanced awareness arise as a byproduct of the attainment of this state of mind. Also called: "actual state of the first dhyana."Tib: bsam-gtan dang-po'i dngos-gzhi
advanced awarenesshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein / erhöhtes GewahrseinNichtkonzeptuelle einfache (nackte / bloße) Wahrnehmung von Orten, Zeiten und Entfernungen die verborgene Phänomene sind und von Situationen, die äußerst verborgene Phänomene sind. Ein allgemeiner Begriff, der sich sowohl auf die fünf Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins bezieht, wie auch auf die sechs außersinnlichen Augen, die man beide als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Manchmal wird der Begriff auch mit "erhöhtem Gewahrsein" oder "außersinnlicher Wahrnehmung" übersetzt. Tib: mngon-shes
Skt: abhijna
advanced awareness for extraphysical emanationhöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein außerphysischer EmanationEine Wahrnehmung, die in der Lage ist, viele verschiedene simultane Emanationen zu erzeugen, die irgendeinen der folgenden drei Arten ist: (1) körperliche Emanationen, die aus den Elementen Erde, Wasser, Feuer, Wind und Raum zusammengesetzt sind, (2) sprachliche Emanationen - in der Weise sprechen, dass verschiedene Menschen die Worte in ihrer eigenen Sprache und auf ihrem Verständnisniveau verstehen können, oder (3) geistige Emanationen von Gedanken und Ebenen des Geistes, wie zum Beispiel das Gewahrsein vieler Bedeutungsebenen eines Absatzes in einem Dharma-Text. Hierbei handelt es sich um eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, die als ein Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebenen geistiger Stabilität (dem ersten Dhyana) . Tib: rdzu-'phrul-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of knowing other's mindshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein, den Geist anderer zu erkennenWahrnehmung der Gedanken und Geisteszustände anderer. Eine der sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt.Tib: gzhan-sems shes-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of recollection of past situationshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein der Erinnerung an vergangene SituationenWahrnehmung vergangener Leben. Eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Tib: sngon-gnas rjes-dran-gyi mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the depletion of tainted factorshöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein darüber, dass die befleckten Faktoren erschöpft sindEine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das [oder die - für die Art] man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Wahrnehmung des eigenen Zustandes, dass man die emotionalen Verdunkelungen, die die Befreiung aus Samsara verhindern, für immer losgeworden ist. Tib: zag-pa zad-pa'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine earhöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen OhrsWahrnehmung, die in der Lage ist Klänge über jede Distanz hinweg zu hören und zu verstehen, unabhängig von der Sprache, in der sie gesprochen werden. Eine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. Tib: lha'i rna-ba'i mngon-shes
advanced awareness of the divine eyehöher entwickeltes Gewahrsein des göttlichen AugesEine von sechs Arten höher entwickelten Gewahrseins, das man als Nebenprodukt des Erlangens eines verwirklichten Zustandes der ersten Ebene geistiger Beständigkeit (dem ersten Dhyana) erlangt. (1) Erläuterungen der Karma-Kagyü-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um eine Wahrnehmung der unterschiedlichen Wirkungen von Karma auf verschiedene Wesen, wie beispielsweise ihre zukünftigen Wiedergeburten. (2) Der Gelug-Schule zufolge handelt es sich um die Wahrnehmung grober (offensichtlicher) Formen und subtiler Formen, einschließlich jener, die sich in großer Entfernung in Raum und Zeit befinden. Tib: lha'i mig-gi mngon-shes
affectedbeeinflusstBeeinflusst oder bedingt durch Ursachen und Bedingungen.
affected phenomenonbeeinflusstes PhänomenEin Phänomen, das durch die Einwirkung von Ursachen und Bedingungen entsteht, und das sich verändert, weil es ständig durch Ursachen und Bedingungen beeinflusst wird. Dies bezieht sich auf alle nichtstatischen (unbeständigen) Phänomene. Übersetzer geben diesen Fachbegriff häufig mit dem Ausdruck "bedingtes Phänomen" wieder. Tib: 'dus-byas-kyi chos
Skt: samskrtadharma
affectingbeeinflussendAndere Dinge beeinflussen oder bedingen, so dass ein Phänomen verursacht, dass die Wirkungen sich ereignen.
affecting impulsesbeeinflussende ImpulseSee: link of affecting impulses
affecting variablebeeinflussende Variable / EinflussvariableEin Phänomen, das sich fortwährend verändert (ein nichtstatisches Phänomen) und welches andere nichtstatische Phänomene dahingehend beeinflusst, dass sie entstehen, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass es dazu beiträgt, das ihr Entstehen verursacht wird. Tib: 'du-byed
Skt: samskara
affirmationBestätigung / AffirmationSee: affirmation phenomenon
affirmation phenomenonBestätigungs-PhänomenEin Element oder eine Wahrheit über ein Element, das in Bezug auf seine Begründung von etwas definiert wird, ohne dass ein Objekt negiert wird, das explizit durch den Klang ausgedrückt wird. Tib: sgrub-pa
affirmingly known phenomenonbestätigend erkanntes PhänomenSee: affirmation phenomenon
affliction, emotionalPlage, LeidenschaftSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
aftermathHinterlassenschaftSee: karmic aftermath
aftermath, karmicHinterlassenschaft, karmischeSee: karmic aftermath
agenttreibende KraftDie Person, die eine Handlung vollführt. *** [D.h. die handelnde Person. Die treibende Kraft ist eine Person, die eine Tat ausführt. Das passt nicht so (Keine Vorschläge) Fragen]Tib: byed-pa-po
aggregateAggregateEin Netzwerk aus vielen Elementen, die allesamt nichtstatische Phänomene sind. Siehe auch: Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate factors of experienceAggregat-Faktoren der ErfahrungDie fünf Netzwerke (fünf Aggregate), die alle jene nichtstatischen Phänomene bilden [***ausmachen, begründen, festlegen, erzeugen] , die jeden Augenblick eines Geisteskontinuums eines jeden begrenzten Wesens ausmachen.Tib: phung-po
Skt: skandha
aggregate of consciousnessBewusstseinsaggregatSee: aggregate of primary consciousnesses
aggregate of distinguishingAggregat des UnterscheidensEiner von fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren) des Unterscheidens, das Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnte. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat des Erkennens" oder "Anhäufung der Wahrnehmung". Siehe: Unterscheiden.Tib: 'du-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: samjna-skandha
aggregate of feelingsAggregat der EmpfindungenSee: aggregate of feelings of levels of happiness
aggregate of feelings of levels of happinessAggregat der Empfindungen eines Grades an GlücklichseinEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren) der Empfindung eines Grades an Glücklichsein, das Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnte. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor wird auch als "Aggregat der Empfindung" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Ansammlung der Gefühle" oder "Anhäufung der Gefühlsempfindungen". Siehe: Empfindung eines Grades an Glücklichsein Tib: tshor-ba'i phung-po
Skt: vedana-skandha
aggregate of formsAggregat der FormenSee: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena
aggregate of forms of physical phenomenaAggregat der Formen physischer PhänomeneEiner von fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge aller Arten von Anblicken, Klängen, Gerüchen, Geschmäcken, körperlichen Sinnesempfindungen, physischen Sensoren, und Formen physischer Phänomene, die Anreger von lediglich geistiger Wahrnehmung sind. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor wird auch als "Aggregat der Formen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Ansammlung des Körpers" oder "Anhäufung der Leiblichkeit".Tib: gzugs-kyi phung-po
Skt: rupa-skandha
aggregate of karmic formationsAggregat der karmischen FormationenSee: aggregate of other affecting variables
aggregate of other affecting variablesAggregat der anderen beeinflussenden VariablenEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des Nebengewahrseins (Geistesfaktoren), die nicht ein Empfinden von Graden von Glücklichsein oder Unterscheiden sind, und auch alle Vorgänge nichtkongruenter beeinflussender Variablen, die Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnten. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat der Willensregungen oder Willenskräfte", "Aggregat karmischer Formationen", "Aggregat der Karmagestaltungen", "Anhäufung geistiger Bildekräfte" oder "Ansammlung von Impulsen oder Tatabsichten".Tib: 'du-byed-kyi phung-po
Skt: samskara-skandha
aggregate of primary consciousnessesAggregat des PrimärbewusstseinsEiner der fünf Aggregat-Faktoren der Erfahrung. Das Netzwerk aller Vorgänge des geistigen Bewusstseins oder irgendeiner der fünf Arten sinnlichen Bewusstseins, die Teil jeden Augenblick des Erlebens im Geisteskontinuum eines Lebewesens sein könnten. Dieser Aggregat-Faktor umfasst auch alle Vorgänge verblendeten Gewahrseins und alle Vorgänge des alles umfassenden grundlegenden Bewusstseins innerhalb der philosophischen Systeme, die diese beiden bestätigen. Das Aggregat des Primärbewusstseins für auch als "Aggregat des Bewusstseins" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Aggregat des Hauptbewusstseins". Tib: rnam-shes-kyi phung-po
Skt: vijnana-skandha
aggregate of recognitionAggregat des ErkennensSee: aggregate of distinguishing
aggregate of volitionsAggregat der WillensregungenSee: aggregate of other affecting variables
aggregates, obtainingAggregate, herbeiführendeSee: obtaining aggregates
aggregates, taintedAggregate, befleckteSee: tainted aggregates
aggregates, untaintedAggregate, unbefleckteSee: untainted aggregates
aging and dyingAltern und SterbenIn a particular rebirth, the period starting immediately after the moment of conception and ending with the moment of death.Tib: rga-shi
aim, causal motivatingZiel, kausales, motivierendesSee: causal motivating aim
aim, contemporaneous motivatingZiel, gleichzeitig (stattfindendes) motivierendesSee: contemporaneous motivating aim
aim, motivatingZiel, motivierendesSee: motivating aim
alayaAlayaSee: basis for all
alaya, deep-awarenessAlaya des tiefen GewahrseinsSee: deep awareness alaya
alaya, primordial deepestAlaya, ursprüngliches tiefstesSee: primordial deepest alaya
alaya, specific-awarenessAlaya des spezifischen GewahrseinsSee: specific-awareness alaya
alaya for habitsAlaya für GewohnheitenDer Alaya für Gewohnheiten bezeichnet im Dzogchen-System das grundlegende Gewahrsein für die Gewohnheiten des Greifens nach wahrer Existenz, nach Karma und nach Erinnerungen. Der Alaya der Gewohnheiten bezeichnet die Art des begrenzten Gewahrseins, als die das Basis-Rigpa fungiert, wenn es mit Benommenheit vermischt ist. Tib: bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhi
alayavijnanaAlayavijnanaSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
alertnessWachsamkeitWachsamkeit ist der Geistesfaktor mit dem geprüft wird, in welcher Verfassung sich die Vergegenwärtigung in Bezug auf ihr geistiges Festhalten am Fokus-Objekt [***Objekt der Ausrichtung] befindet. Der Geistesfaktor achtet darauf, ob das geistige Festhalten aufgrund von Flatterhaftigkeit des Geistes oder geistiger Trägheit zu locker, zu schwach oder zu angespannt geworden ist. Wachsamkeit ist jedoch mehr als nur ein reflexives Bewusstsein oder eine implizites Begreifen, das lediglich bemerkt, was in der Meditation passiert. Der Geistesfaktor Wachsamkeit gleicht einer Alarmanlage, die eine die Aufmerksamkeit wiederherstellende Reaktion auslöst, um jegliche Fehler zu korrigieren. Tib: shes-bzhin
Skt: samprajanya
all-encompassingalles umfassendIncluding everything within its domain.
all-encompassing foundation consciousnessalles umfassendes grundlegendes BewusstseinEine unspezifisches, nichthinderliches, individuelles Bewusstsein, das aller Wahrnehmung zugrunde liegt, und das dieselben Objekte wahrnimmt, die den Wahrnehmungen zugrunde liegen, das aber eine nichtbestimmende Wahrnehmung dessen ist, was ihm erscheint, und dem es an Klarheit in Bezug auf seine Objekte mangelt. Dieses Bewusstsein trägt die karmischen Vermächtnisse des Karmas und die geistigen Eindrücke seiner Erinnerungen, und zwar in dem Sinne, das sie dem Bewusstsein zugeschrieben sind. Der Begriff wird auch als "grundlegendes Bewusstsein" übersetzt und von einigen Übersetzern als "Speicher-Bewusstsein" wiedergegeben. Der Gelug-Schule zufolge wird es nur von der Chittamatra-Schule angeführt, den Nicht-Gelug-Schulen zufolge wird es sowohl von der Chittamatra-Schule als auch vom Madhyamaka-Lehrsystem behauptet. Tib: kun-gzhi rnam-shes
Skt: alayavijnana
all-permeatingalles durchdringendAlles durchdringend bezieht sich auf die Qualität von Rigpa (reines Gewahrsein), das alle Vorgänge begrenzter Wesen (sem) ohne Behinderungen wechselseitig und völlig durchdringt. Das geschieht in gleicher Weise wie Öl einen Sesamsamen durchdringt. Tib: zang-thal
all-pervasivealles umfassendPertaining to everything.
all-pervasively affecting sufferingalles umfassendes beeinflussendes LeidenDas Leiden, das einfach dadurch entsteht, dass man befleckte Aggregate besitzt, die als Grundlage dafür dienen, das man das Leiden des Leidens erlebt und das Leiden des Wandels. Solch ein Leiden ist alles durchdringend, da es jeden Augenblick samsarischer Erfahrung beeinflusst. Tib: khyab-par 'du-byed-kyi sdug-bsngal
all-pervasive sufferingalles umfassendes LeidenSee: all-pervasively affecting suffering
amulet box traditionTradition der AmulettdoseEine Tradition der Mahamudra-Meditation, die von der Shangpa-Kagyü-Schule übermittelt wird. Tib: ga'u-ma
analysisAnalyseSee: subtle discernment
analysis, discerningAnalyse, klar erkennendeSee: subtle discernment
analytical meditationanalytische MeditationSee: discerning meditation
ancient narrativesErzählungen aus alter ZeitStories from ancient times that Buddha told. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: de-lta-bu byung-ba
Skt: itivrttika
angerÄrger / Wut / FeindseligkeitEine störende Wurzelemotion, die auf ein anderes begrenztes Wesen ausgerichtet ist oder auf das eigene Leiden oder auf Situationen die Leiden nach sich ziehen. Die störende Wurzelemotion des Ärgers reagiert ungeduldig auf diese Lebewesen, Leiden oder Situationen und wünscht sich, diese loszuwerden, indem sie diese schädigt, verletzt oder nach ihnen schlägt. Der Ärger basiert darauf, das er die Objekte, auf die er ausgerichtet ist, ihrer Natur nach als unattraktiv und abstoßen betrachtet. Tib: khong-khro
Skt: kroddha
antecedent practice for realizationvorangehende Praxis der VerwirklichungEine Visualisationspraxis bei der man sich selbst als eine Buddhagestalt vorstellt, für die man eine Ermächtigung erhalten hat. Man führt die Visualisationspraxis aus, um sich selbst als die Buddhagestalt zu realisieren. [***verwirklichen besser? Realisieren nach Glossar] Synonym mit "Sadhana". Tib: mngon-rtogs
antigodsGegengötterSee: would-be divine
anuttarayoga tantraAnuttarayoga-TantraAnuttarayoga-Tantra bezeichnet in der Sarma-Schule des tibetischen Buddhismus (aus der neuen Übersetzungsperiode) die vierte oder höchste Klasse an Tantra-Praktiken, die bestimmte innere Methoden betont, um sich selbst als Buddhagestalt zu realisieren. Tib: bla-med rnal-'byor
Skt: anuttarayoga tantra
anuyoga tantraAnuyogaIm Nyingma-System die zweite von drei inneren Tantra-Klassen, die Praktiken betont, die mit den subtilen Energiensystemen der Winde, Kanäle und kreativen Energie-Tropfen befasst sind. Tib: a-nu yo-ga
apparent Buddha Gemoffensichtliches Buddha-JuwelDer Korpus an Formen eines Buddha als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung. Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
apparent Dharma Gemoffensichtliches Dharma-JuwelDie zwölf Text-Kategorien von Unterweisungen, die von der erleuchtenden Sprache eines Buddha als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung verkündet wurden.Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
apparent level Precious Gemsoffensichtliche EbeneDie Ebene der drei kostbaren und höchsten Juwelen, die für die begrenzten Wesen offensichtlich sind und die eine tiefere Juwelen-Ebene verbergen.Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dkon-mchog
apparent Sangha Gemoffensichtliches Sangha-JuwelDie individuelle Person irgendeines Aryas, die als eine Quelle sicherer Ausrichtung fungiert, unabhängig davon, ob sie Laie, Mönch oder Nonne ist. Tib: kun-rdzob-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
apparent true phenomenonoffensichtliches wahres PhänomenSee: superficial true phenomenon
apparent truthoffensichtliche WahrheitSee: superficial truth
appearanceErscheinungDas geistige Hologramm (geistige Darstellung) eines sich im Äußeren oder Inneren befindenden Objektes der Wahrnehmung, das im Geist entsteht. Tib: snang-ba
appearance, cognitiveErscheinung, kognitiveSee: appearance
appearance, deceptiveErscheinung, trügerischeSee: deceptive appearance
appearance, giving rise toErscheinenlassenSee: appearance-making
appearance, impureErscheinung, unreineSee: impure appearance
appearance, pureErscheinung, reineSee: pure appearance
appearance, reflexiveErscheinung, reflexiveSee: reflexive appearance
appearance congealmentErstarren der ErscheinungAuch übersetzt als: Erscheinung, weiße ErscheinungTib: snang
appearance-makingHervorbringen von Erscheinungen / Erscheinungs-HervorbringenDer Aspekt der geistigen Aktivität der ein geistiges Hologramm eines Objektes der Wahrnehmung entstehen lässt (erzeugt). Tib: snang-ba
appearance-making, dualErscheinungs-Hervorbringen, dualesSee: dualistic appearance-making
appearance-making basis rigpaErscheinungen hervorbringendes grundlegendes RigpaReines Gewahrsein (rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel seines Aspektes spontan Erscheinungen hervorzubringen. Synonym mit dem Fachbegriff: strahlendes Rigpa. Tib: gzhi-snang-gi rig-pa
appearance-making of non-true existenceHervorbringen von Erscheinungen nichtwahrer ExistenzGemäß der Nyingma-Schule ist das Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen nichtwahrer Existenz der Aspekt der sinnlichen oder nichtkonzeptuellen geistigen Aktivität eines begrenzten Wesens das ein Objekt der Wahrnehmung erscheinen lässt (erzeugt), ohne die Objekte zu wahrhaft als "dieses" oder "das" Existierendes erscheinen zu lassen, in dem Sinne, wie die Madhyamaka-Schule wahre Existenz definiert. Tib: med-snang
appearance-making of true existenceHervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer ExistenzDer Aspekt der geistigen Aktivität eines begrenzten Wesens der ein geistiges Hologramm wahrer Existenz entstehen lässt (erzeugt). Das Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer Existenz lässt die geistigen Hologramme der Objekte der Wahrnehmung als wahrhaft existent erscheinen, in dem Sinne, wie die Madhyamaka-Schule wahre Existenz definiert. In den Nicht-Gelug-Systemen erscheint sie lediglich mit konzeptueller Wahrnehmung und macht Erscheinungen von Objekten der Wahrnehmung zu wahrhaften als "dieses" oder "das" existierenden Dingen. Tib: bden-snang
appearances of non-true existenceErscheinungen von nichtwahrer ExistenzErscheinungen von nicht wahrer Existenz sind im Nyingma-System geistige Hologramme von Objekten der Wahrnehmung, die Objekte nicht so erscheinen lassen als seien sie wahrhaft als "dies" oder "das" existierende Dinge. Die Erscheinungen von nichtwahrer Existenz entstehen lediglich bei der sinnlichen und nichtkonzeptuellen geistigen Wahrnehmung auf. Tib: med-snang
appearing objecterscheinendes ObjektDas erscheinende Objekt ist ein geistiges Hologramm (geistige Darstellung) eines sich im Äußeren oder Inneren befindenden Objektes der Wahrnehmung, das durch die Wahrnehmung hervorgebracht wird. Das erscheinende Objekt ist gleichbedeutend mit dem kognitiv aufgenommenen Objekt. Manchmal wir dieser Fachbegriff synonym mit dem Begriff "geistiges Erscheinungsbild" verwendet, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass eine Wahrnehmung das "geistige Erscheinungsbild" seines ihm erscheinenden Objektes annimmt. Tib: snang-yul
applying pathway mindPfadgeist der AnwendungDie Ebene des Geistes von Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas und Bodhisattvas mit der sie das vereinigte Paar von Shamatha und Vipashyana anwenden, wobei Vipashyana dabei nicht-konzeptuell auf Leerheit ausgerichtet ist - oder, ganz allgemein, auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier Edlen Wahrheiten. Den Pfadgeist der Anwendung haben sie durch den Pfadgeist des Aufbauens erlangt, um eine nichtkonzeptuelle Ausrichtung auf Leerheit zu erlangen. Andere Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Pfad der Vorbereitung".Tib: sbyor-lam
Skt: prayogamarga
appreciationWertschätzungEtwas hoch schätzen, gewöhnlicherweise die Freundlichkeit von jemanden. Häufig im Zusammenhang mit dem Wertschätzen seines spirituellen Mentors verwendet. Wird auch als "Respekt" bezeichnet. Tib: gus-pa
apprehendbegreifenEin Objekt sowohl korrekt als auch entschlussfreudig [***bestimmt] kognitiv annehmen. Tib: rtogs-pa
apprehensionBegreifenSee: apprehend
apprehension, explicitBegreifen, explizitesSee: explicit apprehension
apprehension, implicitBegreifen, implizitesSee: implicit apprehension
approximate and actualize oneself as a Buddha-figureuns der spezifischen Buddhagestalt anzunähern und uns selbst als sie zu realisierenIntensive tantrische Meditationspraxis, welche die Visualisation von einem selbst als Buddhagestalt, wie auch die Rezitation der dazugehörigen Mantras umfasst. Tib: bsnyen-sgrub
approximation retreat, greatAnnäherungs-Retreat, großesSee: great approximation retreat
arhatArhatEin Arhat ist ein Praktizierender der zur Klasse der Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas und Bodhisattvas gehört, und der eine wahre Beendigung der emotionalen Schleier erreicht hat und auf diese Weise die Befreiung (Nirwana) erlangt hat. Ein Arhat wird auch als "befreites Wesen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Feindzerstörer". Tib: dgra-bcom-pa
Skt: arhat
arhatshipArhatschaftDer Zustand den ein Arhat erlangt hat.
ariseauftauchen / auftreten / entstehen / in Erscheinung treten / an die Oberfläche tretenSee: dawn
arise, makingEntstehenlassenSee: making arise
arising, cognitiveEntstehen, kognitivesSee: cognitive arising
arising, simultaneouslyauftreten, gleichzeitigSee: simultaneously arising
artificialkünstlichSee: contrived
aryaAryaEin Arya ist eine Praktizierender, der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier Edlen Wahrheiten gehabt hat und so den Pfadgeist des Sehens (Pfad des Sehens) eines Shravakas, Pratyekabuddha oder Bodhisattvas erlangt hat. Der Arya wird auch als "hoch verwirklichter Praktizierender" oder als ein "hoch verwirklichtes Wesen" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Edler". Tib: 'phags-pa
Skt: arya
arya bodhisattvaArya-BodhisattvaEin Bodhisattva der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von Leerheit erlangt hat. Siehe auch: Bodhisattva.Tib: byang-sems 'phags-pa
Skt: arya bodhisattva
arya pathway mindArya-PfadgeistDie drei Arten von Pfadgeist der Shravaka-Aryas, Pratyekabuddha-Aryas und Bodhisattva-Aryas (also die drei Arten von Pfadgeist jener Wesen, die eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier edlen Wahrheiten besitzen) - und zwar der Pfadgeist des Sehens, der Pfadgeist des Gewöhnens und der Pfadgeist, der keines weiteren Trainings mehr bedarf.Tib: 'phags-lam
Skt: aryamarga
arya pratyekabuddhaArya-PratyekabuddhaA pratyekabuddha that has attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths. See also: pratyekabuddha.Tib: rang-rgyal 'phags-pa
Skt: arya prtatyekabuddha
arya shravakaArya-ShravakaEin Arya-Shravaka ist ein Pratyekabuddha der eine nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung der vier edlen Wahrheiten erlangt hat. Siehe auch: Shravaka. Tib: nyan-thos 'phags-pa
Skt: arya shravaka
ascertainfeststellend / feststellenSee: decisively determine
ascertainmentFeststellung / VergewisserungEine maßgebliche [***bestimmend, entscheidend, ausschlaggebend] Wahrnehmung eines kognitiven Objekts; mit Bestimmtheit wissen, was ein Objekt der Wahrnehmung ist oder wie es existiert. Tib: gtan-la dbab-pa
aspect, mentalErscheinungsbild, geistigesSee: mental aspect
aspects, naturally inseparableAspekte, natürlicherweise untrennbareSee: natural inseparability
aspirational prayerGebet der AspirationEin Gebet zum Erlangen eines spirituellen Zieles oder für das Erlangen der Umstände, die förderlich sind, um das Ziel zu erreichen. Tib: smon-lam
Skt: pranidhana
aspiring bodhichittaanstrebendes BodhichittaEin Bodhichitta-Geist (ein vom Erleuchtungsgeist erfülltes Bewusstsein oder Herz), der, wenn man sich auf seine eigene individuelle Befreiung hin ausrichtet, einhergeht mit dem Anstreben, der Aspiration oder dem Wunsch eben diese Erleuchtung zu erlangen. Tib: smon-sems
aspiring state of aspiring bodhichittaanstrebender Zustand des anstrebenden BodhichittaSee: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta
asserting one's identityeigene Identitäten behauptenThe fourth of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising. Equivalent to a deluded outlook toward a transitory network.Tib: bdag-tu smra-ba
assertionAussage / Behauptung / ErklärungEin Standpunkt, der von einem buddhistischen oder nicht-buddhistischen Lehrsystem in Bezug auf eine philosophische Aussage akzeptiert wird.
associated with confusionverbunden mit VerwirrungSee: tainted
asuraAsuraSee: would-be divine
atiyogaAtiyogaAtiyoga ist im Lehrsystem der Nyingma-Schule die zweite von drei Klassen der inneren Tantras, in der Tib: a-ti-yo-ga
attachmentAnhaftungAnhaftung ist die störende Emotion, die die guten Qualitäten eines Objekts, das man besitzt, übertreibt und die sich nicht wünscht, das Objekt loszulassen. Tib: chags-pa
Skt: sanga
attachment, stickyAnhaftung, klebrigeSee: sticky attachment
attainerlangen / erreichenSee: actualize
attainment, actualErrungenschaft, verwirklichte / Erlangung, verwirklichteSee: actual attainment
attainment, subsequentnachfolgende ErlangungSee: subsequent attainment
attentionAufmerksamkeitImmer arbeitender geistiger Faktor der die geistige Aktivität mit einem spezifischen kognitiven Objekt in Anspruch nimmt. Die kognitive (d.h. das Wahrnehmen, Denken und Erkennen betreffende) Beschäftigung mit dem Objekt besteht möglicherweise lediglich darin, dem Objekt einen Grad an Aufmerksamkeit zu geben (stark oder schwach), oder sich in bestimmter Weise auf das Objekt auszurichten (sorgfältig, mühelos etc.), oder das Objekt in bestimmter Weise zu betrachten (übereinstimmend oder nicht übereinstimmend). Wird auch bezeichnet als: aufmerksam sein, Beachtung. Tib: yid-la byed-pa
Skt: manasi
attention, restoringAufmerksamkeit, wiederherstellendeSee: restoring attention
attitudeGeisteshaltung / geistige EinstellungEin Geistesfaktor, der ein kognitives Objekt erfasst, indem er es von einem bestimmten Standpunkt aus betrachtet. Tib: blo
attitude, distorted antagonisticGeisteshaltung, verzerrte, feindseligeSee: distorted antagonistic thinkingTib: log-lta
attitude, disturbingGeisteshaltung, störendeSee: disturbing attitude
attitude, far-reachingGeisteshaltungen, weitreichendeSee: far-reaching attitude
attitude, nominal disturbingEinstellung, nominell störendeSee: nominal disturbing attitude
attitude-trainingTraining der GeisteshaltungenEin spirituelles Training in der man sich von seinen störenden Geisteshaltungen in seinem Geist reinigt und sich darin übt, sie durch konstruktive Geisteshaltungen zu ersetzen. Wird auch bezeichnet als: Reinigen der Geisteshaltungen, Geistestraining, Lojong.Tib: blo-sbyong
audio categoryHörkategorieDie konzeptuelle Kategorie des Klanges eines Wortes oder Namens, in die der Klang aller Arten, ein Wort oder Namen auszusprechen, hineinpasst, unabhängig von Stimme, Lautstärke oder Art der Aussprache mit der das Wort oder der Name gesprochen wird. Tib: sgra-spyi
audio universalHörallgemeinesSee: audio category
auditory consciousnessHörbewusstseinSee: ear consciousness
automatically arisingautomatisch auftretend, automatisch erscheinendNaturally arising or occurring on a mental continuum from time to time, without being based on previously having been taught an incorrect tenet system. When something, such as a constructive or a disturbing emotion automatically arises, it does so from a tendency for that emotion, built up from previous occurrences of the same emotion, and does not entail the occurrence or production of an emotion that has never occurred before.Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudesautomatisch erscheinende störende Emotionen und GeisteshaltungenAutomatisch erscheinende störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen sind störende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, die im geistigen Kontinuum einer Person entstehen, ohne dass der Person ein fehlerhaftes Lehrsystem beigebracht worden ist. Tib: nyon-mongs lhan-skyes
automatically arising ignoranceautomatisch erscheinende IgnoranzSee: automatically arising unawareness
automatically arising unawarenessautomatisch erscheinende UnwissenheitDie automatisch erscheinende Unwissenheit ist ein Geistesfaktor mit dem man entweder die verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung oder die Art und Weise in der das Selbst und alle Phänomene existieren nicht erkennt oder verkehrt erkennt, und der in dem geistigen Kontinuum einer Person entsteht, ohne dass der Person ein fehlerhaftes Lehrsystem beigebracht worden ist. Dieser Geistesfaktor wird auch als automatisch erscheinende Ignoranz bezeichnet. Tib: ma-rigs lhan-skyes
auxiliary bonding practiceszusätzliche bindende PraktikenDie zusätzlich bindenden Praktiken sind eine Gruppe von neun Praktiken und Geisteshaltungen, die man im Rahmen einer Ermächtigung in eine Praxis des Anuttarayoga-Tantra nimmt und von der man verspricht sie einzuhalten, um eine enge Verbindung mit der Tantra-Praxis aufrechtzuerhalten. Tib: yan-lag-gi dam-tshig
auxiliary thick actionszusätzliche schwerwiegende HandlungenDie zusätzlichen schwerwiegende Handlungen sind eine Gruppe von Handlungen, die man bei einer Ermächtigung in eine Praxis des Yoga-Tantra oder des Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra gelobt zu vermeiden, und die, wenn man die Handlungen ausführt, die Meditationspraxis schwächen und das Fortschreiten auf dem Tantra-Pfad erschweren. Tib: yan-lag-gi sbom-po
aversionAbneigungSee: anger
awarenessGewahrseinGewahrsein ist der allgemeine, alles umfassende Begriff für das Erkennen eines Objekts. Er wird sowohl in dem Sinne verwendet, dass man einer Sache gewahr ist, als auch, dass man etwas zu einem Objekt des Gewahrseins macht. Es muss sich dabei jedoch nicht um eine bewusste Willensakt oder einen Akt des Erkennens handeln, was das Objekt ist.
awareness, accomplishingGewahrsein, vollbringendesSee: accomplishing deep awarenessTib: bya-grub ye-shes
awareness, advancedGewahrsein, erhöhtesSee: advanced awareness
awareness, basis or fundamental realizedGewahrsein, grundlegendes verwirklichtesSee: basis or fundamental realized awareness
awareness, clear lightklaren Lichts, Gewahrsein desSee: clear light awareness
awareness, decisiveGewahrsein, entscheidendesSee: ascertainment
awareness, deepGewahrsein, tiefesSee: deep awareness
awareness, discriminatingGewahrsein, unterscheidendesSee: discriminating awareness
awareness, generalGewahrsein, allgemeinesSee: general awareness
awareness, limitedGewahrsein, begrenztesSee: sem
awareness, normalGewahrsein, normalesSee: normal awareness
awareness, omniscient realizedGewahrsein, allwissendes verwirklichtesSee: omniscient realized awareness
awareness, pathway realizedGewahrsein des Pfades, verwirklichtesSee: pathway realized awareness
awareness, primally pureGewahrsein, ursprünglich reinesSee: primal purity
awareness, principalGewahrsein, Haupt-See: principal awareness
awareness, pureGewahrsein, reinesSee: pure awareness
awareness, reflexiveGewahrsein, reflexivesSee: reflexive awareness
awareness, reflexive deepGewahrsein, tiefes reflexivesSee: reflexive deep awareness
awareness, specificGewahrsein, spezifischesSee: specific awareness
awareness, subsidiaryGewahrsein, Neben-See: subsidiary awareness
awareness of its own faceGewahrsein seines eigenen AngesichtsDas Gewahrsein seines eigenen Angesichts bezeichnet bei einem reinen Gewahrsein (Rigpa) die nichtkonzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von seiner eigenen Natur. Tib: rang-ngo shes-pa
axioms, fourAxiome, vierSee: four axioms
balanced sensitivityausgewogene SensibilitätAusgewogene Sensibilität bezeichnet einen Geisteszustand, in dem man weder übermäßig, noch zu wenig aufmerksam ist, und in dem man in Bezug auf Gefühle und Handlungen weder übermäßig, noch zu wenig, noch unangemessen auf die Lage anderer oder die eigene Situation reagiert, oder indem man ausgewogen auf die Auswirkungen des eigenen Verhaltens auf andere oder einen selbst reagiert.
bardoBardoDie Existenzform zwischen dem Augenblick unmittelbar nach dem Tod bis zu dem Augenblick unmittelbar vor der Empfängnis. Der Bardo wird mit dem Begriff "Zwischenzustand" übersetzt. Tib: bar-do
Skt: antarabhava
bardo existenceBardo-ExistenzDie Zeitspanne im geistigen Kontinuum eines individuellen begrenzten Wesens beginnend im ersten Moment unmittelbar nach dem Tod bis zum Augenblick unmittelbar vor der Empfängnis. Tib: bar-do'i srid-pa
bare absencebloße AbwesenheitBloße Abwesenheit bezeichnet den natürlichen Zustand ohne Konzepte oder konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung, was der natürliche Zustand ist oder die Natur des Gewahrseins (Geist). Tib: stong-sang
bare cognitionbloße WahrnehmungBloße Wahrnehmung bezeichnet die Wahrnehmung eines kognitiven Objekts, ohne das die Wahrnehmung durch ein Medium, ein Allgemeinbild oder eine Kategorie stattfindet. Tib: mngon-sum
Skt: pratyaksha
barenessBlößeSee: bare absence
basis for allBasis für allesEin Synonym für Rigpa (reines Gewahrsein), das hauptsächlich in Schatztexten der Kategorie des Geistes verwendet wird. Tib: kun-gzhi
Skt: alaya
basis for imputationGrundlage der ZuschreibungSee: basis for labeling
basis levelEbene der BasisDie Ebene der Basis ist die Ebene von etwas, wie beispielsweise der Buddhanatur, die ganz im Allgemeinen auftritt, unabhängig davon, ob man eine Errungenschaft auf dem buddhistischen spirituellen Weg erreicht hat oder nicht. Tib: gzhi
basis rigpagrundlegendes RigpaDas grundlegende Rigpa ist ein reines Gewahrsein (Rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel, dass das reine Gewahrsein eine Form von Buddhanatur oder Arbeitsgrundlage zum Erlangen der Erleuchtung ist. Tib: gzhi'i rig-pa
behavior, tamedVerhalten, gezügeltes/ Verhalten bezähmtesSee: tamed behavior
behavioral cause and effectverhaltensbedingte Ursache und WirkungMit dem Begriff "verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung" wird die Grundsatz (Grundprinzip) von Karma bezeichnet, nach dem bestimmte Handlungen bestimmte Wirkungen hervorbringen. Die Ursache ist unser Verhalten - also die Art und Weise wie wir handeln, sprechen und denken - und die Wirkung ist das, was wir erleben (bzw. was uns widerfährt). Verhaltensbedingte Ursache und Wirkung bezieht sich auf die Verbindung, die zwischen unserem Verhalten und dem, was wir als Wirkung erleben, besteht. Tib: las-'bras
being, divineGötterwesenSee: divine being
being, individualLebewesenSee: person
being, ordinaryWesen, gewöhnlichesSee: ordinary being
being true to one's wordWahrhaftigkeit / zu seinem Wort stehenWahrhaftigkeit ist der Geisteszustand, in dem man sein Versprechen nicht bricht, nachdem man sein Wort gegeben hat, etwas zum Wohle anderer zu tun. Wahrhaftigkeit ist die siebte der zehn weitreichenden Geisteshaltungen, die gemäß der Theravada-Tradition von einem Bodhisattva entwickelt wird.Tib: bden-pa
Skt: satya
belief in a fact, clearheadedGlaube an eine Tatsache mit einem klaren VerstandSee: clearheaded belief in a fact
belief in a fact based on reasonGlaube an eine Tatsache auf der Grundlage der Vernunft /aus VernunftsgründenEine konstruktive Emotion, die eine Tatsache über etwas als wahr betrachtet, wobei sie sich auf die Gründe stützt, die die Tatsache durch logisches Denken untermauern. Tib: yid-ches-kyi dad-pa
belief in a fact with an aspirationGlauben an eine Tatsache mit einem Streben in diese Richtung / wobei man sie anstrebtEine konstruktive Emotion, die sowohl eine Tatsache über etwas als wahr betrachtet, wie auch den Wunsch, den man in Bezug auf ein bestimmtes Objekt hegt, wie beispielsweise, dass man ein lebensbejahendes Ziel erreichen kann und dass man es erreichen wird. Tib: mngon-'dod-kyi dad-pa
belief in factsGlaube an TasachenSee: believing a fact to be true
believing a fact to be trueGlauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr istA constructive emotion that focuses on something existent and validly knowable, something with good qualities, or an actual potential, and considers it either existent or true, or considers a fact about it as true. Some translators render the term as "faith."Tib: dad-pa
Skt: shraddha
believing a fact to be true based on reasonGlauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr ist, auf Grundlage der VernunftSee: belief in a fact based on reasonTib: yid-ches-kyi dad-pa
benevolenceWohlwollenThe mental factor of wishing to benefit others, wishing others well. Often translated by others as "altruism."Tib: phan-sems
bewildermentVerwirrungEin naiver Geisteszustand des Nicht-Wissens in Bezug auf das, was geschieht.Tib: rmongs-pa
BhagavanBhagavan. DerSee: Vanquishing Master Surpassing All
bhumi-mindBhumi-GeistEine Ebene des Geistes eines Arya-Bodhisattvas. Tib: sa
Skt: bhumi
binding factors, fourbindende Faktoren, vierSee: four binding factors
Blessed OneGesegnete, der/ der HeiligeSee: Vanquishing Master Surpassing All
blessingsSegenSee: inspiration
blissGlückseligkeitSee: blissful awareness
blissful awarenessglückseliges GewahrseinGlückseliges Gewahrsein ist ein Geisteszustand der entweder befleckt oder unbefleckt ist, und der durch unterschiedliche Intensitätsgrade von Glück gekennzeichnet ist. Einige der unbefleckten Grade von glückseligem Gewahrsein können in Praktiken des Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra als die Art von Gewahrsein verwendet werden, mit dem man sich auf Leerheit ausrichtet und mit dessen Hilfe man die Energiewinde im Zentralkanal auflöst, um Zugang zum Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts zu erlangen. Tib: bde-ba
Skt: sukha
Blissfully Gone OneGlückselig GegangenerEin Beiname des Buddha - jemand der das glückselige Ziel der Erleuchtung durch Methoden erreicht hat, die auf dem Weg zum Ziel Glück erzeugen.Tib: bde-bar gshegs-pa
Skt: sugata
bodhiBodhiSee: purified state
bodhichittaBodhichittaGewöhnlicherweise wird der Begriff mit der Bedeutung von relativem Bodhichitta verwendet: Ein Geist oder Herz, dass sich zuerst auf das Wohl aller begrenzten Wesen ausrichtet und dann auf die eigene individuelle zukünftige Erleuchtung, mit der Absicht, Tib: byang-chub-gyi sems
Skt: bodhicitta
bodhichitta, aspiringBodhichitta, anstrebendesSee: aspiring bodhichitta
bodhichitta, conventionalBodhichitta, konventionellesSee: conventional bodhichitta
bodhichitta, deepestBodhichitta, tiefstesSee: deepest bodhichitta
bodhichitta, engagedBodhichitta, ausübendesSee: engaged bodhichitta
bodhichitta, pledged aspiringBodhichitta, versprochenes, anstrebendesSee: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta
bodhichitta, pledged state of aspiringStufe des Versprechens des anstrebenden BodhichittaSee: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta
bodhichitta, relativeBodhichitta, relativesSee: conventional bodhichitta
bodhichitta, ultimateBodhichitta, höchstesSee: deepest bodhichitta
bodhichitta, unlaboredBodhichitta, mühelosesSee: unlabored bodhichitta
bodhichitta aimBodhichitta-MotivationDie Art von Absicht, Ziel oder (geistiger) Ausrichtung, die ein Bodhichitta-Bewusstsein besitzt. Der Begriff wird synonym mit Bodhichitta verwendet.
bodhichitta motivationBodhichitta-MotivationDie Bodhichitta-Motivation ist die Art von Motivation, auf die sich Bodhichitta bezieht. Bodhichitta-Motivation wird synonym mit Bodhichitta verwendet.
bodhisattvaBodhisattvaJemand der müheloses Bodhichitta entwickelt hatTib: byang-chub sems-dpa'
Skt: bodhisattva
bodhisattva arhats of definite lineageBodhisattva- Arhats eindeutiger Linie / Bodhisattva-Arhats der bestimmten LinieBodhisattvas who have been definite about their lineage as bodhisattvas from before attaining arhatship and thus who have attained arhatship as bodhisattvas and not as shravakas or pratyekabuddhas before developing bodhichitta.Tib: rigs-nges-pa'i byang-sems
bodhisattva bhumisBodhisattva-BhumisSee: bhumi-mind
bodhisattva vowsBodhisattva-GelübdeThe set of restraints from committing certain actions (eighteen root downfalls and forty-six faulty actions) that, if committed, would be detrimental to achieving enlightenment and benefiting all others.Tib: byang-sems sdom-pa
body, rainbowKörper, Regenbogen-See: rainbow body
body, subtleKörper, subtilerSee: subtle body
body, subtlestKörper, subtilsterSee: subtlest body
body, vajraKörper, Vajra-See: vajra-body
Body Encompassing EverythingAlles umfassender KörperSee: Corpus Encompassing Everything
body mandalaKörpermandalaEin Netzwerk von Buddhagestalten, die innerhalb des Körpers einer Buddhagestalt angeordnet sind. Tib: lus-dkyil
Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening InfluenceKörper des tiefen Gewahrseins erleuchtenden EinflussesSee: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence
Body of Deep Awareness Encompassing EverythingKörper des tiefen allumfassenden GewahrseinsSee: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Encompassing Everything
Body of Essential NatureKörper der essentiellen NaturSee: Corpus of Essential Nature
Body of FormsFormkörperSee: Corpus of Forms
Body of Full UseKörper vollen GebrauchsSee: Corpus of Full Use
Body of Great BlissKörper der großen GlückseligkeitSee: Corpus of Great Bliss
Body of Manifest EnlightenmentKörper manifester ErleuchtungSee: Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment
BonBönThe pre-Buddhist spiritual tradition of Tibet.Tib: bon
bonding practicebindende PraktikEine bindende Praktik bezeichnet eine Verhaltensweise oder ein Geisteszustand, mit der man, wenn man sich in dieser Verhaltensweise übt oder sich an diesen Geisteszustand gewöhnt, eine enge Bindung zu einem bestimmten Tantra oder einem bestimmten spirituellen Meister aufrechterhält. Die bindende Praktik wird auch als eng bindende Praktik oder enge Bindung bezeichnet. Tib: dam-tshig
Skt: samaya
bonding practices, auxiliaryzusätzliche bindende PraktikenSee: auxiliary bonding practices
bonding substancesbindende SubstanzenSubstanzen wie beispielsweise Alkohol und Fleisch, die während eines tantrischen Rituals gereinigt, umgewandelt und gesegnet werden und dann einer Buddha-Gestalt dargebracht werden, um eine enge Bindung (nahe Beziehung) mit dieser Gestalt beizubehalten, so wie man es versprochen hat. Tib: dam-rdzas
BonpoBönpoEin Anhänger der Bön-TraditionTib: bon-po
boon experiencesegensreiche ErfahrungIn mahamudra meditation, an experience of bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality, and bareness that arises as a bonus result of the attainment of a stilled and settled state of shamatha. With this experience, the meditator still has a dualistic sense of there being the meditator on the one side and, on the other, these four as things to be meditated on or experienced.Tib: nyams
bountiful fieldreichhaltiges FeldA bountiful field for growing positive force, and that is shortened to bountiful field. It is usually translated as merit-field by others. Bountiful here means that it gives abundant crop.Tib: tshogs-shing
bountiful store of positive forcereichhaltiger Vorrat an positiver KraftSee: network of positive force
break-throughDurchbruchMit Durchbruch wir im Dzogchen-System die Praxis und Ergebnisstufe bezeichnet, in der man die Ebene des begrenzten (gewöhnlichen) Geistes "durchbricht" und sowohl das Essenz-Rigpa erkennt, als auch Zugang zum Essenz-Rigpa erhält, dadurch den Pfadgeist des Sehens (Pfad des Sehens) erlangt und ein Arya wird. Tib: thregs-chod
BuddhaBuddhaEin vollkommen erleuchtetes Wesen; ein Wesen, das in seinem geistigen Kontinuum die emotionalen und kognitiven Schleier vollständig und ein für allemal beseitigt hat. Tib: sangs-rgyas
Skt: buddha
Buddha-Bodies, FiveBuddhakörper, fünfSee: Five Corpuses of a Buddha
Buddha-Bodies, FourBuddhakörper, vierSee: Four Corpuses of a Buddha
Buddha-Bodies, ThreeBuddhakörper, dreiSee: Three Corpuses of a Buddha
Buddha-Bodies, TwoBuddhakörper, zweiSee: Two Corpuses of a Buddha
Buddha-BodyBuddhakörperSee: Corpus of a Buddha
Buddha-fieldBuddhafeldDas Buddhafeld ist ein nicht-samsarische Bereich, in dem die Umstände für eine ununterbrochene intensive spirituelle Praxis am förderlichsten sind, um die Buddhaschaft zu erlangen. Das Buddhafeld ist in dem Sinne ein Feld, das es sich dabei um einen Ort handelt, an dem man eine unglaublich große Menge positiver Kraft (Verdienst) anbauen und entwickeln kann. Tib: sangs-rgyas-kyi zhing
Skt: Buddhakshetra
Buddha-figureBuddhagestalt / BuddhaformEine Buddhagestalt oder Buddhaform ist eine von einem Buddha ausstrahlende oder hervorgehende Gestalt mit mannigfaltigen Gesichtern, Armen und Beinen, als die sich ein Tantra-Praktizierender selbst visualisiert. Die Visualisation wird durchgeführt, um eine enge Bindung zu der Gestalt zu entwickeln, und so mittels dieser Praxis, die Erleuchtung in Form dieser Gestalt zu erlangen zu können. Tib: yi-dam
Skt: ishtadevata
Buddha Gem, apparentBuddhajuwel, offensichtlichesSee: apparent Buddha Gem
Buddha Gem, deepestBuddhajuwel, tiefstesSee: deepest Buddha Gem
Buddha Gem, nominalBuddhajuwel, nominellesSee: nominal Buddha Gem
Buddha-natureBuddhanaturLiterally: Buddha caste-trait, Buddha family-trait. A factor imputable on the stained mind of a limited being (sentient being) that transforms into or allows for the attainment of enlightenment.Tib: sangs-rgyas-kyi rigs
Buddhism professorBuddhismus-ProfessorA teacher, either lay or monastic, Western or Asian, who imparts information about Buddhism gained from scriptural knowledge and/or scholarly research.
building-up pathway mindPfadgeist des AufbauensDer Pfadgeist des Aufbauens ist eine Ebene des Geistes eines Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas oder Bodhisattvas, mit der sie, neben anderen guten Qualitäten, das vereinigte Paar eines still gewordenen und zur Ruhe gekommenen Geisteszustand (Shamatha) und eines Geisteszustandes von außergewöhnlicher Wahrnehmungsfähigkeit (Vipashyana), der konzeptuell auf Leerheit ausgerichtet ist - oder sich ganz allgemein auf die sechzehn Aspekte der vier edlen Wahrheiten ausrichtet, aufbauen. Der Pfadgeist des Aufbauens trifft nur auf Shravakas und Pratyekabuddhas zu, sobald diese eine mühelose Entschlossenheit frei zu sein entwickelt haben, bzw. trifft er auf Bodhisattvas zu, sobald sie müheloses Bodhichitta erlangt haben. Andere Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Pfad der Ansammlung" wieder.Tib: tshogs-lam
Skt: sambharamarga
calm abidingruhiges VerweilenSee: stilled and settled state of mind
caring attitudesich kümmernde GeisteshaltungEine sich kümmernde Geisteshaltung ist ein Nebengewahrsein, dass die Situation anderer, wie auch die eigene Situation ernst nimmt, und dass auch die Auswirkungen der Handlungen auf sich selbst und andere ernst nimmt, und somit zur Folge hat, dass man konstruktive Geisteshaltungen und Verhaltensweisen zu einer Gewohnheit ausbaut. Dieses Nebengewahrsein, die sich kümmernde Geisteshaltung (fürsorgliche Haltung), behütet einen auch davor, dass man zu befleckten oder destruktiven Geisteshaltungen neigt. Tib: bag-yod
Skt: apramada
caring heartsich kümmerndes HerzSee: caring attitude
caring lovesich kümmernde LiebeSee: love
categoryKategorie / Klasse / Gruppe / GattungEine Kategorie, Gruppe oder Gattung ist ein Phänomen, dass den Einzelwesen zugeschrieben wird, die der Kategorie, Gruppe oder Gattung zugeschrieben wird. Einige Übersetzter geben den Begriff mit "Allgemeines" oder "Allgemeinheit" wieder. Tib: spyi
causal conditionsursächliche BedingungenAll the causes that have the power to produce a specific result.Tib: rgyu'i rkyen
Skt: hetupratyaya
causal links that actualizekausale Glieder, die realisierenIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the three links of craving, an obtainer, and further existence, which activate the karmic aftermath of throwing karma in the moments preceding death so that the karmic results will actualize. Thus, they serve as the simultaneously acting conditions for the aggregates of a next rebirth.Tib: bsgrub-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal links that throwkausale Glieder, die werfenIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the two and a half links of unawareness, affecting impulses, and causal loaded consciousness, which describe the process through which throwing karma is built up and its karmic aftermath is "planted" on a mental continuum as the cause for a next rebirth.Tib: 'phen-byed-kyi yan-lag
causal motivating aimursächliche MotivationWas jemand beabsichtigt, gerade bevor er/sie damit beginnt etwas zu tun; diese Motiviation ist die Ursache dafür, dass die Person die entsprechende Handlung dann ausführt.Tib: rgyu'i kun-slong
causal taking of safe directionursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren RichtungMit dem Begriff "ursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung" wird das Einschlagen einer sicheren Ausrichtung (Zufluchtnahme) bezeichnet, in der die Quellen einer sicheren Ausrichtung die Personen oder Phänomene sind, die als Ursachen für die eigene Erlangung der drei Juwelen, wirken, nämlich von Buddha, Dharma und Sangha, die bereits von anderen erlangt worden sind. Der Begriff "ursächliches Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung" ist synonym mit dem Begriff "bloßes Einschlagen der sicheren Richtung". Tib: rgyu'i skyabs-'gro
causeUrsacheA nonstatic phenomenon able to bring about the production or arising of something.Tib: rgyu
Skt: hetu
cause, actingUrsache, wirkendSee: acting cause
cause, directUrsache, direkteSee: direct cause
cause, equal statusUrsache des gleichen StatusSee: equal status cause
cause, obtainingUrsache, herbeiführendeSee: obtaining cause
cause, ripeningUrsache, reifendeSee: ripening cause
cause, similar familyUrsache der gleichen ArtSee: similar family cause
cause, simultaneously actingUrsache, gleichzeitig wirkendeSee: simultaneously acting cause
cause and effectUrsache und WirkungSee: behavioral cause and effect
cause and effect, behavioralUrsache und Wirkung, verhaltensbedingteSee: behavioral cause and effect
ceremonial round of offering a ritual feastzeremonielle Folge der Darbringung eines rituellen FestmahlsEine zeremonielle Folge der Darbringung eines rituellen Festmahls ist ein tantrisches Ritual, das Teil einer Puja ist, in der man seinem spirituellem Meister, der als untrennbar von der Buddhagestalt betrachtet wird, speziell geweihte Gaben darbringt, die üblicherweise auch ein Torma beinhalten. Im Anuttara-Yoga-Tantra umfassen diese Gaben gesegneten Alkohol und Fleisch. Tib: tshogs-'khor
Skt: ganacakra
characteristics, inherentCharakteristika, inhärenteSee: inherent characteristics
cherishing concerned lovesich liebevoll kümmernde LiebeSich liebevoll kümmernde Liebe ist ein Nebengewahrsein (Geistesfaktor), mit dem man anderen nicht nur wünscht, dass sie glücklich sein mögen und ihnen die Ursachen für Glück widerfahren mögen, sondern mit dem man auch das Wohlergehen anderer im höchsten Maße würdigt und traurig sein würde, wenn ihnen Schlimmes widerfahren würde. Tib: gces-zhing pham-pa'i byams-pa
cherishing othersandere wertschätzen / sich um das Wohl der anderen kümmern / das Wohl der anderen liegt uns am HerzenAndere Wertschätzen ist die Geisteshaltung mit der man andere Wesen als die wertvollsten und wichtigsten Wesen betrachtet (das Wohl anderer liegt einem am Herzen); man empfindet das Gefühl von Zuneigung hauptsächlich für andere und kümmert sich vornehmlich um andere Wesen.Tib: gzhan gces-par 'dzin-pa
ChittamatraChittamatraA Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert external phenomena, but which does assert the true existence of dependent phenomena. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism; the Mind-Only School.Tib: Sems-tsam-pa
clarityKlarheitAls eine definierende Eigenschaft des Geistes bezeichnet Klarheit entweder die Fähigkeit oder die geistige Aktivität oder das geistige Ereignis, das kognitive Objekte hervorbringt - bzw. die kognitiven Objekte erscheinen lässt, so dass sie wahrgenommen werden können. Ein geistiges Hologramm des kognitiven Objekts muss noch nicht einmal in der Wahrnehmung erscheinen, da das Objekt möglicherweise implizit wahrgenommen wird. Klarheit bezeichnet nicht eine Art Licht im Kopf, das verschiedene Grade von Intensität besitzt, und das die bereits vorhandenen Objekte beleuchtet. Auch hat Klarheit nichts mit einem Wahrnehmungsobjekt zu tun, das sich im Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit befindet oder verstanden wird. Darüberhinaus impliziert das Erscheinenlassen eines kognitiven Objekts einerseits keine Passivität oder einen Mangel an Verantwortlichkeit, andererseits keinen bewussten Willen. Als ein Ereignis ereignet sich die Klarheit einfach ganz natürlich in jedem Augenblick in jedem geistigen Kontinuum. Tib: gsal
cleansing of attitudesReinigen der GeisteshaltungenSee: attitude-training
clearheaded belief in a factGlaube an Tatsachen mit einem klaren VerstandEine konstruktive Emotion, die sich über eine Tatsache im Klaren ist und wie ein Wasserreiniger den Geist von störenden Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen reinigt, die er in Bezug auf ein Objekt besitzt.Tib: dvang-ba'i dad-pa
clearheadedly believing a fact to be truemit klarem Kopf daran glauben, dass eine Tatsache wahr istSee: clearheaded belief in a factTib: dangs-ba'i dad-pa
clear light, objectklares Licht, objekthaftesSee: object clear light
clear light absorption on voidnessVertiefung in Leerheit mit dem klaren LichtTotal absorption, with clear light awareness, on voidness (emptiness).
clear light awarenessGewahrsein des klaren LichtsDas Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts ist die subtilste Ebene geistiger Aktivität (Geist), die sich, ohne einen Anfang und ohne ein Ende zu besitzen, selbst nach dem Tod und in der Buddhaschaft weiter fortsetzt [fortdauert]. Das Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts ist individuell und macht das geistige Kontinuum eines jeden Wesens aus [bildet das geistige Kontinuum jedes einzelnen Wesens]. Es ist frei von konzeptueller Wahrnehmung, dem Hervorbringen von Erscheinungen wahrer Existenz und frei vom Greifen nach wahrer Existenz, da es subtiler ist als die gröberen Ebenen geistiger Aktivität, mit denen das Gewahrsein auftritt. Das Gewahrsein des klaren Lichts hat nichts mit "Licht" zu tun.Tib: 'od-gsal
clear light mental activityGeistige Aktivität des klaren LichtsSee: clear light awareness
clear light mindGeist des Klaren LichtsSee: clear light awareness
clear light mind, actualGeist des klaren Lichts, tatsächlicherSee: actual clear light mind
clear light mind, modelVorbild eines Geistes des klaren LichtsSee: model clear light mind
close bondenge BindungSee: bonding practice
closed-mindednessEngstirnigkeitSiehe: Naivität
closely bonding practiceeng bindende Praktik / enge BindungSee: bonding practice
close placements of mindfulness, fourfeste Ausrichtungen der Vergegenwärtigung, vierSee: four close placements of mindfulness
cloth mandalaStoffmandalaEin Stoffmandala ist ein zwei-dimensionales Symbol, das auf ein Stück Stoff gemalt worden ist. Das Stoffmandala lässt sich mit einer architektonischen Blaupause eines dreidimensionalen Palastes, der Umgebung und den Buddhagestalten vergleichen, die sich in einem symbolischen Weltensystems befinden. Das Stoffmandala wird bei der Übertragung von tantrischen Ermächtigungen verwendet. Tib: ras-bris-kyi dkyil-'khor
clutching ghostKlammergeist [Hungergeist]One of the three worse rebirth states, characterized by the suffering of being unable to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, and caused primarily by miserliness. Translated by most others as "hungry ghost," which is a literal rendering of the Chinese translation for the term, adopted by the Chinese in reference to the spirits of departed ancestors that suffered when not presented with regular offerings of food.Tib: yi-dags
Skt: preta
co-arisinggemeinsam entstehend / mit entstehendGemeinsam mit jedem Moment der Erfahrung entstehend, zum Beispiel ein glückseliges Gewahrsein selber oder ein glückseliges Gewahrsein der Leerheit, welches mit der Praxis der Vollendungsstufe des Annuttara-Yoga-Tantra erreicht wird.Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
cognitionWahrnehmung(1) Der Akt des Wahrnehmens oder Erkennens einer Sache, aber ohne dabei notwendigerweise zu wissen, was diese Sache ist oder bedeutet. Sie ist entweder gültig oder ungültig, konzeptuell oder nichtkonzeptuell. "Wahrnehmung" ist der allgemeinste Begriff dafür, etwas zu wissen [erkennen]. (2) Das "Paket" des Hauptbewusstseins, seiner begleitenden Geistesfaktoren (Arten von Nebengewahrsein) und das kognitive Objekt, was allen gemein ist. Einigen Lehrsysteme zur Folge beinhaltet eine Wahrnehmung auch ein reflexives Gewahrsein. Tib: shes-pa
cognition, bareWahrnehmung, blosseSee: bare cognition
cognition, conceptualWahrnehmung, konzeptuelleSee: conceptual cognition
cognition, deceptiveWahrnehmung, trügerischeSee: deceptive cognition
cognition, directWahrnehmung, direkteSee: direct cognition
cognition, distortedWahrnehmung, verzerrteSee: distorted cognition
cognition, explicitWahrnehmung, expliziteSee: explicit apprehension
cognition, implicitWahrnehmung, impliziteSee: implicit apprehension
cognition, indecisiveWahrnehmung, unentschlosseneSee: indecisive wavering
cognition, indirectWahnehmung, indirekteSee: indirect cognition
cognition, inferentialWahrnehmung, schlussfolgerndeSee: inferential cognition
cognition, invalidWahrnehmung, ungültigeSee: invalid cognition
cognition, nonconceptualWahrnehmung, nichtkonzeptuelleSee: nonconceptual cognition
cognition, nondeterminingWahrnehmung, unentschiedeneSee: nondetermining cognition
cognition, presumptiveWahrnehmung, vermutendeSee: presumptive cognition
cognition, straightforwardWahrnehmung, einfacheSee: straightforward cognition
cognition, subsequentWahrnehmung, nachfolgendeSee: subsequent cognition
cognition, validWahnehmung, gültigeSee: valid cognition
cognitive appearancekognitive ErscheinungSee: appearance
cognitive arisingkognitives EntstehenEine kognitive Erscheinung, die in einem geistigen Kontinuum erschienen ist. Tib: snang-ba
cognitive engagementkognitives SichbefassenA manner of cognizing an object.Tib: 'jug-pa
cognitively taking an objectkognitiv aufnehmen (eines Objektes)Mit dem "kognitiven Aufnehmen eines Objektes" wird das Wahrnehmen eines Objektes bezeichnet. "Wahrnehmen eines Objektes heißt", dass man ein gültig erkennbares Phänomen zu einem Objekt der Wahrnehmung macht, und zwar in dem Sinne, dass man es durch eine gültige oder ungültige Art des Wissens wahrnimmt. Tib: 'dzin-pa
Skt: graha
cognitively taking an object, way ofkognitiv aufzunehmen, Art ein ObjektSee: way of cognitively taking an object
cognitive obscurationskognitive SchleierKognitive Schleier sind flüchtige Befleckungen, welche die geistige Aktivität (oder genauer gesagt: die geistige Aktivität des klaren Lichtes) "verdecken" oder begleiten, wobei sie verhindern, dass die geistige Aktivität die beiden Wahrheiten gleichzeitig wahrnehmen kann. Der Begriff "kognitive Schleier" wird auch als "Schleier in Bezug auf alles Wissbare" und "Hindernisse, die die Allwissenheit verhindern" und "Hindernisse vor der Allwissenheit" übersetzt. Tib: shes-sgrib
Skt: jneyavarana
cognitive open spacekognitiver offener RaumEin kognitiver offener Raum ist Rigpa (d.h. reines Gewahrsein) vom Blickwinkel seiner essentiellen Natur aus. Die essentielle Natur des reinen Gewahrsein liegt dem Hervorbringen der Erscheinungen zu Grunde und gestattet ihr die Erscheinungen wahrzunehmen, wobei das Wahrnehmen der Erscheinungen mehr im Vordergrund steht. Der Begriff "kognitiver offener Raum" ist gleichbedeutend mit "Essenz-Rigpa" und "kognitiver Sphäre". Tib: klong
cognitive sensorSensor der WahrnehmungDer Sensor der Wahrnehmung ist die dominierende Bedingung, die bestimmt, welcher Art der Wahrnehmung die Art und Weise des Gewahrseins von etwas ist. Im Falle der fünf Arten sinnlicher Wahrnehmung bezieht sich das auf die lichtempfindlichen Zellen in den Augen, die geräuschempfindlichen Zellen der Ohren, die geruchsempfindlichen Zellen der Nase, die geschmacksempfindlichen Zellen der Zunge und auf die für körperliche Empfindungen empfindlichen Zellen des Körpers. Im Falle der geistigen Wahrnehmung bezieht sich der Sensor der Wahrnehmung auf den unmittelbar vorhergehenden Augenblick der Wahrnehmung. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff Sensoren der Wahrnehmung mit "Sinnesorgane", "körperliche und geistige Fähigkeiten", "Sinneskräfte" oder "Sinnesausstattungen". Tib: dbang-po
Skt: indriya
cognitive spacekognitiver RaumSee: cognitive open space
cognitive spherekognitive SphäreRigpa (reines Gewahrsein) aus dem Blickwinkel seiner essentiellen Natur. Die essentielle Natur liegt dem Entstehen von Erscheinungen und dem Wahrnehmen der Erscheinungen zugrunde und gestattet, dass diese Erscheinungen entstehen und wahrgenommen werden, wobei das Entstehen der Erscheinungen mehr im Vordergrund steht. Der Begriff und "kognitiver Sphäre" ist gleichbedeutend mit "Essenz-Rigpa" und "kognitiver offener Raum" Tib: dbyings
Skt: dhatu
cognitive stimulatorAnreger der WahrnehmungSee: stimulators of cognition
cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomenaWahrnehmungsanreger, die (alle) Phänomene sindAll validly knowable phenomena, all of which may be validly cognized by mental consciousness.Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched
cognitive stimulators that are sightskognitive Anreger, die Anblicke sindForms of physical phenomena that may be cognized by either visual or mental consciousness.Tib: gzugs-kyi skye-mched
cognizewahrnehmenSee: cognition
collection mental synthesisgeistige SammelsyntheseMit dem Begriff geistige Sammelsynthese wird ein Ganzes bezeichnet, das auf räumliche, sinnliche und/oder zeitliche Teile zugeschrieben wird. Tib: tshogs-spyi
collection of wisdomAnsammlung von WeisheitSee: network of deep awareness
collection synthesisSammelsyntheseSee: collection mental synthesis
collection universalSammlungsallgemeinesSee: collection mental synthesis
commanding resultsbeherrschende WirkungSynonymous with dominating results.Tib: dbang-gi 'bras-bu
commitmentVerpflichtungMit Verpflichtung wird eine spirituelle Praxis bezeichnet, die man versprochen hat regelmäßig zu üben. Auch der Geistesfaktor, mit dem man ein solches Versprechen gibt, wird so bezeichnet. Das Versprechen wird entweder formal während der Durchführung eines Rituals gegeben oder informell und entweder sprachlich oder nichtsprachlich. Im Falle einer Verpflichtung gegenüber einem spirituellem Lehrer, befindet sich der Geistesfaktor, der anwesend ist, während man verspricht, sich in gesunder Weise auf seinen Lehrer zu beziehen, in Übereinstimmung mit den Beschreibungen in den traditionellen Schriften.
common locusgemeinsame GrundlageAuch übersetzt als: gemeinsamer NennerTib: gzhi-mthun
commonsense objectallgemein verständliches ObjektEin allgemein verständliches Objekt (ein Objekt, das mit dem gesunden Menschenverstand erfasst werden kann) ist ein äußeres sinnliches Objekt, dass durch Sinneseindrücke (Sinnesdaten) mehrerer Sinne über längere Zeit hinweg erfasst wird. Ein allgemein verständliches Objekt oder Objekt des gesunden Menschenverstandes ist folglich das, was ein normaler Mensch in einem Augenblick des Empfangens von Sinneseindrücken eines Sinnesorgans wahrnimmt und dieses mit seinem gesunden Menschenverstand als ein Objekt ansieht. Tib: 'jig-rten-la grags-pa
commotion, ordinaryAufregung, gewöhnlicheSee: ordinary commotion
compassionMitgefühlMitgefühl ist der Wunsch, dass jemand frei sein möge vom Leiden und den Ursachen des Leidens. Tib: snying-rje
Skt: karuna
compassion, greatMitgefühl, großesSee: great compassion
compassionate sympathyMitgefühlSee: compassion
complete stageStufe der Vollständigkeit / Vollständigkeitsstufe(1) Die zweite Stufe von Praktiken des Anuttarayoga-Tantra, in der jetzt alles vollständig ist, um sich in Praktiken zu üben, die als unmittelbare Ursache für das Erlangen der Erleuchtung dienen [fungieren]. Diese Praktiken beinhalten das Arbeiten mit den Chakren, Kanälen und Winden des subtilen Körpers. (2) in einigen Nicht-Gelug-Texten bezeichnet die Stufe der Vollständigkeit die nichtkonzeptuelle Meditation über die Leerheit der zuvor, während der ersten Stufe des Anuttarayoga-Tantra, erzeugten Visualisationen. Diese Meditation über ein nicht abzählbares endgültiges Phänomen wird, auf der selben Stufe der Praxis, gleichzeitig mit der Visualisation durchgeführt, and vervollständigt die Visualisationspraxis auf diese Weise. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "Vollendungsstufe". Tib: rdzogs-rim
Skt: sampannakrama
completing karmavervollständigendes KarmaDas vervollständigende Karma ist ein geistiger Drang oder Impuls, der von einer relativ schwachen Motivation begleitet wird, und daher, als Wirkung dieses geistigen Drangs, lediglich die Kraft hat [Stärke besitzt] jene Umstände heranzureifen, die die Bedingungen für eine zukünftige Wiedergeburt vervollständigen. Tib: rdzogs-byed-kyi las
completion stageVollendungsstufeSee: complete stage
comprehensive resultumfassende WirkungSee: dominating result
compulsive existencezwanghafte ExistenzExistence under the control of karma and disturbing emotions and attitudes. Synonym for uncontrollably recurring existence, samsara.Tib: srid-pa
concentrationKonzentrationSee: mental fixation
concentration, absorbedKonzentration, tiefeSee: absorbed concentration
conceptKonzeptA general term for a universal, a category, or a mental label. A concept of something need not be verbal. For example, one has a concept of what a pretty face looks like, what one's mother looks like, what a good soup tastes like, what a properly tuned guitar sounds like, what a valid line of reasoning is, what one plus one equals, and so on.Tib: rtog-pa
conception existenceEmpfängnis-ExistenzThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience conception. It lasts only one moment. Some translators render the term as "birth existence."Tib: skye-srid
conceptualkonzeptuellTogether with a concept.Tib: rtog-bcas
conceptual categorykonzeptuelle KategorieEine konzeptuelle Kategorie ist eine Gruppe von individuellen Elementen, die eine gemeinsam definierende Eigenschaft gemeinsam haben [***teilen]. Die konzeptuelle Kategorie wird durch eine geistige Synthese individueller Elemente [+++Gegenstände], die Beispiele der konzeptuellen Kategorie sind, geistig konstruiert (geistig fabriziert). Oder die konzeptuelle Kategorie wird durch eine geistige Synthese räumlicher, sensorischer oder zeitlicher Teile, die auf sie zugeschrieben (mit denen sie bezeichnet sind), geistig konstruiert. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff mit "Allgemeines" oder "Allgemeinheit" wieder.Tib: spyi
conceptual cognitionkonzeptuelle WahrnehmungDie Wahrnehmung eines Objekts durch das Medium einer metaphysischen Einheit, und zwar durch ein Allgemeines, eine Kategorie oder eine geistige Bezeichnung. Die konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung schreibt dem Objekt eine metaphysischen Einheit zu, die den geistigen Aspekt, den sie annimmt ähnelt, und sie vermischt und verwechselt die beiden.Tib: rtog-pa
conceptual isolateskonzeptuelle IsolateSee: conceptually isolated item
conceptualizationkonzeptuell Erfassen"Konzeptuelles Erfassen bezeichnet den Prozess, in dem man Objekte konzeptuell wahrnimmt.
conceptualized objectkonzeptuell erfasstes ObjektDas "konzeptuell erfasste Objekt" bezeichnet das Objekt in Bezug auf das eine konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung ein Allgemeines (Allgemeinbild), eine Kategorie oder eine geistige Bezeichnung hervorbringt, mit deren Hilfe man denkt. Wörtlich bedeutet der Begriff: Das Objekt an dem sich ein Konzept anklammert. Das "konzeptuell erfasste Objekt" wird auch als "impliziertes Objekt" oder "konzeptuell impliziertes Objekt" bezeichnet.Tib: zhen-yul
conceptually clingkonzeptuell anklammernIm Kontext konzeptueller Wahrnehmung bezeichnet "konzeptuell anklammern" das Implizieren eines tatsächlichen Objektes einer Kategorie, das mit der Kategorie übereinstimmt, so als ob die Kategorie an das "konzeptuell implizierte Objekt" angehängt wäre.Tib: zhen-pa
conceptually implied objectkonzeptuell impliziertes ObjektSee: conceptualized object
conceptually implykonzeptuell darauf schließen lassen / konzeptuell implizierenSee: conceptually cling
conceptually isolated itemkonzeptuell isoliertes ElementWerden auch als Unterscheider oder Isolate bezeichnet.Tib: ldog-pa
conceptual thoughtkonzeptueller GedankeSee: conceptual cognition
concernInteresse / Besorgnis / FürsorgeSee: caring attitude
concretefestSolid, like cement -- a nontechnical term used to describe something with truly established findable existence.
concrete "me"festes „Selbst" / festes "Ich“Ein nichttechnischer Begriff für wahrhaft existentes "Ich", der das zu widerlegende "Ich" darstellt. Siehe auch: solides "Ich"
conditionBedingungA nonstatic phenomenon that helps shape the conventional identity of something that is produced or arises from causes.Tib: rkyen
Skt: pratyaya
condition, causalBedingung, ursächlicheSee: causal conditions
condition, focalBedingung, fokaleSee: focal condition
condition, immediately precedingBedingung, unmittelbar vorausgehendeSee: immediately preceding condition
condition, objectiveBedingung, objektiveSee: focal condition
conditioned phenomenonbedingtes PhänomenSee: affected phenomenon
confident beliefüberzeugtes Glauben /überzeugter GlaubeSee: belief in a fact based on reason
confusionVerwirrungVerwirrung ist, um die Diskussion hier abzukürzen, ein nichttechnischer Begriff, der anstelle von Unwissenheit (Ignoranz) verwendet wird, dabei jedoch nicht den Beiklang von Unorganisiertheit, Desorientiertheit oder Demenz besitzt.
confusion, associated withmit Verwirrung verbundenSee: tainted
confusion, dissociated fromgetrennt von VerwirrungSee: untainted
congruentkongruentDer Begriff "kongruent" bezieht darauf, welche Beziehung die verschiedenen Weisen, in denen man sich einer Sache gewahr ist, die in derselben Wahrnehmung auftreten, untereinander haben. [die einem in der selben Wahrnehmung erscheinen]. In demselben Moment der Wahrnehmung haben zwei oder mehr der Gewahrseinsarten insgesamt fünf Dinge gemeinsam. Bitte vergleichen Sie auch: Kongruente beeinflussende Variablen.Tib: mtshungs-ldan
consciousnessBewusstseinEine Gruppe der Weise, etwas gewahr zu sein, die lediglich die essentielle Natur seines Objektes wahrnimmt, wie beispielsweise eine Ansicht, ein Klang oder ein Geistesobjekt etc. Das Bewusstsein kann dabei entweder sinnlich oder geistig sein Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
consciousness, all-encompassing foundationBewusstsein, alles umfassendes grundlegendesSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
consciousness, bodyKörperbewusstseinSee: body consciousness
consciousness, earHörbewusstseinSee: ear consciousness
consciousness, eyeSehbewusstseinSee: eye consciousness
consciousness, foundationBewusstsein, grundlegendesSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
consciousness, mentalBewusstsein, geistigesSee: mental consciousness
consciousness, noseRiechbewusstseinSee: nose consciousness
consciousness, primaryBewusstsein, Primär-See: primary consciousness
consciousness, specificBewusstsein, spezifischesSee: specific awareness
consciousness, tongueGeschmacksbewusstseinSee: tongue consciousness
consideration, incorrectBetrachtung, fehlerhafteSee: paying attention in a discordant manner
constructivekonstruktivAls konstruktiv wird ein Geisteszustand beschrieben, bzw. werden körperliche, sprachliche oder geistige Handlungen bezeichnet, die von einer solchen konstruktiven Geisteshaltung motiviert sind, die in Form von Glück im geistigen Kontinuum der Person heranreifen, in der sie auftreten. Der der Begriff keinen Beiklang von moralischer Wertung besitzt, ist die Übersetzung des Begriffes mit dem Wort "tugendhaft" oder "tugendsam" irreführend. Tib: dge-ba
Skt: kushala
contacting awarenessKontaktbewusstseinThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that differentiates that the object of a cognition is pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral, and thus serves as the foundation for experiencing it with a feeling of happiness, unhappiness, or a neutral feeling.Tib: reg-pa
Skt: sparsha
contaminated aggregatesverunreinigte AggregateSee: tainted aggregates
contemporaneous motivating aimgleichzeitig(e) (stattfindende) MotivationDie Motivation oder Absicht, die den Impuls begleitet, eine Handlung zu beginnen oder fortzusetzen.Tib: dus-kyi kun-slong
continuum, mentalKontinuum, geistigesSee: mental continuum
contradictorywidersprüchlichSee: mutually exclusive
contrivedkünstlich / gekünsteltAls "künstlich" wird ein Geisteszustand bezeichnet, der geistig durch konzeptuelle Gedanken zusammengebaut oder konstruiert wird, wie beispielsweise durch eine Argumentationskette. Tib: bcos-ma
conventionKonventionEin Wort oder ein Satz, der innerhalb der Gesellschaft oder von einem anderen Menschen in der Sprache oder in Gedanken übereinstimmend verwendet wird, um sich auf etwas zu beziehen. Tib: tha-snyad
Skt: vyavahara
conventional bodhichittakonventionelles BodhichittaSiehe: relatives BodhichittaTib: kun-rdzob-gyi byang-chub-gyi sems
conventional commonsense objectkonventionelles allgemein verständliches ObjektBei dem Begriff "konventionelles allgemein verständliches Objekt" handelt es sich wörtlich um: Konventionelle Objekte, die wir tatsächlich erfahren, wenn wir sie wahrnehmen. Es handelt sich also um ein Objekt der gewöhnlichen Erfahrung, auf die ein Wort oder Konzept hinweist, und das sich über die Sinnesdaten von einem oder mehrerer Sinne erstreckt. Tib: tha-snyad spyod-yul
conventional object of experiencekonventionelles Objekt der ErfahrungSee: conventional commonsense object
conventional true phenomenonkonventionelles wahres PhänomenSee: superficial true phenomenon
conventional truthkonventionelle WahrheitSee: superficial truth
conviction, firmÜberzeugtsein, festes / Überzeugung, festeSee: firm conviction
Corpus Encompassing EverythingAlles umfassender KörperDer allwissende Geist eines BuddhaTib: chos-sku
Skt: dharmakaya
Corpuses of a Buddha, FiveKörper eines Buddha, fünfSee: Five Corpuses of a Buddha
Corpuses of a Buddha, FourKörper eines Buddha, vierSee: Four Corpuses of a Buddha
Corpuses of a Buddha, ThreeKörper eines Buddha, dreiSee: Three Corpuses of a Buddha
Corpuses of a Buddha, TwoKörper eines Buddha, zweiSee: Two Corpuses of a Buddha
Corpus of a BuddhaKörper eines BuddhaEin Netzwerk erleuchtender Merkmale oder Aspekte eines Buddha, wie beispielsweise die des Körpers, der Sprache oder des Geistes eines Buddha, die er beim Erreichen der Erleuchtung erlangt und die anderen Wesen dabei helfen, die Erleuchtung ebenfalls zu erlangen. Tib: sku
Skt: kaya
Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening InfluenceKörper tiefen Gewahrseins erleuchtenden EinflussesIn some dzogchen systems, the spontaneous, effortless positive influence that a Buddha's omniscient mind exerts on others. Also called: Body of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence. Some translators render the term as "Wisdom Activity Body."Tib: ye-shes 'phrin-las sku
Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing EverythingKörper des tiefen allumfassenden GewahrseinsMit dem Begriff "Körper des tiefen allumfassenden Gewahrseins" wird der Aspekt des tiefen Gewahrseins des Geistes eines Buddha bezeichnet, der zeitgleich und ohne Unterbrechung der zwei Wahrheiten gleichermaßen gewahr ist. Er wird auch als Körper des Tib: ye-shes chos-sku
Skt: jnana-dharmakaya
Corpus of EmanationsAusstrahlungskörperThe network of grosser forms, which are emanations of a Buddha's Corpus of Full Use, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach ordinary beings with the karma to be able to meet with them. Also translated sometimes as "Emanation Body."Tib: sprul-sku
Skt: nirmanakaya
Corpus of Enlightening FormsKörper der erleuchtenden FormenSee: Corpus of Forms
Corpus of Essential NatureKörper der essentiellen Natur(1) In the Gelug non-Kalachakra system, the voidness of a Buddha's omniscient mind and its state of being parted from the two sets of obscurations. (2) In the Gelug Kalachakra system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind. (3) In the Non-Gelug systems, the inseparability of all the Corpuses of a Buddha - equivalent to the inseparability of the two truths. Also called: Body of Essential Nature, Nature Body.Tib: ngo-bo-nyid sku
Skt: svabhavakaya
Corpus of FormsKörper der FormenA network of forms in which a Buddha appears in order to benefit others. It includes both the subtle forms of a Corpus of Full Use and the grosser forms of a Corpus of Emanations, Also called: Corpus of Enlightening Forms, Form Body, Body of Forms.Tib: gzugs-sku
Skt: rupakaya
Corpus of Full UseKörper vollen Gebrauchs(1) According to sutra, the network of subtle forms, which make full use of the Mahayana teachings, and in which a Buddha appears in order to teach arya bodhisattvas. (2) According to non-Kalachakra anuttarayoga tantra, the network of all the speech of a Buddha. (3) According to Kalachakra, the network of both the subtle forms and the speech of a Buddha. Also called Body of Full Use. Some translators render this term as "Enjoyment Body."Tib: longs-spyod rdzogs-pa'i sku
Skt: sambhogakaya
Corpus of Great BlissKörper großer GlückseligkeitIn the dzogchen system, the blissful awareness aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.Tib: bde-ba chen-po'i sku
Skt: mahasukhakaya
Corpus of Manifest EnlightenmentKörper manifester ErleuchtungAccording to some dzogchen systems, the appearance-making aspect of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure appearance. In other words, the appearance-making aspect of a Buddha's omniscient mind.Tib: mngon-byang-gi sku
Skt: abhisambhodhikaya
cravingBegierdeThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a strong longing desire to experience something in the future that one may or may not be experiencing at present. The Sanskrit term means, literally, "thirst."Tib: sred-pa
Skt: trshna
craving because of fearBegierde aufgrund von AngstOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. Also called: craving to be separated from what is fearful. (1) A strong longing desire to be parted from pain and unhappiness. (2) Holding on to objects of the past.Tib: 'jigs-sred
craving in relation to further existenceBegierde in Bezug auf WeiterexistenzOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire for a neutral feeling, which one is experiencing, to continue surviving and not degenerate. (2) A strong longing desire for one's own body composed of five aggregates to continue surviving as a basis for craving in relation to what is desirable and craving because of fear. (3) Holding on to objects of the future.Tib: srid-sred
craving in relation to what is desirableBegierde in Bezug auf BegehrenswertesOne of the three types of craving specified particularly in terms of the time of death. (1) A strong longing desire not to be parted from the ordinary forms of happiness that one is currently experiencing. (2) Holding on to objects of the present, which one is attached to keeping.Tib: 'dod-sred
creative drops, subtlekreative Tropfen, subtileSee: creative energy-drops
creative energy-dropskreative EnergietropfenSubtle forms of pure essence, found in the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which, through anuttarayoga complete stage practice, can function as the seed for generating of a blissful awareness.Tib: thig-le
Skt: bindu
crimes, five heinousVerbrechen, fünf unmittelbar ins Elend führendeSee: five heinous crimes
cyclic existencezyklische ExistenzSee: samsara
dawnerscheinenA verb used for the arising of a cognitive appearance on a mental continuum, in analogy with the sun rising at dawn, except that the cognitive appearance is not already existing somewhere hidden in the mind in some unconscious manner and then comes up to consciousness when it dawns. Also translated as "to arise."Tib: shar-ba
death existenceTodes-ExistenzThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience death. Unless one successfully does advanced anuttarayoga tantra meditations at this time, this period lasts only one moment.Tib: 'chi-srid
deceptivetrügerischBeing mistaken or confusing with respect to the appearance of something.Tib: 'khrul-ba
deceptive appearancetrügerische ErscheinungA cognitive object that appears to exist in a manner different from the way in which it actually exists.Tib: 'khrul-snang
deceptive cognitiontrügerische WahrnehmungA cognition that takes a phenomenon's mode of existence that it makes appear -- namely, an appearance of its seemingly true existence -- to be the phenomenon's actual mode of existence. The deceptive cognition may be either accurate or distorted with respect to the appearance it makes of the superficial truth of what the phenomenon conventionally is.Tib: 'khrul-shes
decisive awarenessentscheidendes GewahrseinSee: ascertainment
decisive cognitionentscheidende WahrnehmungSee: ascertainment
decisive explicationsentscheidende ErklärungenPrecise indications of the meaning of the works in The Basket of Sutras by specifying the individual and general definitions of things. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: gtan-la phab-pa
Skt: upadesha
dedicated hearthingebungsvolles HerzSee: bodhichitta
dedicationWidmungSee: dedication prayer
dedication prayerWidmungsgebet / Gebet der WidmungA prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal, in which the person making the prayer directs the positive force (merit) from a constructive action that he or she has done toward ripening into that attainment.Tib: bsngo-ba
Skt: pranidhana
deep awarenesstiefes Gewahrsein(1) In the context of the five types of deep awareness, a type of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. It is "deep" in the sense that it is a fundamental way in which the mind works and has always been there, primordially, with no beginning and no end. (2) When contrasted with "discriminating awareness" (Tib. shes-rab) in the non-Gelug usage of the term, the principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the deepest truth of something (its inseparable voidness and appearance), beyond all words and concepts. (3) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, when contrasted with "discriminating awareness," principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the two truths of something. (4) In the context of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness, in the Gelug usage, either the principal awareness that explicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness (deepest truth) during total absorption or the principal awareness that implicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness during subsequent attainment.Tib: ye-shes
Skt: jnana
deep awareness, accomplishingtiefes Gewahrsein, vollbringendesSee: accomplishing deep awareness
deep awareness, reflexivetiefes Gewahrsein, reflexivesSee: reflexive deep awareness
deep awareness, self-arisingtiefes Gewahrsein, selbstentstehendesSee: self-arising deep awareness
deep awareness alayaAlaya des tiefen GewahrseinsIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for "mind-itself": the pure aspect of mind that is an aspect of Buddha-nature.Tib: kun-gzhi ye-shes
deep awareness DharmakayaDharmakaya des tiefen GewahrseinsSee: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Encompassing Everything
deep awareness of realitytiefes Gewahrsein der RealitätOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness of the superficial truth of something -- namely, awareness of what it is. When developed on the spiritual path, this deep awareness may also be of the deepest truth of something -- namely, its voidness. Also called: deep awareness of the sphere of reality.Tib: chos-dbyings ye-shes
Skt: dharmadhatu-jnana
deep awareness of the equality of thingstiefes Gewahrsein der Gleichheit der DingeSee: equalizing deep awareness
deep awareness of the individuality of thingstiefes Gewahrsein der Individualität der DingeSee: individualizing deep awareness
deep awareness of the sphere of realitytiefes Gewahrsein der Wirklichkeitssphäre / der RealitätssphäreSee: deep awareness of reality
deep awareness that is like a mirrortiefes Gewahrsein, das wie ein Spiegel istSee: mirror-like deep awareness
deep awareness to accomplish thingstiefes Gewahrsein, wie man Werke vollbringtSee: accomplishing deep awareness
deepest bodhichittatiefstes BodhichittaThe deep awareness that has nonconceptual cognition of voidness.Tib: don-dam-pa'i byang-chub-gyi sems
deepest Buddha Gemtiefstes BuddhajuwelA Buddha's Dharmakaya as a source of safe direction (refuge).Tib: don-dam-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
deepest Dharma Gemtiefstes DharmajuwelThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or a monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge). Tib: don-dam-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
deepest leveltiefste EbeneThe level of some phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by something more superficial about that phenomenon. Sometimes translated as "ultimate level" or "deepest ultimate level."Tib: don-dam-pa
deepest level Precious Gemstiefste Ebene der kostbaren JuwelenThe level of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are concealed by the apparent level gems.Tib: don-dam-pa'i dkon-mchog
deepest Sangha Gemtiefstes SanghajuwelThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge). Tib: don-dam-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
deepest truthtiefste WahrheitIn the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a more superficial true fact about the same phenomenon. Some translators render this term as "ultimate truth."Tib: don-dam bden-pa
Skt: paramartha
defilementVerunreinigungSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
defining characteristicsdefinierende CharakteristikaSee: defining characteristic mark
definitive teachingendgültige Lehre / eindeutige LehreA passage in a sutra text that discusses the most profound view of voidness, and to which all other passages in all other sutra texts eventually lead or point. Such passages do not need to be explained as indicating anything more profound.Tib: nges-don
Skt: nitartha
deity, forcefulGottheit, kraftvolleSee: forceful deity
deluded awarenessverblendetes GewahrseinA primary consciousness that is aimed at the alayavijnana in the Chittamatra system, or at the alaya for habits in the dzogchen system, and grasps at it to be the "me" to be refuted.Tib: nyon-yid
deluded outlookverblendete AuffassungOne of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.Tib: lta-ba nyon-mongs-can
deluded outlook toward a transitory networkverblendete Auffassung in Bezug auf ein vergängliches Netzwerk(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards some transitory network from one's own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as "me" or as "mine." (2) According to Tsongkhapa, the disturbing attitude that focuses on the conventional "me" and regards it as a truly findable "me" identical with the aggregates, or as "me, the possessor, controller, or inhabitant" of the aggregates.Tib: 'jig-tshogs-la lta-ba
Skt: satkayadrshti
delusionVerblendungSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
demonic forcedämonische KraftSomething that harms limited beings or causes interference and obstacles to constructive actions.Tib: bdud
Skt: mara
denumerable ultimate phenomenonmit Worten fassbare letzendliche PhänomeneVoidnesses that are validly cognized conceptually. They are "denumerable" in the sense that they can be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts.Tib: rnam-grangs-pa'I don-dam
dependent arisingbedingtes EntstehenThe reliance of something on something other than itself for establishing its existence. (1) The reliance of all samsaric phenomena on unawareness for establishing their existence; (2) the reliance of all functional, nonstatic phenomena on causes and conditions for establishing their existence; (3) the reliance of both static and nonstatic phenomena on their parts for establishing their existence; (4) the reliance of all phenomena on mental labeling for establishing their existence. Also translated as "dependent origination."Tib: rten-cing 'brel-bar 'byung-ba
Skt: pratityasamutpada
dependent phenomenonabhängiges PhänomenA validly knowable object that arises dependently on causes and conditions. All nonstatic phenomena. Often translated literally as "other-powered phenomenon."Tib: gzhan-dbang
Skt: paratantra
derivative, mentalAbleitung, geistigeSee: mental derivative
desirable sensory objects, five types ofbegehrenswerte Sinnesobjekte, fünf ArtenSee: five types of desirable sensory objects
desireVerlangenSee: longing desire
desire, longingVerlangen, sehnsüchtigesSee: longing desire
desire realmBereich des BegehrensSee: plane of sensory desires
destructiveschädlich / destruktivStates of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.Tib: mi-dge-ba
Skt: akushala
detachmentLoslösungThe constructive mental factor of bored disgust with and thus lack of longing desire for compulsive existence and objects of compulsive existence. Also translated as "nonattachment."Tib: chags-pa med-pa
Skt: asanga
detection, grossAuffinden, grobesSee: gross detection
devastatevernichtenTo totally weaken the effectiveness of something, such as the positive force of a constructive act, such that it ripens into something far less and more distant in the future, but without completely eliminating its potential to ripen.Tib: bcom
devoidfrei von etwas/ ohne/ bar einer Sache/ leerTotally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic, whether that characteristic is a possibly existing one or an impossible one.Tib: stong
devotion, guruGuru, Hingabe zumSee: guru devotion
dharmaDharma(1) Preventive measures which, if one puts into practice or achieves, prevent the experience of future suffering. (2) Buddha's teachings. (3) Any phenomenon or "thing."Tib: chos
Skt: dharma
Dharma, "real thing"Dharma, der echteSee: real-thing Dharma
Dharma Gem, apparentDharmajuwel, offensichtlichesSee: apparent Dharma Gem
Dharma Gem, deepestDharmajuwel, tiefstesSee: deepest Dharma Gem
Dharma Gem, nominalDharmajuwel, nominellesSee: nominal Dharma Gem
Dharma instructorDharma-AusbilderA teacher, either lay or monastic, Western or Asian, who explains the Buddhist teachings from his or her own experiential insight and understanding.
DharmakayaDharmakayaSee: Corpus Encompassing Everything
Dharma-liteDharma lightA version of the Buddhist teachings without the presentation of past and futures lives and in which the motivating aim is usually just to improve one's samsaric existence of this life.
Dharma-protectorDharma-SchützerA class of forceful beings, tamed by Buddha or a spiritual lineage master such as Guru Rinpoche, and made to take an oath to protect the Dharma and its practitioners. They may be either ordinary worldly beings (non-aryas) or highly realized aryas. In some cases, they are emanations of a Buddha, appearing in the form of a Dharma-protector.Tib: chos-skyong
Skt: dharmapala
dichotomyDichotomieTwo mutually exclusive sets form a dichotomy if all existent phenomena must be a member of either one or the other mutually exclusive set.Tib: dngos-'gal
direct causedirekte UrsacheThe phenomenon that actually produces its result, without need for any intermediary -- for example, a visible object is the direct cause for the seeing of it.Tib: dngos-rgyu
direct cognitiondirekte WahrnehmungAccording to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the present moment of a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object. Compare: indirect cognition.Tib: dngos-su shes-pa
direction, safeRichtung, sichere / Ausrichtung, sichereSee: safe direction
discerning analysisklar erkennende AnalyseSee: subtle discernment
discerning meditationklar erkennende MeditationA method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind, with which one focuses on an object and generates the desired insight, understanding, or state of mind about it, through using the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) and subtle discernment (scrutiny). The method may also entail applying a line reasoning that one has already understood and become convinced of its validity. Many translators render the term as "analytical meditation."Tib: dpyad-sgom
discernment, subtleUnterscheidungsvermögen, subtilesSee: subtle discernment
discourseausführliche ErklärungAn oral teaching on a spiritual topic, often concerning tantra.Tib: khrid
discriminateunterscheiden(1) To differentiate decisively between two things -- for example, between what is correct and incorrect, (2) to single out something and come to a decisive conclusion about it, for example to incorrectly discriminate the shravaka teachings as being essential for only shravakas, and worthless for bodhisattvas.
discriminating awarenessunterscheidendes GewahrseinThe mental factor that decisively discriminates between what is correct and what is incorrect, or between what is helpful and what is harmful, or between what is appropriate or what is inappropriate, or between what is reality and what is not reality. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: shes-rab
Skt: prajna
discriminationUnterscheidungSee: discriminating awareness
dissociated from confusiongetrennt von VerwirrungSee: untainted
dissolves into its own placein seinen eigenen Ort hinein auflösenSee: releases into its own place
distant lineageentfernte LinieThe lineage of a teaching that began with Buddha himself.Tib: ring-brgyud
distinguished equanimityhervorragender GleichmutSee: uncommon Mahayana equanimity
distinguishingUnterscheidenOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that takes an uncommon characteristic feature of the appearing object of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance to it, different from that of everything else that appears in the background within that cognition. It does not necessarily ascribe a name or mental label to its object, nor does it compare it with previously cognized objects. Some translators render the term as "recognition."Tib: 'du-shes
Skt: samjna
distorted antagonistic thinkingverzerrte, feindselige GeisteshaltungThe action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.Tib: log-lta
distorted cognitionverzerrte WahrnehmungA way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.Tib: log-shes
distorted outlookverzerrte AuffassungThe disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."Tib: log-lta
distorted viewverzerrte AnsichtSee: distorted outlook
disturbing attitudestörende GeisteshaltungEquivalent to a deluded outlook.
disturbing emotionstörende EmotionSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
disturbing emotion or attitudestörende Emotion oder GeisteshaltungA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that, when it arises, causes oneself to lose peace of mind and incapacitates oneself so that one loses self-control. An indication that one is experiencing a disturbing emotion or attitude is that it makes oneself and/or others feel uncomfortable. Some translators render this term as "afflictive emotions" or "emotional afflictions."Tib: nyon-mongs
Skt: klesha
disturbing emotions and attitudes, automatically arisingstörende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, automatisch erscheinendeSee: automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes
disturbing emotions and attitudes, doctrinally basedstörende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, doktrinär bedingteSee: doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudes
dividing consciousnessUnterteilungen machendes BewusstseinA consciousness that makes dualistic appearances, dividing a moment of experience into an appearance of independently existing consciousness (subject) and object. It is a Kagyu/Nyingma explanation. The Tibetan is rnam-shes, the same as the usual word for consciousness. It is defined like this only in some very special places.Tib: rnam-shes
divine beingGötterwesenA limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."Tib: lha
Skt: deva
divine ear, extrasensorygöttliches Ohr, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory divine ear
divine eye, extrasensorygöttliches Auge, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory divine eye
doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudesdoktrinär bedingte störende Emotionen und GeisteshaltungenDisturbing emotions and attitudes that arise based on having been taught and having accepted a non-Buddhist Indian tenet system or a less sophisticated Indian Buddhist tenet system.Tib: nyon-mongs kun-brtags
doctrinally based unawarenessdoktrinär bedingte UnwissenheitThe mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Also called: doctrinally based ignorance.Tib: ma-rig kun-brtags
dominating conditiondominante Bedingung / vorherrschende BedingungThe nonstatic phenomena that produce the essential nature of something, such as the eye sensors for the visual consciousness and congruent mental factors of a visual cognition. This condition is called "dominating" – literally, the "overlord condition" – because it rules what the essential nature of its result will be.Tib: bdag-rkyen
Skt: adhipatipratyaya
dominating resultbeherrschende Wirkung(1) The type of environment or society in which one is born or enters and the way it treats one, or (2) objects, such as one's possessions, and what happens to them. Such results may ripen from destructive, tainted constructive, or unspecified actions and are called "dominating results" because they extend over and dominate everything that one experiences in a particular rebirth. Also translated as "comprehensive result," "overriding result" or "overlord result," it is synonymous with "commanding result."Tib: bdag-'bras 
bdag-po’i ‘bras-bu
Skt: adhipatiphalam
dormant factorschlafende FaktorenLiterally, something that is "asleep to the taste of the mind." Affecting variables, associated with mental continuums, which are "lying down" and not rushing to manifest mind (consciousness). They include subliminal awareness, tendencies, and habits.Tib: bag-la nyal
doubtZweifelSee: indecisive wavering
downfall, rootÜbertretung des WurzelgelübdesSee: root downfall
dreadAbscheuThe strong wish not to experience something or for something not to happen. If overlaid with grasping for truly established existence, it becomes fear. Sometimes translated as "fear."Tib: 'jigs-pa
drops, jasmine flowerTropfen der JasminblüteSee: jasmine flower drops
dual appearance-makingduales Erscheinungs-HervorbringenSee: dualistic appearance-making
dullness, mentalTrägheit, geistigeSee: mental dullness
dumbfoundednessBenommenheitIn the dzogchen system, a nominal disturbing attitude, equivalent to automatically arising unawareness regarding phenomena, which obscures rigpa's (pure awareness's) knowing its own nature. Some translators render it as "bedazzlement" or "stupidity," but it has nothing to do with intelligence.Tib: rmongs-cha
dzogchenDzogchenDas Dzogchen bezeichnet ein Mahayana-System oder eine Mahayana-Praxis in den Nyingma-, Bön-, Karma-Kagyü-, Drugpa-Kagyü- und Drigung-Kagyü-Traditionen. Die Praktiken befassen sich damit einen Zugang zu Rigpa zu erlangen, d.h. zu seinem eigenen reinen Gewahrsein, und zu erkennen, dass dieses bereits vollständig alle guten Qualitäten besitzt. Dzogchen wird als "die große Vollendung" übersetzt. Tib: rdzogs-chen
effulgent rigpastrahlendes RigpaStrahlendes Rigpa bezeichnet das reine Gewahrsein (rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel seines Aspektes spontan Erscheinungen hervorzubringen. Strahlendes Rigpa ist synonym mit dem Begriff "Erscheinungs-hervorbringendes grundlegendes Rigpa". Tib: rtsal-gyi rig-pa
eight sets of realizationsacht Gruppen von Verwirklichungenalso translated as: eight phenomena.Tib: dngos-po brgyad
eight transitory things in lifeacht vergängliche Angelegenheiten des LebensPraise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly -- or, more specifically, the emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to these eight. Also called the "eight worldly dharmas."Tib: 'jig-rten-pa'i chos-brgyad
eight worldly dharmasacht weltliche DharmasSee: eight transitory things in life
elevationErhöhungSee: inspiration
emanation, miraculousEmanation, wundersameSee: miraculous emanations
embodied beingkörperliches WesenA being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."Tib: lus-can
Skt: dehin
emergence, definiteAustritt, endgültigerSee: definite emergence
emotion, disturbingEmotion, störendeSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
emotional afflictionLeidenschaftSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
emotional obscurationsemotionale SchleierFleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing phenomena without accompanying disturbing emotions or attitudes. They include the disturbing emotions and attitudes, as well as their tendencies (seeds), and prevent the attainment of liberation from samsara, Also translated as "obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes"and "obscurations preventing liberation."Tib: nyon-sgrib
Skt: kleshavarana
empowermentErmächtigungA tantric ritual that activates and empowers Buddha-nature factors to grow so that, through repeated, sustained tantric practice, they will eventually transform into the Three Corpuses (Bodies) of a Buddha. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials, that will likewise grow in the same manner. The term is often translated as "initiation."Tib: dbang
Skt: abhishekha
empowerment, discriminating deep awarenessErmächtigung des tiefen unterscheidenden tiefen GewahrseinsSee: discriminating deep awareness empowerment
empowerment, fourthErmächtigung, vierteSee: fourth empowerment
empowerment, secretErmächtigung, geheimeSee: secret empowerment
empowerment, vajra deep awarenessErmächtigung des Vajra-tiefen GewahrseinsSee: vajra deep awareness empowerment
empowerment, vaseVasen-ErmächtigungSee: vase empowerment
empowerment, wordErmächtigung des WortesSee: word empowerment
emptinessLeereSee: voidness
energy, karmicEnergie, karmischeSee: karmic energy
energy-channel, centralEnergiekanal, zentralerSee: central energy-channel
energy-channel, leftEnergiekanal, linkerSee: left energy-channel
energy-channel, rightEnergiekanal, rechterSee: right energy-channel
energy-windEnergiewindAlso called: energy-wind breathsTib: rlung
Skt: prana
energy-wind, subtleEnergiewind, subtilerSee: subtle energy-winds
energy-wind breathsEnergiewind-AtemzügeSee: energy-wind
engaged bodhichittaausübendes BodhichittaA mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, is committed to attaining that enlightenment by having taken bodhisattva vows and which then enters into the type of behavior that will bring one to enlightenment.Tib: 'jug-sems
engagement, cognitiveSichbefassen, kognitivesSee: cognitive engagement
enigmaticrätselhaftAlso translated as: secret, hiddenTib: gsang-ba
Skt: guhya
enlightening deedserleuchtende TatenAccording to Mahayana, a set of twelve actions or deeds in the life of a Buddha, with which a Buddha demonstrates to all limited beings the way to achieve enlightenment.Tib: mdzad-pa
enlightening influenceerleuchtender EinflussThe unceasing, unending, effortless activity of a Buddha, which helps bring all limited beings to higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment. Such activity does not require a Buddha actually doing anything: a Buddha's attainment itself exerts a positive influence on others to pacify disturbance, stimulate the growth of good qualities, bring disorder under control, and forcefully end any harm. Also translated as: "Buddha-activity."Tib: 'phrin-las
Skt: samudacara
entityEntitätA truly existent "thing," either objective or metaphysical, that exists as a findable "thing" on its own, established as that "thing" by its own power from its own side.
entity, metaphysicalEntität, metaphysischeSee: metaphysical entities
entity, objectiveEntität, objektiveSee: objective entities
epic presentationsepische DarstellungenPresentations of the vast and profound aspects of such topics as the six far-reaching attitudes (six perfections) and ten arya bodhisattva levels of bhumi-mind (ten bhumis) of The Basket of the Mahayana or Bodhisattva Sutras. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: shin-tu rgyas-pa
Skt: vaipulya
equalizing and exchanging self and othersunsere geistigen Einstellungen uns selbst und anderen gegenüber gleichsetzen und austauschenA method for developing a bodhichitta aim, consisting of (1) developing mere equanimity, (2) developing uncommon Mahayana equanimity, as a way to regard all others equally in the same way as one regards oneself, (3) thinking of the disadvantages of a self-cherishing attitude, (4) thinking of the advantages of cherishing others, (5) giving and taking, with attitudes of love and compassion, as a way of exchanging one's attitudes about self and others, (6) exceptional resolve, and (7) developing a bodhichitta aim.Tib: bdag-gzhan mnyam-brje
equalizing deep awarenessgleichsetzendes tiefes GewahrseinOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that is aware of several items as belonging equally to the same category, or as fitting into the same pattern. Also called: deep awareness of the equality of things.Tib: mnyam-nyid ye-shes
equal status causeUrsachen des gleichen StatusCauses for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena as they are -- either in the same ethical category or on the same plane of existence.Tib: skal-mnyam-gyi rgyu
equanimityGleichmut(1) The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of having an equal attitude toward everyone. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the tenth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude with which one does not expect anything in return for one's help, being indifferent to pleasure and pain, and to any benefit or harm one might receive.Tib: btang-snyoms
Skt: upeksha
equanimity, mereGleichmut, bloßerSee: mere equanimity
equipoise, meditativeAusgewogenheit, meditativeSee: total absorption
essence mahamudraEssenz-MahamudraA pathway of mahamudra practice concerning the nature of the mind in which specially qualified disciples receive the inspiration of the realizations all the lineage masters through receiving a vajra deep awareness empowerment and thereby achieve realization of mind-itself, equivalent to a seeing pathway mind. As "those for whom it happens all at once," they achieve enlightenment simultaneously with this realization. Also known as "the singular sufficient white panacea."Tib: snying-po'i phyag-chen
essence rigpaEssenz-RigpaEssenz-Ripga ist das reine Gewahrsein vom Standpunkt her, dass es ursprünglich rein ist und als offener Raum dient, in dem das strahlende Rigpa fungiert. Tib: ngo-bo'i rig-pa
essential natureessentielle NaturDie allgemeine Art von Phänomen, die eine Sache ist - beispielsweise ein Anblick, ein Klang und so weiter. [So ist beispielsweise die essentielle Natur des schönen Anblicks eines Sonnenuntergangs, der Anblick] Tib: ngo-bo
essential nature, sameessentielle Natur, gleicheSee: same essential nature
ethically neutralethisch neutralSee: unspecified phenomenon
ethically unspecifiedethisch nicht näher bezeichnetSee: unspecified phenomenon
ethical narrativesethische ErzählungenRules, codified by Buddha for those who are ordained, concerning which actions constitute a breach of their vows. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: gleng-bzhi
Skt: nidana
ethical self-disciplineethische Selbstdisziplin(1) In Theravada, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to avoid doing any harm to others, by keeping one's vows, free from anger or ill-will even if others harm one. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge to safeguard the actions of one's body, speech, and mind, which comes from having turned one's mind away from any wish to cause harm to others and from the disturbing and destructive mental factors that had motivated one to harm others. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: tshul-khrims
Skt: shila
even-mindedausgewogen / ausgewogener GeistA tranquil state of mind that stays in the middle with regard to being either happy or unhappy, in all circumstances, such as when meeting with or parting from friends. Literally, "a state of standing in the middle."Tib: dbus-gnas-nyid
Skt: madhyasthata
even-temperedausgeglichen / ausgeglichener GeistThe mental factor of not becoming either too involved or indifferent toward others, even when helping them.
ever-functioning mental factorimmer arbeitender geistiger FaktorSee: ever-functioning subsidiary awareness
ever-functioning subsidiary awarenessimmer arbeitendes NebengewahrseinAccording to Asanga, a set of five subsidiary awarenesses that accompany every moment of cognition: feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, an urge, contacting awareness, and paying attention or taking to mind.Tib: kun-'gro
evolving family-traitssich entwickelnde Familieneigenschaften(1) In the Chittamatra system, the tendencies (seeds) that, newly gained by listening, contemplating and meditating on Buddha's teachings, are imputable on the basis of the stained minds of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain arya pathway minds. (2) In the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka system, the factors, imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being, that are fit to become the essential nature of a deep awareness Dharmakaya. (3) In the Prasangika-Madhyamaka system, the factors imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being that are fit to become the essential natures of a Corpus of Forms and a deep awareness Dharmakaya of a Buddha.Tib: rgyas-'gyur-gyi rigs
evolving traitssich entwickelnde EigenschaftenSee: evolving family-traits
excellent signshervorragende ZeichenSee: thirty-two excellent signs
exceptionally perceptive state of mindGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher WahrnehmungsfähigkeitA state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight." Tib: lhag-mthong
Skt: vipashyana
exceptional resolveaußergewöhnlicher EntschlussThe full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."Tib: lhag-bsam
Skt: adhyashaya
exceptional sincerityaußerordentliche EhrlichkeitExceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).Tib: lhag-bsam
excludeauschließento eliminateTib: sel-ba
existence, inherentExistenz, inhärenteSee: existence established by self-nature
existence, trueExistenz, wahreSee: true existence
existence established as trueals wahr begründete ExistenzSee: true existence
existence established by self-natureExistenz, die durch Selbstnatur begründet istExistence of something established or proven by the fact that the referent object of the imputation of it can be found upon searching for it. For example, the existence of a table established or proven by the fact that when one searches for the object that the mental label "table" refers to, one can find the object, a "table." Also translated as "self-established existence," it is often translated by others as "inherent existence."Tib: rang-bzhin-gyis grub-pa
existent phenomenonexistierendes PhänomenSee: existents
existentsExistierendeValidly knowable phenomena.Tib: yod-pa
explications, decisiveErklärungen, entscheidendeSee: decisive explications
explicit apprehensionexplizites BegreifenIn the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object of the cognition arises. Compare: implicit apprehension.Tib: dngos-su rtogs-pa
explicit cognitionexplizite WahrnehmungSee: explicit apprehension
explicit suggestive meaningexplizit hinweisende BedeutungOne of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It suggests or leads one on to the second meaning (the implicit suggested meaning), which is dissimilar to what is actually said on face value.Tib: drang-don
Skt: neyartha
expositions on themes of practiceDarstellungen der praxisbezogenen ThemenSee: sutra
external objectäußeres ObjektSee: external phenomenon
external phenomenonäußeres PhänomenA nonstatic phenomenon that arises from a natal source different from the natal source of the consciousness that cognizes it -- namely, from a natal source that is not connected with the mental continuum of the individual who cognizes it.Tib: phyi-don
Skt: bahyartha
extraphysical emanationsaußerphysische EmanationPhysical bodies having abilities that are beyond the usual capacity of the body -- such as the ability to run great distances at an incredible speed, to fly, to increase or decrease in size, to multiply, to walk on water, to pass beneath the earth, and so on -- which are produced (emanated) from karma, recitation of mantra, the power of specially consecrated substances, or the power of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: rdzu-'phrul
Skt: rddhi
extraphysical powersaußerphysische KräfteSee: extraphysical emanations
extrasensory divine eyeaußersinnliches göttliches AugeCognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: lha'i spyan
extrasensory eye of deep awarenessaußersinnliches Auge des tiefen GewahrseinsA Buddha's omniscient awareness that is able to "see" the two truths about all phenomena. One of the five types of extrasensory eyes, possessed only by Buddhas.Tib: ye-shes-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of discriminating awarenessaußersinnliches Auge des unterscheidenden GewahrseinsCognition that is able to "see" voidness nonconceptually. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana)..Tib: shes-rab-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of the Dharmaaußersinnliches Auge des DharmaOne of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Gelug explanation, cognition that is able to understand the mental capacities of others, in order to be able to teach them appropriately. (2) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, a Buddha's omniscient awareness that possesses the ten forces that enable a Buddha to lead all beings to enlightenment.Tib: chos-kyi spyan
extrasensory flesh eyeaußersinnliches fleischliches AugeCognition that is able to see great distances without obstruction, to see through solid objects such as walls, to see in all directions at the same time, and so on. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: sha'i spyan
extrasensory perceptionaußersinnliche WahrnehmungSee: advanced awareness
extremely obscure phenomenonextrem verschleiertes PhänomenA validly knowable phenomenon that can be apprehended through authoritative texts or speech, such as the enlightening words of the Buddha, or that can be apprehended through the words of persons who are valid sources of information.Tib: shin-tu lkog-gyur
extreme outlookextreme AuffassungThe disturbing attitude that regards one's five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist or nihilistic way. (1) According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook that views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives. (2) According to Tsongkhapa, a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional "me" and considers it either as having a truly existent identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives.Tib: mthar-'dzin-pa'i lta-ba
Skt: antagrahadrshti
eye of deep awareness, extrasensoryAuge des tiefen Gewahrseins, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of deep awareness
eye of discriminating awareness, extrasensoryAuge des unterscheidenden Gewahrseins, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of discriminating awareness
eye of the Dharma, extrasensoryAuge des Dharma, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of the Dharma
fabrication, parted from mentalFabrikation, getrennt von geistigerSee: state parted from mental fabrication
fabulous accountsfabelhafte BerichteDescriptions of such marvelous, wondrous things as the wisdom, extra-physical powers and saintly deeds of the Buddhas, pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers), and shravakas (listeners). One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: rmad-du byung-ba
Skt: adbhutadharma
faithVertrauenSee: believing a fact to be true
false viewfalsche AnsichtSee: deluded outlook
far-reaching attitudeweitreichende GeisteshaltungenA mental factor that brings one to the far shore of samsara, either to liberation or to enlightenment. There are either six or ten far-reaching attitudes. Also called "perfection." Theravada and Mahayana give slightly different lists of these. According to Mahayana, the six are the far-reaching attitudes of (1) generosity, (2) ethical self-discipline, (3) patience, (4) joyful perseverance, (5) mental stability, and (6) discriminating awareness (wisdom). The Mahayana list of ten adds the far-reaching attitudes of (7) skill in means, (8) aspirational prayer, (9) strengthening, and (10) deep awareness.Tib: pha-rol-tu phyin-pa
Skt: paramita
faulty actionsfehlerhafte HandlungA set of forty-six actions that one vows to avoid and which, if committed, would be detrimental to one's practice of either one of the six far-reaching attitudes or to one's benefiting others. Also called: secondary bodhisattva vows.Tib: nyes-byas
feature, distinguishingMerkmal, unterscheidendesSee: feature, distinguishing
feelingEmpfindung / GefühlSee: feeling a level of happiness
feeling a level of happinessEmpfinden verschiedener Grade von GlücklichseinOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The subsidiary awareness that accompanies each moment of sensory or mental cognition of a limited being before attaining liberation and with which that being experiences the ripenings of its own karma in the form of something within the spectrum of extreme unhappiness, through neutral, to extreme happiness. Also called "feeling."Tib: tshor-ba
Skt: vedana
filigreeFiligranschmuckA piece of jewelry made of fine, intricately intertwined wires. A word used in the titles of many Buddhist texts to indicate that the subject matter is presented in a manner resembling a filigree, in which the various topics are intricately intertwined, resulting in a beautiful, elegant presentation of the material. Usually translated by others as "ornament."Tib: rgyan
Skt: alamkara
fire-pujaFeuerpujaA tantric ritual, performed mostly upon completion of a mantra-recitation retreat of a Buddha-figure for which one has received an empowerment, during which one tosses into a fire a large number of specific substances, accompanied by elaborate visualizations. It is mostly performed in order to purify any mistakes one has made during the retreat.Tib: sbyin-sreg
firm convictionfeste Überzeugung(1) According to Asanga, the mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that focuses on a fact that one has validly ascertained to be like this and not like that, and which makes one's belief that a fact is true so firm that others' arguments or opinions will not dissuade one. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the term means "regard": the mental factor that takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.Tib: mos-pa
fitness, sense ofLeistungsfähigkeit, Gefühl derSee: sense of fitness
five aggregate factorsfünf Aggregat-FaktorenThe five networks that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that could make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being: the aggregates of (1) forms of physical phenomena, (2) feelings of levels of happiness, (3) distinguishing, (4) other affecting variables, and (5) primary consciousnesses.Tib: phung-po lnga
Skt: pancaskandha
five aggregatesfünf AggregateSee: five aggregate factors
five bodhisattva pathway mindsfünf Arten von Bodhisattva-PfadgeistAlso called: five pathsTib: lam-lnga
Five Buddha-Bodiesfünf BuddhakörperSee: Five Corpuses of a Buddha
five Buddha-wisdomsfünf BuddhaweisheitenSee: five types of deep awareness
Five Corpuses of a Buddhafünf Körper eines Buddha(I) In some presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha (Svabhavakaya), and Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya) of a Buddha. (II) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and Corpus of Great Bliss (Mahasukhakaya) of a Buddha. (III) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and (5) Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence of a Buddha. (IV) In yet other systems, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya), and (5) Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment (Abhisambhodhikaya) of a Buddha.Tib: sku-lnga
five major fields of knowledgefünf Hauptgebiete des Wissens**a) Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, b) Medizin, c) Sprachen und Grammatik, d) Logik und e) geheime oder außerordentliche SelbsterkenntnisTib: rig-gnas lnga
five obscurationsfünf SchleierA set of five mental factors that prevent the attainment of the three higher trainings, in ethical self-discipline, absorbed concentration, and discriminating awareness. According to Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend, (1) flightiness of mind and regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) indecisive wavering, (4) intentions toward sensory objects, and (5) malice. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, (1) regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) sleepiness, (4) flightiness of mind, and (5) indecisive wavering. Also called: five obstacles.Tib: sgrib-pa lnga
five obstaclesfünf HindernisseSee: five obscurations
five types of deep awarenessfünf Arten des tiefen GewahrseinsFive types of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The five are (1) mirror-like, (2) equalizing, (3) individualizing, and (4) accomplishing deep awareness, and (5) deep awareness of reality. Some translators render this term as "five Buddha-wisdoms." Compare: "deep awareness" (1).Tib: ye-shes lnga
fixating meditationfixierende MeditationSee: stabilizing meditation
flatfade und wirkungslosOne's Dharma practice is flat when it is going nowhere, when it is not taking one anywhere. There is nothing lively in it anymore. "Flat" is usually used for sparkling water (soda water) or beer, when there are no more bubbles.
fleeting stainflüchtiger MakelAn emotional or cognitive obscuration that temporarily obscures the realization of Buddha-nature.Tib: glo-bur-gyi dri-ma
flesh eye, extrasensoryfleischliches Auge, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory flesh eye
flightiness, mentalFlatterhaftigkeit, geistigeSee: flightiness of mind
flightiness of mindFlatterhaftigkeit des Geistes / geistige FlatterhaftigkeitThe mental factor with which the mind wanders to an object of attraction, due to desire for it or attachment, and which faults the mental abiding of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Sometimes translated as "mental agitation."Tib: rgod-pa
focal conditionfokale BedingungAn external phenomenon that presents an aspect of itself to be an object of cognition, and thus serves as a condition giving rise to a sensory cognition of it.Tib: dmigs-rkyen
Skt: alambanapratyaya
focal objectObjekt der Ausrichtung / AusrichtungsobjektAn external object on which a cognition focuses and which serves as the focal condition of the cognition. Focal objects exist prior to the cognitions of them and have their own continuums different from those of the cognitions of them.Tib: dmigs-yul
focus, sharpFokus, deutlicherSee: sharp focus
foe-destroyerFeind-ZerstörerSee: arhat
foggy-mindednessgeistige UmnebelungThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly.Tib: rmugs-pa
force, karmicKraft, karmischeSee: karmic force
force, positiveKraft, positiveSee: positive karmic force
forcefulextrem kraftvollUsing extremely strong actions or methods, such as yelling at someone or hitting someone, in order to make the person stop doing something harmful. Forceful methods are used only when all other methods to make the person stop have failed or are impossible in the situation. Some translators render the term as "wrathful," but this has an inappropriate connotation, since "wrathful," in English, is used for the Old Testament God, who, when people disobey Him, gets angry and punishes them.Tib: drag-po
forceful deitykraftvolle GottheitAn emanation of a Buddha in a form of great strength, usually surrounded by flames representing deep awareness, and terrifying, so as to chase away disturbing emotions, interferences, and other harm. Often translated by others as "wrathful deity," although there is no connotation here of "wrath" as in "the wrath of God." Although the Sanskrit and Tibetan terms, here, mean literally "angry," this does not refer to anger as a disturbing emotion, but rather to the strong force of anger to get rid of something detrimental to spiritual well-being and progress.Tib: khro-bo
Skt: kroddha
form aggregateAggregat der FormenSee: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena
formless realmformloser BereichSee: plane of formless beings
form realmBereich der FormSee: plane of ethereal forms
forms of physical phenomenaFormen physische PhänomeneNonstatic phenomena that can either (1) transform into another form of physical phenomenon when two or more of them come into contact with each other, such as water and earth which can transform into mud, or (2) be known as what they are by analyzing their directional parts, such as the sight of a vase seen in a dream. Forms of physical phenomena include the nonstatic phenomena of forms and eye sensors, sounds and ear sensors, smells and nose sensors, tastes and tongue sensors, phyiscal sensations and body sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Equivalent to the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena.Tib: gzugs
Skt: rupa
forms of physical phenomena, totally imaginaryFormen physischer Phänomene, vollkommen imaginäreSee: totally imaginary forms of physical phenomena
forms of physical phenomena arising from gaining control over the elementsFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man Kontrolle über die Elemente erlangtForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are actually emanated by the power of absorbed concentration.Tib: dbang-'byor-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena existing in actual situationsFormen physischer Phänomene die in wirklichen Situationen existierenForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are spaces that are in between objects and either too large or too small to be seen, such as the space in between astronomical bodies or in between atoms.Tib: mngon-par skabs yod-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mindFormen physischer Phänomene, die die funktionelle Natur des Geistes habenThe type of subtle phenomena that the body of an arhat in a pure land is: although still included among cognitive stimulators that are forms of physical phenomena, they are visible only to the eye consciousness of arhats in pure lands. Although they are not ways of being aware of anything, their functional nature is similar to that of forms of physical phenomena that can be known only by mental consciousness. Synonymous with "mental bodies."Tib: yid-kyi rang-bzhin gyi gzugs
forms of physical phenomena included (only) among the cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomenaFormen physischer Phänomene, die (ausschließlich) bei den kognitiven Anregern enthalten sind, die (alle) Phänomene sindForms of physical phenomena that are not knowable by sensory consciousness, but are only knowable by mental consciousness. These include (1) those that make up other things by amassing together, (2) those existing in actual situations, (3) those arising from clearly taking them on, (4) totally imaginary forms, and (5) those arising from gaining control over the elements.Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena that make up other things by amassing togetherFormen physischer Phänomene, die andere Dinge bilden, indem sie sich ansammelnForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are the invisible objects, such as atoms and subatomic particles, that make up visible objects.Tib: bsdud-pa-las gyur-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomenon arising from clearly taking them onFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man sie eindeutig übernimmtForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are acquired on a mental continuum, such as the nonrevealing forms of vows and of karmic actions.Tib: yang-dag-par blangs-pa-las byung-ba'i gzugs
foundation consciousnessgrundlegendes BewusstseinSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
four axiomsvier AxiomeThe four axioms for examining a Dharma teaching in order to accept its validity: (1) dependency, (2) functionality, (3) establishment by reason, and (4) the nature of things.Tib: rigs-pa bzhi
four binding factorsvier bindende FaktorenFactors which, when they accompany someone's acting in breach of a vow, bind that person to the full karmic result, in the sense of guaranteeing that the full karmic result will follow.Tib: kun-dkris bzhi
Four Buddha-Bodiesvier BuddhakörperSee: Four Corpuses of a Buddha
four close placements of mindfulnessvier feste Ausrichtungen der VergegenwärtigungVon anderen Autoren als "vier Grundlagen der Achtsamkeit" übersetzt.Tib: dran-pa nyer-bzhag bzhi
Skt: smrtyupasthana
Four Corpuses of a Buddhavier Körper eines Buddha(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), and (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha.Tib: sku-bzhi
four hallmarks of the Dharmavier Kennzeichen des DharmaFour points which, if contained in a system of teachings, indicate that the system is a Buddhist one: (1) all affected (conditioned) phenomena are nonstatic (impermanent), (2) all tainted phenomena are problematic (suffering), (3) all phenomena are devoid and lacking an impossible "soul," while (4) a nirvana release is a pacification and something constructive. Also called "four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words."Tib: chos-kyi sdom-pa bzhi
four joysvier FreudenSee: four gradations of joyful awareness
four placements of confidencevier Grundlagen des VertrauenDon’t place your confidence on the person, place it on his or her teachings; don’t place your confidence on his or her words, place it on their meanings; don’t place your confidence on their interpretable meanings, place it on their definitive meanings; (to understand them) don’t place your confidence on your dividing consciousness, place it on your deep awareness.Tib: rton-pa bzhi
four placements of mindfulnessvier Ausrichtungen der VergegenwärtigungSee: four close placements of mindfulness
four sets of applied realizationsvier Gruppen von angewendeten VerwirklichungenAlso translated as: four yogasTib: sbyor-ba bzhi
fourth empowermentvierte ErmächtigungAlso called: word empowerment (tshig-dbang)Tib: dbang bzhi-pa
fresh and cleanfrisch und reinArising anew in each moment without being stained by any mental constructs -- descriptive of pure awareness (rig-pa) in the dzogchen systems.Tib: so-ma
front-generationErzeugung vor einemThe part of a self-initiation in which one generates in front of oneself the supported and supporting mandalas from which one will receive the full empowerment.Tib: mdun-bskyed
functional naturefunktionelle NaturThe nature of a phenomenon defined in terms of the function that the phenomenon performs.Tib: rang-bzhin
functional phenomenonwirksames Phänomen(1) A validly knowable, existent object that performs a function -- in other words, it produces a result -- namely, a nonstatic phenomenon. (2) In the Vaibhashika system, all validly knowable, existent phenomenon, all of which at least perform the function of acting as an object for the valid cognition of them.Tib: dngos-po
further existenceWeiterexistenzSee: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existenceTib: srid-pa
Skt: bhava
further existence impulseImpuls, weiter zu existierenSee: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence
GelugGelugOne of the New Translation traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from the reforms made by Tsongkhapa.Tib: dGe-lugs
general awarenessallgemeines GewahrseinIn the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that gives rise to and is aware of the appearing (the arising in general) of an awareness of an object and an object that one is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the general features of an entire sensory or mental field that one cognizes, so that one gets an overview.Tib: yid
generalityAllgemeinheitSee: conceptual category
generation stageErzeugungsstufeThe first stage of anuttarayoga practice, during which one uses the powers of imagination to generate oneself in the form of a Buddha-figure and performs a sadhana.Tib: bskyed-rim
generosityGroßzügigkeit(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of wishing to give material things to all beings, so that they may be happy, without investigating whether or not they are worthy to receive them. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to wish to give to others all that is one's own – one's body, material wealth, and the roots of one's constructive actions. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. Also translated as "giving."Tib: sbyin-pa
Skt: dana
gesheGeshe(1) In the Kadam tradition, a title given to a spiritual mentor and friend, especially those that are masters of attitude-training (lojong). (2) In the Gelug tradition, a title given to those who have completed the monastic education system.Tib: dge-bshes
Skt: kalyanamitra
giving and takingGeben und NehmenWith love, giving one's happiness to others, and with compassion, taking on their suffering. Often practiced with visualizations and in coordination with the breath, this is a practice done in conjunction with exchanging one's attitudes about self with others. Often called by the Tibetan term "tonglen."
giving rise toEntstehenlassenSee: making arise
giving rise to appearancesErscheinenlassenSee: appearance-making
go for refuge to the Three GemsZuflucht zu den Drei Juwelen nehmenSee: take safe direction from the Three Gems
golden libationgoldenes Trankopfer(1) An offering of a liquid, most commonly alcohol, made usually to a Dharma protector and ideally offered in a golden bowl. (2) The ritual that accompanies this offering.Tib: gser-skyems
good qualitiesgute EigenschaftenHelpful aspects or beneficial talents of a person that are corrections of inadequacies.Tib: yon-tan
Skt: guna
gorges, dangerousAbgründe, gefährlicheSee: dangerous gorges
grasping for truly established existenceGreifen nach wahrer Existenz(1) Both to cognize (literally, take as a cognitive object) the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, which the habits of this grasping cause the mind to fabricate and project, as well as believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist, (2) simply cognizing the appearance of the world as having truly established existence, without actually believing this deceptive appearance to correspond to how things actually exist. Gelug asserts both definitions, while non-Gelug asserts only the first. Abbreviated as "grasping for true existence."Tib: bden-'dzin
Skt: satyagraha
great approximation retreatgroßes AnnäherungsretreatA three-year, three-month retreat focusing exclusively on one Buddha-figure (deity) system, in which one recites tens of millions of mantras and makes millions of offerings in fire pujas.Tib: bsnyen-chen
great compassiongroßes MitgefühlGroßes Mitgefühl bezeichnet den Wunsch, das jedes Wesen frei sein möge vom Leiden und den Ursachen des Leidens. Tib: snying-rje chen-po
Skt: mahakaruna
great completenessgroße VollendungSee: dzogchen
Greater Vehiclegroßes FahrzeugSee: Mahayana
great lovegroße LiebeThe wish for everyone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness.Tib: byams-pa chen-po
Skt: mahamaitri
great sealgroßes SiegelSee: mahamudra
gross detectiongrobes FeststellenThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that investigates something roughly, such as detecting if there are mistakes on a page. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "investigation."Tib: rtog-pa
gross impermanencegrobe UnbeständigkeitThe final destruction or disintegration of a nonstatic phenomenon.Tib: mi-rtag-pa rags-pa
guideline instructionsrichtungsweisende AnleitungenBeneficial practical advice concerning spiritual practice.Tib: gdams-ngag
guru-devotionHingabe zum GuruSee: relating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy manner
habit, karmic constantGewohnheit, karmische ständigeSee: karmic constant habit
hallmarks of the Dharma, fourvier Kennzeichen des DharmaSee: four hallmarks of the Dharma
hallowedheiligPure and worthy of the highest respect; sacred.Tib: dam-pa
happening, no-longerStattfinden, nicht längerSee: no-longer-happening
happening, not-yetStattfinden, noch nichtSee: not-yet-happening
happening, passedStattfinden, vergangenesSee: no-longer-happening
happinessGlücklichseinThat feeling which, when it stops, we wish to meet with it again.Tib: bde-ba
Skt: sukha
happiness, mentalGlück, geistigesSee: mental happiness
hearerHörerSee: shravaka
heart essence divisiondie Kategorie der HerzessenzAnother name for the quintessence teachings division of treasure texts, and for the texts contained in this division.Tib: snying-thig
heartwarming loveherzerwärmende LiebeThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one has a feeling of closeness and warmth toward anyone one meets.Tib: yid-'ong byams-pa
heavenly musicianhimmlische MusikerSee: those who sustain themselves on fragrances
heightened awarenesserhöhtes GewahrseinSee: advanced awareness
hidden mandalaverborgenes MandalaSee: secret mandala
hidden mantraverborgenes MantraSynonymous with "mantra."Tib: gsang-sngags
Skt: guhyamantra
hidden offeringverborgenes OpferAn offering of one's blissful awareness or of one's blissful awareness of voidness, visualized in the form of an offering goddess.Tib: gsang-mchod
hidden path of sutraverborgener Pfad des SutraThe mahamudra teachings concealed in the Mahayana sutras and passed down in lineage from Maitripa to Marpa to Milarepa to Gampopa.Tib: mdo'i gsang-lam
highly realized beinghochverwirklichtes WesenSee: arya
highly realized practitionerhochverwirklichter PraktizierenderSee: arya
HinayanaHinayanaLiterally, a "Modest Vehicle of Mind" -- levels and states of mind with a modest motivation - renunciation - and, with modest methods, lead to the modest goal of liberation. Some translators render the term as "Lesser Vehicle."Tib: theg-dman
Skt: hinayana
hold, mentalFesthalten, geistigesSee: mental hold
horizontal mental synthesishorizontale geistige SyntheseA kind mental synthesis that extends over many instances of the same type of phenomenon, such as many tables.Tib: thad-ka'i spyi
hostilityFeindseligkeitA subcategory of anger: anger directed primarily, although not exclusively, at limited beings. One of the three poisonous emotions and attitudes. See: anger.Tib: zhe-sdang
Skt: dvesha
how things arewie die Dinge sind (Soheit)Also called: thusness.Tib: de-nyid
identitylessnessIdentitätslosigkeitSee: lack of an impossible "soul"
ignoranceIgnoranzSee: unawareness
illustrative accountserläuternde BerichteTeachings of Buddha given with examples for ease of comprehension by the listener. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: rtogs-par brjod-pa
Skt: avadana
immeasurably magnificent palaceunermesslich herrlicher PalastA palace visualized in tantra practice as part of the supporting mandala. Each architectural feature of the palace represents one or another realization gained along the tantra path, and inside the palace reside one or more Buddha-figures.Tib: gzhal-yas khang
immediate causesunmittelbare UrsachenThe causes that are very close in time to bringing about a result.Tib: nye-ba'i rgyu
immediately preceding conditionunmittelbar vorausgehende BedingungThe immediately preceding moment of awareness, which produces the appearance-making and cognizing (clarity and awareness) of the next moment of awareness as its result.Tib: de-ma-thag rkyen
Skt: samanantarapratyaya
immovables, threeUnbewegliche, dreiSee: three immovables
Immutable Vajra Bodyunveränderlicher Vajra-KörperSee: Immutable Vajra Corpus
Immutable Vajra Corpusunveränderlicher Vajra-KörperIn some Kagyu mahamudra systems, synonymous with "Vajra Corpus" in the meaning of the unchanging nature of the other four Corpuses of a Buddha.Tib: mi-'gyur rdo-rje'i sku
impermanenceUnbeständigkeit / VeränderlichkeitSee: nonstaticness
impermanent phenomenonunbeständiges PhänomenSee: nonstatic phenomenon
implicative negation phenomenonimplizierendes Negierungs-PhänomenAn exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as "affirming negation." Tib: ma-yin dgag
implicit apprehensionimplizites BegreifenIn the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object itself does not arise; only a cognitive appearance of the basis for imputation of the involved object arises. Compare: explicit apprehension.Tib: shugs-la rtogs-pa
implicit suggested meaningimplizit hingewiesene BedeutungOne of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the meaning that is dissimilar to the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It is the meaning suggested by the literal (explicit suggestive) meaning and to which one is led by that literal meaning.Tib: nges-don
Skt: nitartha
implied objectimplizierte Objekte / angedeutete ObjekteSee: conceptualized object
imply, conceptuallykonzeptuell implizieren / konzeptuell darauf schließen lassenSee: conceptually cling
impulse, karmicImpuls, karmischerSee: karma
impulse, mentalImpuls, geistigerSee: karma
impulses, affectingImpulse, beeinflussendeSee: link of affecting impulses
impure appearanceunreine ErscheinungAn appearance of something as a nonenlightened mind makes it appear, namely in only a mundane form and with true existence.Tib: ma-dag-pa'i snang-ba
imputationzuschreiben / ZuschreibungSee: mental labeling
inbetween existenceZwischenexistenzSee: bardo
inbetween stateZwischenzustandSee: bardo
incorrect considerationfehlerhafte BetrachtungSee: paying attention in a discordant manner
indecisive cognitionunentschlossene WahrnehmungSee: indecisive wavering
indecisivenessUnentschlossenheitSee: indecisive wavering
indecisive waveringunentschlossenes SchwankenThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that entertains two opinions about what is true – in other words, wavering between accepting or rejecting what is true. One of the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes. Sometimes translated as "doubt."Tib: the-tshoms
indirect cognitionindirekte WahrnehmungAccording to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object, which no longer exists. Compare: direct cognition.Tib: shugs-la shes-pa
individual beingLebewesenSee: person
individual defining characteristic markindividuelle definierendes charakteristisches MerkmalSomething findable on the side of an object that establishes the identity or features of that object and which serves as the basis for that object being labeled by the names, words, and concepts for it, as well as for its qualities.Tib: rang-gi mtshan-nyid
Skt: svalakshana
individualizing deep awarenessindividualisierendes tiefes GewahrseinDas individualisierende tiefe Gewahrsein ist eine von fünf Arten des tiefen Gewahrseins, die alle Wesen als einen Aspekt ihrer Buddhanatur besitzen. Das individualisierende tiefe Gewahrsein ist das tiefe Gewahrsein, welches ein Objekt auswählt und seiner einzigartigen und individuellen Qualitäten gewahr ist. Es wird auch als tiefes Gewahrsein der Individualität der Dinge bezeichnet. Tib: sor-rtog ye-shes
inferential cognitionschlussfolgernde WahrnehmungA valid conceptual way of cognizing an obscure object through reliance on a correct line of reasoning as its basis.Tib: rjes-dpag
Skt: anumana
influence, enlighteningEinfluss, erleuchtenderSee: enlightening influence
influencing naturebeeinflussende NaturOne of the threefold natures of pure awareness (rigpa), referring to the enlightening influence it has on others.Tib: 'phrin-las
in focusklar und scharfThe appearance of something as being sharp and clear, not blurry.Tib: gsal-ba
inherentinhärentThe English word "inherent" means something inside an object that is there by means of the nature of that object, It is used in Buddhism to mean something inside an object, by nature of that object, which, by its own power, establishes that the object exists in general and exists specifically as "this" or "that."
inherent existenceinhärente ExistenzSee: existence established by self-natureTib: bden-grub
initiationInitiationSee: empowerment
innateinnewohnendSee: simultaneously arising
inner mandalainneres MandalaA world-system represented by parts of the human body and used as an object of offering.Tib: nang-gi dkyil-'khor
inner offeringinneres OpferAn offering made of the flesh of various animals and various bodily fluids and wastes, representing either the five tainted aggregates and five bodily elements or the ten energy-winds, and which are specially "elevated" and transformed into pure nectar.Tib: nang-mchod
inseparableuntrennbarTwo facts about the same attribute of an object are inseparable if, when one is the case, so is the other. The two facts may inseparably both be the case either naturally or made to be so through the power of meditation.Tib: dbyer-med
insightEinsichtA nontechnical term for an understanding of a deeper level of meaning of something that one did not understand so deeply before or not at all before.
inspirationInspiration(1) A transformation that someone or something confers, literally by means of a "brightening," into a state of heightened power and ability resembling the position or status of the person or thing that confers it. (2) In the meaning of "elevation," transformation of one's body, speech, and mind, or offering substances, into pure aspects, done during a tantric ritual. Some translators render the term as "blessing."Tib: byin-gyis rlabs
Skt: adhishthana
instructions, guidelineAnleitungen, richtungsweisendeSee: guideline instructions
instructions, personalAnleitungen, persönlicheSee: personal instructions
instructor, DharmaAusbilder, Dharma-See: Dharma instructor
intellectIntellektThe mental activity that gives rise to conceptual cognition -- most commonly, to verbal conceptual thought.Tib: blo
intellectually derivedvom Intellekt herrührtDescriptive of meditation with verbal thoughts based on conceptual schemes.Tib: blos-byas
intelligenceIntelligenzThe ability to discriminate between what is correct and what is incorrect, and between what is helpful and what is harmful.Tib: blo-gros
intentbeabsichtigte BedeutungThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved, but based on prior deliberation and thus a stronger mental factor than intention .
intentionAbsicht / IntentionThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to obtain any object, to achieve any goal, or to do something with the object or goal once obtained or achieved.Tib: 'dun-pa
interpolationVerfälschung / verfälschende HinzufügungThe projection or superimposition, onto an object, of a quality or a conventional or ultimate identity that it doesn't have. For instance, to superimpose true existence onto the conventionally existent "me." Literally, the term means "sticking feathers on to something." Some translators render it as "exaggeration," but it is not the exaggeration of something present. Rather, it is the adding of something that is not there, as if it were present.Tib: sgro-'dogs
interpretable teachingauslegbare Lehre / interpretierbare LehreA passage in a sutra text that discusses any topic other than the most profound view of voidness, and which leads one on or points the way to the most profound view of voidness. Such passages require explanation, so that one does not confuse them as indicating the most profound view.Tib: drang-don
Skt: neyartha
invalid cognitionungültige Wahrnehmung(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a cognition that is not fresh, or one that is fallacious, or one that is both not fresh and fallacious. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a fallacious cognition.Tib: tshad-min
investigationUntersuchen / UntersuchungSee: gross detection
involved bodhichittaausübendes BodhichittaSee: engaged bodhichitta
involved objectbeteiligtes ObjektThe main object with which a particular cognition involves itself or engages. Equivalent to the object existing as cognitively taklen.Tib: 'jug-yul
jasmine flower dropsTropfen der JasminblüteDrops of white bodhichitta; drops of subtle creative energy.Tib: kun-da
Skt: kunda
jealousyEifersuchtA disturbing emotion that focuses on other peoples' accomplishments – such as their good qualities, possessions, or success – and is the inability to bear their accomplishments, due to excessive attachment to one's own gain or to the respect one receives. Also translated as "envy."Tib: phrag-dog
Skt: irshya
jenangJenangSee: subsequent permission
Jnana-dharmakayaJnana-DharmakayaSee: deep awareness Dharmakaya
jnanamudraJnanamudraSee: sealing partner for deep awareness
joined inseparabilityverbundene UntrennbarkeitThe relationship between two items that do not naturally occur simultaneously and inseparably, but are made to do so through the power of meditation. Once the attainments of both are joined, then whenever one is the case or is occurring, so is the other.Tib: sbyor-bcas dbyer-med
joined pairverbundenes PaarEin Paar von Elementen, untrennbar miteinander verbunden, in welchem die anfängliche Erlangung des einen vor der anfänglichen Erlangung des anderen stattfindet.Tib: zung-'brel
joyful perseverancefreudige Ausdauer(1) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to have zestful vigor for being constructive, without becoming lazy. With this mental factors, one takes joy in being constructive. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude. (2) For Theravada, see: "perseverance."Tib: brtson-'grus
Skt: virya
joyful perseverance, armor-likefreudige Ausdauer, Rüstungs-gleicheSee: armor-like joyful perseverance
KadamKadam-SchuleOne of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, deriving from Atisha's visit to Tibet. After its branches were merged and reformed, it continued as the Gelug tradition.Tib: bKa'-gdams
KagyuKagyüOne of the New Translation Period traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. It has two branches, Shangpa Kagyu deriving from Kyungpo Neljor and Dagpo Kagyu deriving from the line Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa.Tib: bKa'-brgyud
Kalachakra tantra root downfallÜbertretung der tantrischen Wurzelgelübde des KalachakraA transgression of one of the version of the root tantric vows that is specific to the practice of Kalachakra.
KamaKamaThe god of desire in Hindu mythology.Tib: 'dod-pa'i lha
KangyurKangyurThe collection of the Tibetan translations of the enlightening words of the Buddha.Tib: bKa'-'gyur
KanjurKanjurSee: Kangyur
karmaKarma(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, equivalent to a subcategory of the mental factor (subsidiary awareness), an urge. It is the mental factor that brings the mind in the direction of a specific physical, verbal, or mental action. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika, with respect to mental karmic actions, it is the mental factor of the urge that brings the mind in the direction of that action. With respect to physical or verbal karmic actions, it is (a) the revealing form of the physical impulse of the physical action or the sound of the words of the verbal action, plus (b) the nonrevealing form of the subtle invisible "vibration" of the action, which continues during and after the action. Some translators render the term "karma" as "action." (3) A general term used loosely for behavioral cause and effect. Also called: karmic impulse.Tib: las
Skt: karma
karmic actionkarmische HandlungA physical, verbal, or mental action brought on by and sustained by a karmic impulse.
karmic aftermathkarmische HinterlassenschaftA general, nontechnical term for everything left over on someone's mental continuum as a consequence of having committed a karmic action. It includes karmic potentials, a network of karmic force, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits. According to the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika tenet systems, also included, for physical and verbal actions, is a second phase of subtle karmic energy.
karmic constant habitkarmische ständige GewohnheitA type of karmic aftermath, imputable on one's mental continuum as an unspecified (ethically neutral) noncongruent affecting variable after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result every moment until a true stopping of it has been achieved. Some translators render it as "habit" or "instinct."Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic energykarmische EnergieA general term for both positive and negative karmic energy. A constructive or destructive phenomenon that is the first phase of the karmic force of a karmic action.(1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it is equivalent to the karmic action itself, from the point of view of what will ripen into a result intermittently. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika systems, this is the case only regarding mental karmic actions. With regard to physical and verbal karmic actions, it is equivalent to the karma of the action -- both its revealing and nonrevealing forms.
karmic forcekarmische KraftA general term for both positive and negative karmic force -- the type of karmic aftermath that is either a constructive or destructive phenomenon and which will ripen into a result intermittently. (1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it has two phases (a) the karmic energy, referring to the karmic action itself, and (b) the karmic potential, which is the karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency (karmic seed). (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika system, this is the case only regarding mental karmic actions. With regard to physical and verbal karmic actions, the karma of the action -- both its revealing and nonrevealing forms, as well as the karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendency.
karmic force, negativekarmische Kraft, negativeSee: negative karmic force
karmic force, positivekarmische Kraft, positiveSee: positive karmic force
karmic force that has taken on the essential nature of a karmic tendencykarmische Kraft, die die essentielle Natur angenommen hat, eine karmischen Tendenz zu seinA synonym for "karmic potential."Tib: sa-bon-gyi ngo-bor gyur-ba
karmic habitkarmische GewohnheitA synonym for "karmic latency."Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic impulsekarmischer ImpulsSee: karma
karmic impulse for further existencekarmischer Impuls, der eine weitere Existenz realisiertA karmic impulse that activates the karmic aftermath of throwing karma just before one dies, thus enabling the aftermath to ripen into a next rebirth. Abbreviated as "further existence."Tib: yang-srid sgrub-pa'i las
karmic latencykarmische LatenzA general term for all karmic aftermath -- namely, karmic potentials, karmic tendencies, and karmic constant habits.Tib: bag-chags
Skt: vasana
karmic legacykarmisches VermächtnisA general term for all karmic aftermath that ripen into a result intermittently -- namely, karmic potentials and karmic tendencies.Tib: sa-bon
Skt: bija
karmic potentialkarmisches PotenzialA general term for either positive or negative karmic potential. The phase of a karmic force that is a type of either constructive or destructive karmic aftermath, imputable as a noncongruent affecting variable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action and which ripens into a result intermittently. (1) In all Tibetan Buddhist systems except Vaibhashika and the Gelug Prasangika presentation, it follows immediately after the karmic action ceases. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika systems, this is the case only with mental karmic actions. In the case of physical and verbal karmic actions, it is the phase of karmic force that follows immediately after the nonrevealing form of the action ceases.
karmic tendencykarmische TendenzA type of karmic aftermath that is ethically neutral (unspecified as being either constructive or destructive), which is imputable on one's mental continuum after having committed a karmic action, and which ripens into a result only intermittently. Literally, a "karmic seed."Tib: sa-bon
Skt: bija
kayaKayaSee: Corpus of a Buddha
key pointsSchlüsselpunkteThe most important main points of a topic.Tib: gnad
kind mental synthesisgeistige ArtsyntheseThe type of phenomenon that a specific individual item is an instance of, such as "a table" imputed on a specific instance of something having legs and a flat surface. This is equivalent to the conventional identity of something.Tib: rigs-spyi
kindnessGüte / gütige HandlungA beneficial action that is of help to others.Tib: drin
kindness, rememberingGüte erinnernSee: remembering kindness
kindness, repayingGüte zurückgebenSee: repaying kindness
kind synthesisArtsyntheseSee: kind mental synthesis
kind universalArtenallgemeinesSee: kind mental synthesis
kleshaKleshaSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
knowing, seven ways ofWahrnehmen, sieben Arten derSee: seven ways of knowing
labeling, mentalBezeichnen, geistiges / Zuschreiben, geistiges/ ZuschreibungSee: mental labeling
laborederarbeitetA state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated by working oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.Tib: rtsol-bcas
lack of a hopeFehlen von HoffnungDie Abwesenheit oder das vollständige Fehlen von wahrhaft existenten Wirkungen irgendeines Phänomens; wörtlich: das Fehlen von wahrhaft existenten Wirkungen, die man sich von einem Phänomen erhoffen könnte.Tib: smon-pa med-pa
lack of an action’s affecting variablesFehlen der Einflussvariabeln einer HandlungThe voidness or total lack of true existence of the three affecting variables (three circles) involved with any action: an act to be done, an agent and an action that occurs.Tib: mngon-par ‘du-byed med-pa
lack of an impossible "soul" of all phenomenaNichtvorhander einer "Seele" aller PhänomeneThe total absence (voidness) of an impossible mode of existence that establishes the existence of a phenomenon by the power of something findable inside that phenomenon. Often translated by others as "selflessness of all phenomena" or "identitylessness of all phenomena."Tib: chos-kyi bdag-med
Skt: dharma-anatman
lack of an impossible soul of a personNichtvorhandensein einer "Seele" einer PersonThe total absence (voidness) of something findable inside the five aggregate factors of an individual being that is static, a partless monad, separable from the body and mind, and self-sufficiently knowable. Often translated by others as "selflessness of a person" or "identitylessness of a person."Tib: gang-zag-kyi bdag-med
Skt: pudgala-anatman
lack of a signFehlen von AnzeichenThe voidness or total lack of truly existent causes for any phenomenon; literally, the lack of any sign of truly existent causes from which a phenomenon arose.Tib: mtshan-ma med-pa
lack of true identityAbwesenheit wahrer IdentitätSee: lack of an impossible "soul"
lamrimLamrimSee: lam-rim
lam-rimLam-rimGraded path; graded stages of the path; graded stage of motivation; graded stages of pathway minds. A course of training in the Mahayana sutra teachings through which one makes progress by developing graded stages of motivation, which act as pathway minds leading to enlightenment.Tib: lam-rim
latencyLatenzSee: karmic latency
latency, karmicLatenz, karmischeSee: karmic latency
leap-aheadVorwärtssprungThe practice, and resultant stage of the practice, in dzogchen during which one "leaps ahead" from the attainment of break-through, and during which effulgent rigpa gives rises to and cognizes itself as a rainbow body. During this stage, effulgent rigpa becomes increasingly more prominent, while essence rigpa is also prominently maintained. This stage is equivalent to an accustoming pathway of mind (path of meditation).Tib: thod-rgal
leap-ahead stageStufe des VorwärtssprungesSee: leap-ahead
legacy, karmicVermächtnis, karmischesSee: karmic legacy
Lesser VehicleKleines FahrzeugSee: Hinayana
level, basisEbene der BasisSee: basis level
level, pathwayEbene des PfadesSee: pathway level
level, resultantWirkungsebeneThe level of a fully enlightened Buddha, attained as the result of Mahayana practice.Tib: 'bras-bu
libation, goldenTrankopfer, goldenesSee: golden libation
liberated beingbefreites WesenSee: arhat
liberationBefreiungThe state of an arhat; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of true suffering and the true origins of suffering, and thus a true stopping of samsara; the state in which one has attained a true stopping of the emotional obscurations.Tib: thar-pa
Skt: moksha
light diffusionLicht-StreuungAuch übersetzt als: heller werdend, rote ErscheinungTib: mched
limited awarenessbegrenztes GewahrseinSee: sem
limited beingbegrenztes WesenA being still having limited awareness. Any being other than a Buddha. Often rendered as "sentient being."Tib: sems-can
Skt: sattva
lineage, distantLinie, entfernteSee: distant lineage
lineage, nearLinie, naheSee: near lineage
link of affecting impulsesbeeinflussende ImpulseDas zweite Glied der zwölf Glieder abhängigen Entstehens. Es handelt sich um karmische Impulse, die zukünftige Leben beeinflussen werden; synonym mit "werfendem Karma". Einige Übersetzer geben diesen Fachbegriff mit dem Ausdruck "karmische Formationen" oder "karmische Gestaltungen" wieder. Tib: 'du-byed-kyi yan-lag
Skt: samskara-anga
link of loaded consciousness at the time of the causeaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt der UrsacheThe first phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the lifetime in which the karmic action producing it has occurred. The first part of the third link of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness.Tib: rgyu-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lag
link of loaded consciousness at the time of the resultaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt des ErgebnissesThe second phase of the third of the twelve links of dependent arising, the link of loaded consciousness. A mental continuum containing the karmic aftermath of throwing karma during the future lifetime produced as a result of that throwing karma.Tib: 'bras-dus-kyi rnam-shes-kyi yan-lag
link of nameable mental faculties with or without gross formbenennbare Geisteskräfte mit oder ohne feste FormThe fourth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The four mental aggregates -- consciousness, feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, and other affecting variables -- some of which are merely potentials -- together with the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena during a rebirth on the plane of sensory desires or the plane of ethereal forms, or without this aggregate during a rebirth on the plane of formless beings, during the period of time in the development of a foetus from the moment of conception up until the moment just before the cognitive faculties of seeing, hearing, and so on are differentiated.Tib: ming-dang gzugs-kyi yan-lag
Skt: namarupa-anga
link of stimulators of cognitiondas Glied der WahrnehmungsanregerThe fifth of the twelve links of dependent arising. The stimulators of cognition during the period of time in the development of a fetus from when the six different stimulators of cognition are differentiated up until but just before the aggregate of distinguishing is differentiated.Tib: skye-mched-kyi yan-lag
Skt: ayatana-anga
listenerHörerSee: shravaka
listeningZuhörenAt the time when the Buddhist teachings were only available in oral form, hearing the recitation of the teachings. Nowadays, also reading the teachings. By means of listening to the teachings, one learns about them.Tib: thos-pa
Skt: shruta
loaded consciousnessaufgeladenes BewusstseinSee: link of loaded consciousness
loaded consciousness at the time of the cause, link ofaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt der UrsacheSee: link of loaded consciousness at the time of the cause
loaded consciousness at the time of the result, link ofaufgeladenes Bewusstsein zum Zeitpunkt des ErgebnissesSee: link of loaded consciousness at the time of the result
lojongLojongSee: attitude-trainingTib: blo-sbyong
longdeyLongdeSee: open space divisionTib: klong-sde
longing desiresehnsüchtiges VerlangensThe disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one does not possess and wishes to obtain it.Tib: 'dod-chags
Skt: raga
loveLiebe(1) The wish for someone to be happy and to have the causes for happiness. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the ninth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude to work to bring about the welfare and happiness of others, even when doing so requires self-sacrifice.Tib: byams-pa
Skt: maitri
love, caringLiebe, fürsorglicheSee: love
love, cherishing concernedLiebe, sich liebevoll kümmerndeSee: cherishing concerned love
love, greatLiebe, großeSee: great love
love, heartwarmingLiebe, herzerwärmendeSee: heartwarming love
loving-kindnessLiebevolle GüteThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) with which one not only wishes others to be happy and to have the causes for happiness, but with which one also acts towards others in a helpful manner.Tib: brtse-ba
lucidityLichtheitA quality of a well-concentrated mind with which the mind remains fresh in each moment.Tib: dvangs
MadhyamakaMadhyamakaA Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert the true existence of anything. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.Tib: dbu-ma
Skt: madhyamaka
mahamudraMahamudraLiterally, "the great seal," a Mahayana meditation practice that focuses on the nature of the mind.Tib: phyag-rgya chen-po
Skt: mahamudra
mahamudra, essenceMahamudra, Essenz-See: essence mahamudra
mahamudra, mantraMahamudra, Mantra-See: mantra mahamudra
mahamudra, pathwayMahamudra, Pfad-See: pathway mahamudra
mahamudra, sutraMahamudra, Sutra-See: sutra mahamudra
MahayanaMahayanaLiterally, a "Vast Vehicle of Mind" - levels or states of mind that, with a vast motivation of bodhichitta, employ vast methods for reach the vast goal of enlightenment. Some translators render the term as "Greater Vehicle."Tib: theg-chen
Skt: mahayana
Mahayana masterMahayana-MeisterA spiritual mentor in whose presence disciples take bodhisattva vows. In a broader sense, a spiritual mentor whose teachings on compassion and bodhichitta lead disciples to develop aspiring and engaged bodhichittas, and then to take bodhisattva vows.
mahayogaMahayogaWithin the Nyingma classification scheme of nine vehicles of mind, the class of tantra leading to dzogchen practice but with the main emphasis and detail on generation stage practice.Tib: ma-ha yo-ga
making ariseEntstehenlassenThe mental activity of appearance-making, which causes a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) to occur as an object of cognition in a moment of a mental continuum. Also translated as: "giving rise to."
mandalaMandalaIn general, a round symbol used to represent a meaning. Most often used to represent a world system.Tib: dkyil- 'khor
Skt: mandala
mandala, bodyMandala, Körper-See: body mandala
mandala, clothMandala, Stoff-See: cloth mandala
mandala, innerMandala, inneresSee: inner mandala
mandala, outerMandala, äußeresSee: outer mandala
mandala, powdered sandMandala aus gestreutem SandSee: powdered sand mandala
mandala, speechMandala der RedeSee: speech mandala
mandala, supportedMandala, unterstützesSee: supported mandala
mandala, supportingMandala, unterstützendesSee: supporting mandala
mandala, three-dimensionalMandala, dreidimensionalesSee: three-dimensional mandala
manifest cognitionmanifeste WahrnehmungA cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, both to the person and to the consciousness of the manifest cognition. Both the person and the manifest consciousness cognitively take it _ both cognize or "know" it. See also: subliminal cognition.Tib: shes-pa mngon-gyur-ba
man-made resultdurch Menschenhand geschaffene FolgenA result that arises as the direct result of the effort of a limited being, but which does not ripen from karma.Tib: skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
Skt: purushakaraphalam
man-made result that is producedvon Menschhand geschaffene Wirkung, die künstlich erzeugt wurdeSomething material, such as a vase, a bruise, or a profit, that arises from someone's effort or actions, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.Tib: bskyed-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
mantraMantraSets of syllables and, often, additional Sanskrit words and phrases, all of which represent enlightening speech and which, when repeated, protect the mind from destructive states. While repeating the mantras of a Buddha-figure, one imagines having the abilities to communicate perfectly to everyone the complete means for eliminating suffering and reaching enlightenment. Mantras shape the breath, and consequently the subtle energy-winds, enabling one to bring the winds under control for use in meditation practice. Tib: sngags
Skt: mantra
mantra-gatheringMantra-Ansammlung, Mantra-SammlungA tantric ritual for giving disciples confidence in the accuracy of a mantra, in which the vowels and consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet are written with colored powder in a grid on the surface of a metal mirror and the tantric master reads out, one by one, the grid location of the consonant and vowel for each syllable of the main mantra. After each specification of the consonant and vowel of a syllable, an assistant takes some colored powder from the mirror and uses it to write the syllable on the surface of another metal mirror.Tib: sngags-btus
mantra mahamudraMantra-MahamudraMeditations on the nature of the mind with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.Tib: sngags-kyi phyag-chen
me, solidIch, solidesSee: solid "me"
meaning, explicit suggestiveBedeutung, explizit hinweisendeSee: explicit suggestive meaning
meaning, implicit suggestedBedeutung, implizit hingewieseneSee: implicit suggested meaning
meaning/object categoryBedeutungs-Kategorie /Objekt-KategorieThe conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refers. These items are also what the audio category signifies (means).Tib: don-spyi
meaning categorybedeutungsbezogene KategorieThe conceptual category into which fit all significances (meanings) of an audio category.Tib: don-spyi
meaning universalbedeutungsbezogenes AllgemeinesSee: meaning category
means, appropriateMittel, angebrachtesSee: appropriate means
meditationMeditationThe repeated practice of generating and focusing on a beneficial state of mind in order to build it up as a habit.Tib: sgom
Skt: bhavana
meditation, discerningMeditation, klar erkennendeSee: discerning meditation
meditation, stabilizingMeditation, stabilisierende oder verankerndeSee: stabilizing meditation
meditation trainerMeditationstrainerA teacher who instructs one in the mechanics of meditation, such as the correct posture.
meditative equipoisemeditative AusgewogenheitSee: total absorption
melodic verseswohlklingende VerseOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Verses that Buddha uttered during the course of and at the conclusion of his sutras. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of interpretable meaning.Tib: dbyangs-kyis bsnyad-pa
Skt: geya
mental aspectgeistiges ErscheinungsbildA nonstatic mental hologram, asserted by all Indian Buddhist tenet systems other than Vaibhashika, that is a likeness of an object of cognition, and which both conceptual and nonconceptual mental activity produces in order to cognize the object; the "mental shape" of the appearing object of a cognition. (1) According to Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika, they are fully transparent so that through them, one directly cognizes external objects. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are opaque and thus allow only indirect cognition of external objects.Tib: rnam-pa
Skt: akara
mental bodygeistiger KörperThe type of body that arhats in pure lands have. See: forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind.Tib: yid-lus
mental consciousnessgeistiges BewusstseinA primary consciousness that can take any existent phenomenon as its object and which relies on merely the previous moment of cognition as its dominating condition and not on any physical sensors.Tib: yid-kyi rnam-shes
Skt: manovijnana
mental constancygeistige BeständigkeitSee: mental stability
mental constructgeistige KonstrukteSee: mental fabrication
mental continuumgeistiges KontinuumThe stream of continuity of mental activity (mind, awareness) of an individual being, which has no beginning, which continues even into Buddhahood, and, according to Mahayana, has no end. According to the Hinayana tenets, it comes to an end when an arhat or Buddha dies at the end of the lifetime in which the person attains liberation or enlightenment. Also called a "mind-stream."Tib: sems-rgyud
Skt: santana
mental derivativegeistige Ableitung(A) In Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, a fully transparent appearing object, which is a mental aspect, similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity, through which that external entity is directly cognized also as an appearing object of the cognition. (2) In conceptual cognition, a static conceptual category that is mentally constructed from all individual objective entities that fit into it and thus is a semitransparent, static, metaphysical entity. It is the appearing object through which a fully transparent mental representation of a specific objective entity is cognized. (B) In non-Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, the opaque, directly cognized appearing object, which is a mental aspect similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity that the cognition indirectly cognizes as its focal object, but not as an additional appearing object. (2) In conceptual cognition, a conceptually isolated item, an opaque metaphysical entity that stands for the mentally synthesized commonsense object and category in the cognition and which is the appearing object of the cognition.Tib: gzugs-bsnyan
Skt: pratibimba
mental dullnessgeistige TrägheitA mental factor (subsidiary awareness) faulting the appearance-making of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Some translators render the term as "sinking."Tib: bying-ba
mental exclusionsgeistiges AusschließenSee: mental exclusions of something else
mental exclusions of something elsegeistiger Ausschluss von etwas anderemStatic implicative negation phenomena, including audio categories, meaning/object categories, and conceptually isolated items.Tib: blo'i gzhan-sel
mental fabricationgeistige FabrikationAn appearance of truly established existence that mental activity in a conceptual cognition produces and projects due to the habits of grasping for truly established existence.Tib: spros-pa
Skt: prapanca
mental factorGeistesfaktorSee: subsidiary awareness
mental faculties, nameable, with or without gross formGeisteskräfte, benennbare, mit oder ohne feste FormSee: nameable mental faculties with or without gross form
mental fixationgeistiges FixierenThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of maintaining mental placement on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Also called "mentally fixating" and "concentration," it accompanies all cognitions and varies in intensity from very weak to very strong. When perfected, it becomes "absorbed concentration."Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
mental flightinessgeistige FlatterhaftigkeitSee: flightiness of mind
mental holdgeistiges FesthaltenThe aspect of a cognition that describes the level of strength of maintenance of attention on the focal object, without letting go of it. Also translated as "mental glue," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mindfulness and has two aspects: mental abiding and appearance-making.Tib: 'dzin-cha
mental impulsegeistiger ImpulsSee: karma
mental labelinggeistiges Bezeichnen / geistiges Zuschreiben"Geistige Bezeichnen" (Benennen) oder "geistiges Zuschreiben" bezeichnet den Vorgang, bei dem einer Grundlage (wie z.B.: vier Beinen und einem sich darauf befindlichem flachen Brett), mittels der konzeptuellen Wahrnehmung, eine Audiokategorie (wie z.B. das Wort oder der Name "Tisch") oder die Bedeutung / Objekt-Kategorie (wie z.B. "Tisch" als ein individuelles Objekt) zugeschrieben wird. Tib: ming 'dogs-pa
mentally constructed synthesisgeistig konstruierte SyntheseSee: mental synthesis
mentally fixatinggeistig FixierenSee: mental fixation
mental placementPlatzierung des GeistesSee: mental abiding
mental quiescencegeistige RuheSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mental reflectiongeistige Spiegelung / geistige WiederspiegelungSee: mental derivative
mental representationgeistige Darstellung / geistige RepräsentationSomething that appears in a conceptual cognition. (1) In Gelug, a static, fully transparent conceptually isolated item through which the cognition cognizes the external object that the hologram resembles; equivalent to a mental aspect. (2) In non-Gelug, a static, partially transparent mentally synthesized commonsense object and category through which the cognition cognizes a conceptually isolated item (a mental aspect) that stands for a commonsense object.Tib: snang-ba
mental stabilitygeistige StabilitätSingle-pointed placement of the mind on any constructive focal object, without any mental wandering -- a stable state of mind that is not only free of flightiness and dullness, but is also not distracted by any disturbing emotion of the plane of sensory desires. In Mahayana, when conjoined with bodhichitta, a far-reaching attitude. Some translators render the term as "concentration."Tib: bsam-gtan
Skt: dhyana
mental synthesisgeistige SyntheseThe imputation of a conceptual category in which the bases for imputation are the individual sensibilia of a commonsense object, the parts of any of the sensibilia of a commonsense object, the moments in the continuum of a commonsense object, or items sharing a common defining characteristic. Synonymous with "conceptual category" and "category."Tib: spyi
mental synthesis, collectiongeistige SammelsyntheseSee: collection mental synthesis
mental synthesis, kindgeistige ArtsyntheseSee: kind mental synthesis
mental synthesis, objectgeistige ObjektsyntheseSee: object mental synthesis
mental urgegeistiger Drang / geistiger AntriebThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mental activity to face an object or to go in its direction. In general, it moves a mental continuum to cognitively take an object. It is equivalent to mental karma and, according to Sautrantika, Chittamatra, Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, and the non-Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka schools, it is equivalent to physical and verbal karmas as well.Tib: sems-pa
Skt: cetana
mental wanderinggeistige Abschweifung / AbschweifungA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mind to lose concentration and to go on and on, uncontrollably from one object to another, due to any reason.Tib: rnam-g.yeng
mentor, spiritualMentor, spirituellerSee: spiritual mentor
merebloß / lediglichOnly this, without anything more.Tib: tsam
mere equanimitybloßer GleichmutAn equal attitude toward everyone that is devoid of attachment to loved ones, repulsion from enemies, and indifference toward strangers, developed in common in both Hinayana and Mahayana.Tib: btang-snyoms tsam
merely aspiring bodhichittalediglich anstrebendes BodhichittaSee: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta
merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichittalediglich anstrebender Zustand des anstrebenden BodhichittaThe initial state of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own future enlightenment and merely has the intention to attain it and to benefit all beings by means of it. Also called: the mere state of aspiring bodhichitta.Tib: smon-sems smon-pa-tsam
mere taking of safe directionbloßes Einschlagen der sicheren RichtungSynonymous with "causal taking of safe direction."Tib: skyab-'gro tsam-pa-ba
meritVerdienstSee: positive karmic force
metaphysical entitiesmetaphysische EntitätenIn the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their being merely imputed by conceptual cognition and which are superficial (relative, conventional) true phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all static phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include all static phenomena other than voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug system, they are the appearing objects of only conceptual cognitions, although they are not the actual cognitive appearances in those cognitions. They may be validly cognized not only by valid conceptual cognition, but also implicitly by valid nonconceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid conceptual cognition. Also translated as "generally characterized phenomena."Tib: spyi-mtshan
Skt: samanyalakshana
metered versesmetrische VerseTwo-to-six-lined verses composed by Buddha. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: tshigs-su bcad-pa
Skt: gatha
method of actualizationMethode der RealisierungSee: sadhana
mindGeistThe cognitive activity of merely giving rise to an appearance or mental hologram of something knowable and cognitively engaging with it.Tib: sems
Skt: chitta
mind, exceptionally perceptive state ofGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher WahrnehmungsfähigkeitSee: exceptionally perceptive state of mind
mind, noncontrivingGeist, nicht erfindenderSee: noncontriving mind
mind, primordialGeist, ursprünglicherSee: primordial mind
mind, serenely stilled and settledGeist, gelassen beruhigter und zur Ruhe gekommenerSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mind, stilled and settled state ofGeisteszustand, still gewordener und zur Ruhe gekommenerSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mind, subtlesubtile geistige AktivitätSee: subtle mind
mind, subtlestgeistige Aktivität, subtilsteSee: clear light awareness
mindfulnessVergegenwärtigung(1) The subsidiary awareness (mental factor), similar to a mental glue, that keeps a mental hold on a cognitive object, so that it is not lost. (2) The recollection of something, with which the mind keeps a mental hold on a mental hologram that resembles and represents something previously cognized. The term is often rendered as "memory" or "remembering," but has nothing to do with the recording or storage of mental information.Tib: dran-pa
Skt: smrti
mind-itselfGeist selbst, derIn the Kagyu and Nyingma systems, the deepest nature of the mind.Tib: sems-nyid
mind-streamGeistesstromSee: mental continuum
mind-trainingGeistestrainingSee: attitude-training
miraculous emanationswundersame Emanation(1) In mahamudra and dzogchen texts, a descriptive synonym for the mental aspects (mental appearances, mental holograms) that are produced by the clarity aspect of the mind and which are directly cognized by conceptual or nonconceptual cognition. (2) A synonym for extraphysical emanations.Tib: rnam-'phrul
Skt: vikurvana
miraculous powerswundersame KräfteSee: extraphysical emanations
mirror-like deep awarenessspiegelgleiches tiefes GewahrseinOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that takes in all the information about an object of cognition. Also called: deep awareness that is like a mirror.Tib: me-long lta-bu'i ye-shes
miserable phenomenaleidvolle PhänomeneOne of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.Tib: sdug-bsngal-ba
Skt: du:kha (duhkha)
mixed with confusionmit Verwirrung verbundenSee: tainted
model clear light mindVorbild eines Geistes des klaren LichtsDas Vorbild eines Geistes des klaren Lichts ist eine subtile Ebene des Bewusstseins, die eine glückselige konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von Leerheit besitzt, die erlangt wird, wenn die subtilen Energie-Winde zum Teil im zentralen Kanal aufgelöst worden sind. Der Begriff wird auch als "annähernder Geist des klaren Lichts" übersetzt. Tib: dpe'i 'od-gsal
Modest Vehiclebescheidenes FahrzeugSee: Hinayana
Modest Vehicle of Mindbescheidenes Fahrzeug des GeistesSee: Hinayana
moldingsDeckenfries(on walls or ceilings)
momentMomentThe smallest unit of time.Tib: skad-cig
Skt: kshana
monadMonadeAn undifferentiated, partless whole, either the size of an atom or the size of the universe, asserted by non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy as descriptive of the atman, the "soul" of a person.Tib: gcig
monastic communityMönchsgemeinschaftSee: Sangha
monastic sanghamonastischer Sangha / Sangha der MöncheSee: Sangha
moral self-dignitymoralische SelbstwürdeAs defined by Asanga, the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how one's actions reflect on oneself.Tib: ngo-tsha shes-pa
Skt: hri
moral self-dignity, no sense ofkein Gefühl von moralischer SelbstwürdeSee: no moral self-dignity
mother-awarenessMutterThe recognition of all beings as having at some time been one's mother. The first of the seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.Tib: mar-shes
motivating aimMotivationSynonymous with intention. See: intention.Tib: kun-slong
motivating aim, causalMotivation, ursächlicheSee: causal motivating aim
motivating mental frameworkmotivierender geistiger RahmenA state of mind that accompanies a karmic urge or impulse and which is a cluster of three mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): distinguishing an object on which to focus the action, the motivating aim of what one intends to do with or to that object, and a motivating emotion or attitude. Tib: bsam-pa
motivationMotivationWhen used in Western languages, a state of mind that entails two mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): a motivating aim and a motivating emotion. A motivating aim is the mental factor of an intention – the intention to reach a certain goal for a certain purpose. A motivating emotion is the mental factor of the positive or negative emotion, such as love and compassion, or jealousy and greed, which accompanies the intention and moves one to attain that goal.
musician, heavenlyMusiker, himmlischeSee: those who sustain themselves on fragrances
mutually exclusivesich gegenseitig ausschließendTwo sets are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common locus -- neither contains a member that also belongs to the other. Also translated as "contradictory."Tib: 'gal-ba
naivetyNaivitätEine Unterkategorie des Gewahrseins. Das Gewahrsein von verhaltensbedingter Ursache und Wirkung oder das Gewahrsein der Realität, das lediglich destruktive Geisteszustände oder Verhaltensweisen begleitet. Eine der drei giftigen Emotionen. Tib: gti-mug
Skt: moha
nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, link ofbenennbare Geisteskräfte mit oder ohne feste FormSee: nameable mental faculties with or without gross form
narratives, ancientErzählungen aus alter ZeitSee: ancient narratives
narratives, ethicalErzählungen, ethischeSee: ethical narratives
natal sourceUrsprungsquelle // GeburtsquelleThat which gives rise to something, such as a womb for a baby or an oven for a loaf of bread.Tib: rdzas
Skt: dravya
natural inseparabilitynatürliche UntrennbarkeitThe relationship between two items, in which when one is the case or is occurring, then automatically so is the other.Tib: rang-bzhin dbyer-med
naturally abiding family-traitsnatürlich andauernde Familieneigenschaften(1) In the Chittamatra system, the seeds that, without beginning, are imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain one of the three purified states. (2) In the Madhyamaka systems, the voidnesses imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being.Tib: rang-bzhin gnas-rigs
naturally destructive uncommendable actionnatürlicherweise destruktive nicht lobenswerte HandlungSee: naturally uncommendable action
naturally inseparable aspectsnatürlich untrennbare AspekteSee: natural inseparability
naturally uncommendable actionnatürlicherweise nicht lobenswerte HandlungenA negative action which, because it is destructive by nature, ripens into the experience of suffering by anyone who commits it.Tib: rang-bzhin-gyi kha-na ma-tho-ba
natural nirvananatürliches NirvanaEquivalent to voidness (emptiness), the natural state of all phenomena being released from impossible ways of existing. Asserted only by the Mahayana tenet systems.Tib: rang-bzhin-gyi mya-ngan 'das
nature, actualNatur, tatsächlicheSee: actual nature
nature, essentialNatur, essentielleSee: essential nature
nature, functionalNatur, funktionelleSee: functional nature
Nature BodyNatur-KörperSee: Corpus of Essential Nature
near lineagenahe LinieThe lineage of a teaching that did not begin with Buddha himself, but began with an Indian or Tibetan master, usually through a pure vision.Tib: nye-brgyud
negatingly known phenomenonnegierend erkanntes Phänomen / durch Negierung erkanntes PhänomenSee: negation phenomenon
negationNegierungSee: negation phenomenon
negation phenomenonNegierungs-PhänomenAn item, or a truth about an item, defined in terms of the exclusion of something else, in which an object to be negated is explicitly precluded by the conceptual cognition that cognizes the phenomenon. Also translated as: "negation," "nullification," "refutation."Tib: dgag-pa
negation phenomenon, implicativeNegierungs-Phänomen, implizierendesSee: implicative negation phenomenon
negation phenomenon, nonimplicativeNegierungs-Phänomen, nichtimplizierendesSee: nonimplicative negation phenomenon
negative forcenegative KraftSee: negative karmic force
negative karmic forcenegative karmische KraftDie Art von karmischer Kraft die mit einer destruktiven Handlung verbunden ist und mit kurzen Unterbrechungen als Unzufriedenheit und als Leiden unter Problemen und Schmerz heranreift. Die negative karmische Kraft wird auch als "negatives karmisches Potenzial" bezeichnet. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff als "Sünde". Siehe: karmische Kraft. Tib: sdig-pa
Skt: papa
negative potentialnegatives PotenzialSee: negative karmic force
network of deep awarenessNetzwerk des tiefen GewahrseinsA constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the moments of conceptual or nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths or of voidness, on the mental continuum of a limited being, when followed by a bodhichitta dedication, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Dharmakaya of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of deep awareness." Some translators render the term as "collection of wisdom" or "collection of insight."Tib: ye-shes-kyi tshogs
Skt: jnanasambhara
network of positive forceNetzwerk positiver KraftA constructive noncongruent affecting variable imputable on the positive force on the mental continuum of a limited being, when dedicated with bodhichitta, and which functions as the obtaining cause for the Form Corpus of a Buddha. Also called: "bountiful store of positive force." Some translators render the term as "collection of merit."Tib: bsod-nams-kyi tshogs
Skt: punyasambhara
neutral feelingneutrales Gefühl / neutrale EmpfindungThat feeling which, when it arises, one neither wants to be parted from it, nor, when it stops, one wishes to meet it again.Tib: btang-snyoms
Skt: upeksha
ngondroNgöndroSee: preliminary practices
NirmanakayaNirmanakayaSee: Corpus of Emanations
nirvanaNirvanaAn extinguished state of release -- either an acquired one, in which all samsaric sufferings and their causes have been removed, or a naturally occurring one, in which all stains of impossible existence have always been removed. The Tibetan term means, literally, "a state beyond sorrow."Tib: mya-ngan-'das
Skt: nirvana
nirvana, acquiredNirvana, erlangtesSee: acquired nirvana
nirvana, naturalNirvana, natürlichesSee: natural nirvana
nirvana, nonabidingnichtverweilendes NirvanaSee: nonabiding nirvana
nirvana without residueNirvana ohne Überrest(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats, or a Buddha, attains immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. No longer having a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuum extinguishes, like a spent candle. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the state that shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhats attain immediately upon their death from the lifetime in which they attain nirvana with residue. Although they no longer have a residue of tainted aggregates left, their mental continuums now go on in a purified form. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state during total absorption on voidness, when there is no appearance-making of truly established existence. In reference to Buddhas, their Deep Awareness Dharmakayas.Tib: lhag-med mya-ngan 'das
Skt: nirupadhishesha-nirvana
nirvana with residueNirvana mit Überrest(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the state of nirvana that a shravaka or pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, attains during his lifetime and which lasts only so long as the person is alive. This is so called because the person still has left a residue of tainted aggregates. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems other than Gelug Prasangika, the same as asserted by the Hinayana systems, but in reference only to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats. (3) According to Gelug Prasangika, in reference to shravaka and pratyekabuddha arhats, their state either during subsequent attainment (post-meditation) periods, when meditating on something other than voidness, or when not meditating at all. In reference to Buddhas, their Corpuses of Form.Tib: lhag-bcas-kyi mya-ngan 'das
Skt: sopadhishesha-nirvana
noble oneEdle, derSee: arya
no-longer-happeningNicht-Länger-StattfindenThe past occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon. Also translated as "passed-happening."Tib: 'das-pa
nominal Buddha Gemnominelles Buddhajuwel / Buddhajuwel dem Namen nachA painting or statue of a Buddha, representing a Buddha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to an actual Buddha Gem.Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
nominal Dharma Gemnominelles Darmajuwel / Dharmajuwel dem Namen nachPrinted Dharma texts, representing the Dharma that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Dharma Gem.Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
nominal gemnominelles Juwel / Juwel dem Namen nachRepresentations of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems, which themselves are not actual sources of safe direction, but which serve as a basis for showing respect to them.Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i dkon-mchog
nominal Sangha Gemnominelles SanghajuwelFour or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic sangha (full or novice monks or nuns), representing the Sangha that is an actual source of safe direction and serving as a basis for showing respect to the actual Sangha Gem. Tib: brdar-btags-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
nonabiding nirvananichtverweilendes Nirvana(1) According to the Hinayana tenet systems, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting only so long as he is alive. In this state, a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue. (2) According to the Mahayana tenet systems, including Gelug Prasangika, the static unchanging state of full enlightenment attained by a Buddha and lasting forever, in which a Buddha does not abide in either the extreme of continued samsaric suffering or in the extreme of the passivity of a Hinayana arhat's nirvana without residue.Tib: mi-gnas-pa'i mya-ngan 'das
Skt: apratisthita-nirvana
nonaffirming negationnichtbestätigende NegierungSee: nonimplicative negation phenomenon
non-angerNicht-ÄrgerSee: imperturbability
nonattachmentNicht-AnhaftungSee: detachment
non-Buddhist extremistnicht-budhhistischer ExtremistA follower of a non-Buddhist Indian school of philosophy that asserts either an eternalist position of an unchanging static soul (atman) of a person or a nihilist position that denies the continuity of a person after death and/or the workings of karmic cause and effect.Tib: mu-stegs-pa
Skt: tirthika
nonconceptuailtyNichtkonzeptualitätA state of mind that cognizes an object without the filter of a concept, idea, category, or universal.
nonconceptual cognitionnichtkonzeptuelle WahrnehmungCognition of an object, without that cognition being through the medium of a universal, a category, or a mental label.Tib: rtog-med shes-pa
noncongruentnichtkongruentDer Begriff "nichtkongruent" beschreibt die Beziehung zwischen nichtstatischen Komponenten [Bestandteile] einer Wahrnehmung, in der zwei oder mehr dieser Komponenten fünf Dinge nicht gemeinsam haben. Tib: mtshungs-ldan med-pa
noncongruent affecting variablenichtkongruente beeinflussende VariableDer Begriff "nichkongruente beeinflussende Variable" bezeichnet eine von drei Arten nichtstatischer Phänomene - und zwar jener nichtstatischer Phänomene die mit dem Hauptbewusstsein und den Arten von Nebengewahrsein der Wahrnehmung, der sie erscheinen, keine fünf Dinge gemeinsam haben und die weder Formen physischer Phänomene sind noch Weisen, in denen man sich etwas gewahr ist [sich einer Sache gewahr zu sein]. Für eine ausführliche Erklärung vergleichen Sie bitte den Artikel: Kongruente und nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablen.Tib: ldan-min 'du-byed
nondenumerable ultimate phenomenonNicht (mit Worten) fassbares letztendliches PhänomenVoidnesses that are validly cognized nonconceptually. They are "nondenumerable" in the sense that they cannot be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts, thus they are voidnesses that are "beyond words and beyond concepts."Tib: rnam-grangs ma-yin-pa'I don-dam
nondetermining cognitionunentschiedene WahrnehmungA cognition of an object, in which (a) the involved object is an objective entity, (b) a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the involved object arises, but (c) there is no ascertainment (certainty, decisiveness) of what the involved object is or that the cognition of it has occurred. Also called: inattentive cognition.Tib: snang-la ma-nges-pa
nondualnichtdual(1) In Gelug Prasangika, the absence (the voidness) of a manner of existence that does not correspond to the actual manner in which everything exists. (2) In non-Gelug Madhyamaka, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as each having truly established existence, independently of each other. (3) In Chittamatra, within a cognition, the absence (the voidness) of a consciousness and its object as deriving from different natal sources.Tib: gnyis-med
nondual tantranichtduales TantraA division of anuttarayoga tantra, specified only in the non-Gelug schools, in which there is equal emphasis on practices for generating the physical bodies of a Buddha and practices for generating the mind of a Buddha.Tib: gnyis-med rgyud
nonexistent phenomenonnicht existierendes PhänomenSee: nonexistents
nonexistentsNichtexistierendeThings that cannot be validly known.Tib: med-pa
nonfallaciousnichttrügerisch / untrügerischNot incorrect.Tib: mi-bslu-ba
nonfunctional phenomenonnichtwirksames Phänomen / unwirksames Phänomen(1) An validly knowable, existent object that does not perform a function -- in other words, it does not produce a result -- namely, a static phenomenon. (2) A nonexistent object, such as an impossible way of existing.Tib: dngos-med
nonimplicative negation phenomenonnichtimplizierendes Negierungs-PhänomenAn exclusion of something else in which, after the sounds of the words that exclude the object to be negated have negated that object, they do not leave behind in their wake, explicitly or implicitly, something else. Some translators render the term as a "nonaffirming negation." Tib: med-dgag
nonrevealing formnichtoffenbarende FormA subtle form of physical phenomenon, asserted only by the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that is caused by a strong constructive or destructive motivation, but which does not show ("reveal") that motivation. Such a phenomenon is part of a mental continuum, but is not felt on that continuum; it does not degenerate from moment to moment; it can only be an object of mental cognition; and it must be either constructive or destructive. Examples are vows and one aspect of karmic impulses.Tib: rnam-par rig-byed ma-yin-pa'i gzugs
Skt: avijnaptirupa
nonstaticnichtstatischSee: nonstatic phenomenon
nonstatic abstractionnichtstatische AbstraktionSee: noncongruent affecting variable
nonstaticnessNichtstatischseinNichtstatischsein bezeichnet die nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variable, die sich unter dem Einfluss von Ursachen und Umständen von Augenblick zu Augenblick verändert. Manchmal wird der Begriff als "Unbeständigkeit" oder "Vergänglichkeit" übersetzt. Tib: mi-rtag-pa
Skt: anitya
nonstatic phenomenonnichtstatisches PhänomenNichtstatische Phänomene sind Phänomene, die von Uraschen und Bedingungen beeinflusst und getragen werden und die sich folglich von Augenblick zu Augenblick verändern. Zudem erzeugen nichtstatische Phänomene Wirkungen. Ihre Kontinuitätsströme haben möglicherweise einen Anfang, aber kein Ende, oder sie haben einen Anfang und kein Ende, oder sie haben keinen Anfang, aber ein Ende, oder sie haben kein Anfang und kein Ende. Einige Übersetzer übertragen den Begriff mit "vergängliche Phänomene" oder "unbeständige Phänomene".Tib: mi-rtag-pa
Skt: anitya
nonupsettingnichtaufregendA way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with an arya's total absorption on voidness.Tib: zang-zing med-pa
nonvirtuousnichttugendhaftSee: destructive
normal awarenessnormales GewahrseinIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for clear light mind, which is "normal" in the sense that it is the primordial, natural state that has always been the case.Tib: tha-mal-gyi shes-pa
no sense of moral self-dignitymoralische Selbstwürde, kein Gefühl vonSee: no moral self-dignityTib: ngo-tsha med-pa
not-yet-happeningNoch-nicht-StattfindenThe future occurrence of something. According to Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a static nonimplicative negation phenomenon; according to Gelug Prasangika, a nonstatic implicative negation phenomenon.Tib: ma-'ong-pa
nullificationNegierungSee: negation phenomenon
NyingmaNyingmaThe Old Translation Period tradition of Tibetan Buddhism deriving from Guru Rinpoche, Padmasambhava.Tib: rNying-ma
object, appearingObjekt, erscheinendesSee: appearing object
object, conceptualizedObjekt, konzeptionell erfasstesSee: conceptualized object
object, focalObjekt der AusrichtungSee: focal object
object, involvedObjekt, beteiligtesSee: involved object
object, specificObjekt, spezifischesSee: specific object
object categoryObjekt-KategorieThe conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refer.Tib: don-spyi
object clear lightobjekthaftes klares LichtVoidness as the object cognized by clear light awareness.Tib: yul-gyi 'od-gsal
objective conditionobjektive BedingungSee: focal condition
objective entitiesobjektive EntitätIn the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their not being merely imputed by conceptual cognition. They include all nonstatic phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all nonstatic phenomena and are deepest true phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include not only all nonstatic superficial true phenomena, but also the static deepest true phenomena of voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug tradition, the appearing objects of only valid nonconceptual cognitions, although they are what actually appears and can be validly cognized in both valid nonconceptual and conceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid nonconceptual cognition. Also translated as "individually characterized phenomena."Tib: rang-mtshan
Skt: svalakshana
object mental synthesisgeistige Objektsynthese(1) The conceptual category of a commonsense object, such as a table, used when thinking of, verbalizing, imagining (visualizing), or remembering a commonsense object. (2) A specific commonsense object as a conceptual category into which fit all moments of anyone's mental or sensory cognition of any amount of parts of any of its sensibilia. Tib: don-spyi
objects taken and minds that take themGeist, der sie aufnimmt / der sie im Geist hältSee: consciousness that takes objects and objects taken by consciousness
objects that indicate a safe directionObjekte, die eine sichere Richtung weisenA general term for the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.Tib: skyabs-yul
object synthesisObjektsyntheseSee: object mental synthesis
object universalObjekt-AllgemeinesSee: object mental synthesis
obscurationSchleierA fleeting stain that temporarily "covers" or accompanies mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing objects without suffering or other limitations. Some translators render the term as "obstacle."Tib: sgrib
Skt: avarana
obscurations, emotionalSchleier, emotionaleSee: emotional obscurations
obscurations, fiveSchleier, fünfSee: five obscurations
obscurations about all knowablesSchleier über alles, was man kennen kannSee: cognitive obscurations
obscurations of not knowingSchleier des Nicht-WissensMental blocks that come from not knowing the Dharma in general or specifically not knowing about the emotional and cognitive obscurations. These mental blocks prevent the attainment of liberation and enlightenment.Tib: mi-shes sgrib
obscurations preventing liberationSchleier, die die Befreiung verhindernSee: emotional obscurations
obscurations preventing omniscienceSchleier, die die Allwissenheit verhindernSee: cognitive obscurations
obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudesSchleier in Form von störenden Emotionen und GeisteshaltungenSee: emotional obscurations
obscure phenomenonverschleiertes PhänomenA validly knowable phenomenon that cannot be apprehended through the force of personal experience, but can be apprehended through the force of a line of reasoning.Tib: lkog-gyur
obstacles, fiveHindernisse, fünfSee: five obscurations
obtainerHerbeiführerA set of four disturbing emotions and disturbing attitudes: (1) obtainer desire, (2) an obtainer deluded outlook, (3) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (4) asserting one's identity, and which, when occurring at the time of death, constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.Tib: len-pa
Skt: upadana
obtainer attitudeherbeiführende GeisteshaltungA general term coined to refer to the last three "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) an obtainer deluded outlook, (2) holding deluded morality or conduct as supreme, and (3) asserting one's identity.
obtainer deluded outlookherbeiführende verblendete AuffassungA set of three disturbing deluded outlooks on life that constitute the second of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising: (1) a distorted outlook, (2) an extreme outlook, (3) holding a deluded outlook as supreme.Tib: lta-ba nye-bar len-pa
obtainer desireherbeiführendes BegehrenThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of longing desire specifically for some desirable sensory object on the plane of sensory desires. See: longing desire. Equivalent to the obtainer emotion, it is the first of the four "obtainers" that constitute the ninth link of dependent arising.Tib: 'dod-pa nye-bar len-pa
obtainer emotionherbeiführende EmotionEquivalent to obtainer desire.
obtaining aggregatesherbeiführende AggregateAggregate factors of a limited being that include the causes that will obtain for that being further samsaric rebirth.Tib: nyer-len-gyi phung-po
obtaining causeherbeiführende UrsacheThe cause from which a result is obtained and which transforms into the result. For example, a seed is the obtaining cause for a sprout, and a network of positive force (a collection of merit) is the obtaining cause for a Corpus of Forms (Form Body) of a Buddha. Some translators render the term as "material cause," but this term does not refer to the physical elements that make up something.Tib: nyer-len-gyi rgyu
Skt: upadanahetu
obvious phenomenonoffensichtliches PhänomenA validly knowable phenomenon that can be cognized by valid nonconceptual straightforward cognition. Also defined as a validly knowable phenomenon that be apprehended through the force of personal experience.Tib: mngon-gyur
offeringGabe / OpfergabeSomething presented, with respect and the intention to bring happiness and benefit, to someone else.Tib: mchod-pa
offering, innerGabe / Opfergabe, innereSee: inner offering
offering, outerGabe / Opfergabe, äußereSee: outer offerings
offering of the very nature of realityGabe / Opfer der ureigensten Natur der RealitätOffering of a nonconceptual cognition of voidness with a blissful awareness or of one's nonconceptual blissful cognition of voidness together with one's appearance as an illusory body.Tib: de-kho-na-nyid mchod-pa
offering ritualOpferritual / Ritual zum Darbringen von GabenEine tantrische Zeremonie, in der speziell gesegnete Gaben dargebracht werden, um seinen tantrischen Meister zu ehren, den man als untrennbar von der Buddhagestalt betrachtet. Tib: mchod-pa
Skt: puja
offerings of absorbed concentrationGabe / Opfergaben der tiefen KonzentrationOfferings made of various aspects of one's Dharma practice, visualized in the form of the outer offerings. Also called: offerings of samadhi.Tib: ting-nge-'dzin-gyi mchod-pa
offerings of samadhiGabe / Opfergabe des SamadhiSee: offerings of absorbed concentration
offspring, spiritualNachkomme, spirituellerSee: spiritual offspring
omniscienceAllwissenheitSee: omniscient awareness
omniscient awarenessAllwissendes Gewahrsein eines BuddhaA Buddha's unceasing nonconceptual cognition simultaneously of all validly knowable phenomena and their voidnesses -- in other words, of the two truths about all knowable phenomena.Tib: kun-mkhyen
open spaceoffener RaumSee: cognitive open space
oral transmissionmündliche ÜbertragungA ceremony during which a spiritual teacher reads aloud or recites from memory, without any mistakes, a Buddhist text or mantra to disciples who listen attentively. The teacher needs to have heard, himself or herself, the words of the text or mantra recited faultlessly by his or her own teacher, who likewise heard it in this manner in an unbroken lineage tracing back to Buddha or to the author of the text. The ceremony insures the accurate transmission of the words, although neither the teacher reciting them nor the disciple hearing them need to understand their meaning.Tib: lung
ordinary beinggewöhnliches WesenA limited being who has not yet attained the state of an arya. In other words, someone who has not yet attained nonconceptual cognition of the four noble truths.Tib: so-so'i skye-bo
ordinary commotiongewöhnliche AufregungThe emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to the eight transitory things in life: praise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly.Tib: tha-mal 'du-'dzi
other-powered phenomenavon anderem beeinflusstes PhänomenSee: dependent phenomenon
other-voidnessAnderesleerheitThe natural, beginningless absence from the clear light level of mental activity of "other" levels of mental activity, which are all limited by fleeting stains.Tib: gzhan-stong
outer mandalaäußeres MandalaA round, flat-bottomed bowl, held bottom side up, with three mounds of grain, placed one atop the other on its surface and contained within progressively smaller concentric metal rings, and crowned with an ornamental diadem. It is used as an offering to a spiritual master in request for a teaching, the conferring of a set of vows, and for the conferring of a tantric empowerment. It is also used as an offering of appreciation at the conclusion of these three occasions. It is also offered 100,000 times as a preliminary practice for building up positive force for success in the practice of tantra.Tib: phyi'i dkyil-'khor
outer offeringsäußere Gabe / OpfergabenOfferings of specially consecrated external objects such as water, flowers, incense, and so on.Tib: phyi'i mchod-pa
outlookAuffassungA way of regarding and understanding objects, for instance as "me" and "mine."Tib: lta-ba
outlook, extremeAuffassung, extremeSee: extreme outlook
overlord resultbeherrschende WirkungSee: dominating result
overriding resultvorrangige WirkungSee: dominating result
own faceeigenes Angesicht/AnlitzThe manner of existence and good qualities of pure awareness (rig-pa) as can be cognized by reflexive deep awareness.Tib: rang-ngo
pair, joinedPaar, verbundenesSee: joined pair
pair, unifiedPaar, vereintesSee: unified pair
paramitaParamita, dieSee: far-reaching attitude
parted from mental fabricationgetrennt von geistiger FabrikationSee: state parted from mental fabrication
parted from taking to mindgetrennt vom sich zu Geiste nehmenSee: state parted from taking to mind
partingTrennen / TrennungAlso translated as: separationTib: bral-ba
Skt: visamyoga
partner, pure awarenessPartner des reinen GewahrseinsSee: pure awareness partner
partner, sealingSiegelpartnerSee: sealing partner
passed-happeningvergangenes StattfindenSee: no-longer-happening
past life accountsBerichte von früheren LebenAccounts of the difficult ascetic practices that Buddha performed in his previous lives while engaging in the conduct of the bodhisattvas. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: skyes-pa'i rabs
Skt: jataka
pathPfadSee: pathway mind
path of accumulationPfad der AnsammlungSee: building-up pathway mind
path of accustomingPfad des Sich-GewöhnensSee: accustoming pathway mind
path of applicationPfad der AnwendungSee: applying pathway mind
path of building upPfad des AufbauensSee: building-up pathway mind
path of meditationPfad der MeditationSee: accustoming pathway mind
path of no further trainingPfad des keinen weiteren TrainingsSee: pathway mind needing no further training
path of preparationPfad der VorbereitungSee: applying pathway mind
path of seeingPfad des SehensSee: seeing pathway mind
pathway levelEbene des PfadesIn the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of it in the context of someone engaged in the practices for attaining enlightenment. In some usages, the level of a Mahayana arya with a seeing or accustoming pathway mind.Tib: lam
Skt: marga
pathway mindPfadgeistA level or state of mind that acts or functions as a pathway toward liberation or enlightenment. Some translators render this term as "path," but it refers to mental states, not to a series of spiritual practices. Also called: pathway of mind.Tib: lam
Skt: marga
pathway mind, accustomingPfadgeist des Sich-GewöhnensSee: accustoming pathway mind
pathway mind, applyingPfadgeist der AnwendungSee: applying pathway mind
pathway mind, building upPfadgeist des AufbauensSee: building-up pathway mind
pathway mind, seeingPfadgeist des SehensSee: seeing pathway mind
pathway mind, truePfadgeist, wahrerSee: true pathway mind
pathway mind needing no further trainingPfadgeist, der keines weiteren Trainings mehr bedarfThe level of mind of shravaka arhats, pratyekabuddha arhats, and Buddhas, with which they have attained their respective purified states (bodhi) of liberation or enlightenment, and which require no further training in order to attain that purified state. Other translators sometimes render this term as "path of no learning."Tib: mi-slob lam
Skt: ashaiksha-marga
pathway of mindPfadgeistSee: pathway mind
patienceGeduld(1) In Theravada, the mental factor of not becoming angry at others' shortcomings, mistakes, or cruel deeds. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge that leads one to be unperturbed by those who do harm and by suffering, so that one never becomes angry. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, patience becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: bzod-pa
Skt: kshanti
paying attentionaufmerksam seinSee: attention
perceptionWahrnehmungA general, nontechnical term used for valid sensory cognition.
perfectionVollkommenheitSee: far-reaching attitude
perfection of wisdomVollkommenheit der WeisheitSee: far-reaching discriminating awareness
permanenceBeständigkeitSee: staticness
permanent phenomenabeständige PhänomeneSee: static phenomenon
permission, subsequentErlaubnis, anschließendeSee: subsequent attainment
perseverance, joyfulAusdauer, freudigeSee: joyful perseverance
personPersonAn individual being, including those from any of the six realms of samsaric existence, as well as arhats and Buddhas. A noncongruent affecting variable, synonymous with a conventional "me."Tib: gang-zag
Skt: pudgala
personal instructionspersönliche AnleitungenAdvice on how to practice meditation, emphasizing the quintessential points.Tib: zhal-lung
pervasionautomatisch / gleichzeitigThe intersection of two sets of phenomena.Tib: khyab-pa
pervasiveumfassend"x" is pervasive with "y" if, whenever "x" is the case, so is "y". Used in such formulations as "If "x" is the case, then it is pervasive that "y" is the case."Tib: khyab
phenomenonPhänomenA validly knowable object that holds its own individual self-nature.Tib: chos
Skt: dharma
phenomenon, affectedPhänomen, beinflusstesSee: affected phenomenon
phenomenon, affirmationPhänomen, bestätigtesSee: affirmation phenomenon
phenomenon, dependentPhänomen, abhängigesSee: dependent phenomenon
phenomenon, extremely obscurePhänomen, extrem verschleiertesSee: extremely obscure phenomenon
phenomenon, functionalPhänomen, wirksamesSee: functional phenomenon
phenomenon, negationPhänomen, Negierungs-See: negation phenomenon
phenomenon, nonfunctionalPhänomen, nichtwirksamesSee: nonfunctional phenomenon
phenomenon, obscurePhänomen, verschleiertesSee: obscure phenomenon
phenomenon, obviousPhänomen, offensichtlichesSee: obvious phenomenon
phenomenon, other-poweredPhänomen, von anderem beinflusstesSee: dependent phenomenon
phenomenon, thoroughly establishedPhänomene, vollkommen begründeteSee: thoroughly established phenomena
phenomenon, totally conceptionalPhänomene, vollkommen konzeptionelleSee: totally conceptional phenomena
phenomenon, unaffectedPhänomen, nichtbeeinflusstesSee: unaffected phenomenon
phowaPhowaAlso called: transference of consciousness.Tib: pho-ba
physical cognitive sensorskörperliche Sensoren der WahrnehmungOut of the six cognitive sensors, the five that are forms of physical phenomena -- namely, (1) the photosensitive cells of the eyes, (2) the sound-sensitive cells of the ears, (3) the smell-sensitive cells of the nose, (4) the taste-sensitive cells of the tongue, and (5) the physical sensation-sensitive cells of the body.
placement, mentalPlatzierung des GeistesSee: mental abiding
planeEbene / SphäreSee: three planes of samsaric existenceTib: khams
plane of ethereal formsEbene der ätherischen FormenSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for subtle forms of physical phenomena. Usually translated by others as "form realm."Tib: gzugs-khams
Skt: rupadhatu
plane of formless beingsEbene der formlosen WesenSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings lack any gross body. Usually translated by others as "formless realm."Tib: gzugs-med khams
Skt: arupadhatu
plane of sensory desiresEbene des SinnesbegehrensSamsaric rebirth states in which the limited beings have desire for sensory objects. Usually translated by others as "desire realm."Tib: 'dod-khams
Skt: kamadhatu
pledged aspiring bodhichittaversprochenes anstrebendes Bodhichitta / anstrebendes Bodhichitta, das man gelobt hatSee: pledged state of aspiring bodhichitta
pledged state of aspiring bodhichittaStufe des Versprechens des anstrebenden BodhicittaThe advanced level of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the bais of the Buddha-nature factors oon one's mental continuum, with the intention to attain that enlightenment and to benefit all beings by means of it, and then pledges never to give up this bodhichitta aim until one reaches that enlightenment. Abbreviated as: pledged aspiring bodhichitta.Tib: smon-sems dam-bca'-can
positive forcepositive KraftSee: positive karmic force
positive karmic forcepositive karmische KraftThe type of karmic force associated with a constructive action and which ripens intermittently into transitory happiness. Some translators render it as "merit." See: karmic force.Tib: bsod-nams
Skt: punya
positive potentialpositive PotenzialeSee: positive karmic force
post-meditation periodPeriode der NachmeditationSee: subsequent attainment
potential, karmicPotenzial, karmischesSee: karmic potential
powdered sand mandalaMandala aus gestreutem SandA two-dimensional representation, made of powdered colored minerals, which is like an architectural blueprint of the three-dimensional palace, environment, and Buddha-figures of a symbolic world system, and used for conferring a tantric empowerment.Tib: rdul-phran-gyi dkyil-'khor
powers, extraphysicalKräfte, außerphysischeSee: extraphysical emanations
powers, extrasensoryKräfte, außersinnlicheSee: advanced awareness
practice, preliminaryPraxis, vorbereitende / Übung, vorbereitendeSee: preliminary practices
practitioner, highly realizedPraktizierender, hoch verwirklichterSee: arya
pratimoksha vowsPratimoksha-GelübdeThe vows of either a layman or laywoman, a novice or full monk, or a provisional, novice, or full nun. The ethical self-discipline of keeping them purely provides the basis for the individual being keeping them to attain liberation from samsara.Tib: so-thar sdom-pa
Skt: pratimokshasamvara
pratyekabuddhaPratyekabuddhaLiterally, "self-realizers" or "self-evolvers" - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being). They live during dark ages when the teachings of a Buddha are no longer available. They do not study with Buddhist spiritual teachers, because there are none at such times, and they teach others only subtly, through gestures, since people are not receptive. Living either singly ("like a rhinoceros") or in small groups, they must rely on their instincts from previous lives to recall and master the Dharma. Some translators render the term as "solitary Buddhas."Tib: rang-rgyal
Skt: pratyekabuddha
pratyekabuddha arhatPratyekabuddha-ArhatA pratyekabuddha that has attained liberation. See also: pratyekabuddha.Tib: rang-rgyal dgra-bcom
Skt: pratyekabuddha arhat
precludeabgrenzenTo cut off, dismiss, or reject something. To logically cut off or eliminate the possibility that something is something elseTib: bcad-pa
preclude, explicitlyAbgrenzen, explizitSee: explicitly preclude
preclusionAbgrenzenThe conceptual process through which sets and countersets are formulated. It implies previous apprehension of an object to be negated, in which the apprehension itself logically and automatically excludes the object to be negated from the set of either all validly knowable phenomena other than itself or all validly knowable phenomena in total. It is not a deliberate, conscious mental act.Tib: bcad-pa
predeath existenceExistenz vor dem TodeThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being starting from the moment immediately after conception until the moment immediately before death.Tib: sngon-dus-kyi srid-pa
preliminariesVorbereitende ÜbungenSee: preliminary practices
preliminary practicesvorbereitende Übungen / vorbereitende PraxisPractices, such as prostration, usually repeated 100,000 times, done as a method to build up positive force and cleanse negative force so as to have more success in tantra practice. Also called "ngondro."Tib: sngon-'gro
presentations, epicDarstellungen, epischeSee: epic presentations
presumptionVermutungSee: presumptive cognition
primally pureursprünglich reinSee: primal purity
primally pure awarenessursprünglich reines GewahrseinsSee: primal purity
primal purityursprüngliche ReinheitThe essential nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which refers to its being pure of all stains, without a beginning.Tib: ka-dag
primary consciousnessPrimärbewusstseinDas Primärbewusstsein ist, innerhalb (des Vorgangs) der Wahrnehmung eines Objektes, das Gewahrsein, das sich lediglich auf die essentielle Natur eines Objektes ausrichtet [konzentriert]. Das Primärbewusstsein hat die Identitäts-Natur eines individualisierenden Gewahrsein. Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
primordial deepest alayaursprüngliches tiefstes AlayaIn the dzogchen system, a synonym for basis rigpa. The source of all appearances of samsara and nirvana.Tib: ye-don kun-gzhi
primordial mindursprünglicher GeistAwareness that, with no beginning, has been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. A synonym for "clear light mind."Tib: gnyug-sems
primordial stateursprünglicher ZustandThe state of having, with no beginning, been untainted by the fleeting stains of either the emotional or cognitive obscurations. Descriptive of the clear light mind.Tib: gnyug-ma
principal awarenessHauptgewahrseinWithin a cognition, an awareness that consists of the composite of a primary consciousness and its accompanying set of subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The principal awareness is the way of being aware of the object of the cognition that is prominent and which characterizes the type of cognition that it is occurring -- for example, relative bodhichitta and the deep awareness of total absorption on voidness.Tib: gtso-sems
prohibited uncommendable actionverbotene nicht lobenswerte HandlungenEthically neutral (unspecified) actions that Buddha prohibited for certain types of practitioners, for instance monks or nuns, as detrimental to their spiritual practice.Tib: bcas-pa'i kha-na ma-tho-ba
property-possessorMerkmalsbesitzerA member of the set of phenomena possessing a certain property, such as voidness as its actual nature.Tib: chos-can
protector, DharmaDharma-SchützerSee: Dharma-protector
provisional source of safe directionvorläufige Quelle einer sicheren AusrichtungThe aryas with incomplete sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.Tib: gnas-skabs-kyi skyabs-gnas
pujaPujaSee: offering ritual
pure, primallyrein, ursprünglichSee: primal purity
pure appearancereine ErscheinungAn appearance of something as an enlightened mind makes it appear, namely in the form of a Buddha-figure or mandala and devoid of any of the four extremes of impossible existence.Tib: dag-pa'i snang-ba
pure awarenessreines GewahrseinIn the dozgchen system, the subtlest level of awareness, which is totally untainted by any of the fleeting stains of mental obscurations. It is devoid of all grosser levels of awareness and yet permeates all of them, and it spontaneously establishes pure appearances. Often left untranslated as "rigpa."Tib: rig-pa
purified stategereinigter ZustandThe state of a shravaka arhat, pratyekabuddha arhat, or a Buddha, in which the mental continuum of the person attaining this state has been purified of either the emotional obscurations or both the emotional and the cognitive obscurations.Tib: byang-chub
Skt: bodhi
purity, primalReinheit, ursprünglicheSee: primal purity
qualities, goodEigenschaften, guteSee: good qualities
quintessence teachingsQuintessenz-LehrenTeachings, either oral or written, that present the essential, most profound points of a more extensive topic.Tib: man-ngag
Skt: upadesha
realwirklichA nontechnical term for what actually exists.
realityRealitätA nontechnical term for what actually exists.
reality, trueRealität, wahreSee: true reality
realizationVerwirklichungA stable, correct understanding of some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, which brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it. Compare: "attainment".Tib: rtogs-pa
realization, subsequentVerwirklichung, nachfolgendeSee: subsequent attainment
realization and liberation, simultaneousVerwirklichung und Befreiung, gleichzeitigeSee: simultaneous realization and liberation
realizeverwirklichen / erkennenTo understand correctly, in a stable manner, some point in the Dharma, such as voidness, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has gained it.
realize voidnessLeerheit verwirklichen / Leerheit erkennenTo gain a stable, correct understanding of voidness, either conceptually or nonconceptually, such that it brings about a lasting attainment and change in the person who has it.Tib: stong-nyid rtogs-pa
realms of existence, sixExistenzbereiche, sechsSee: six realms of existence
rebirth states, worseWiedergeburtszustände, schlechteSee: worse rebirth states
recitation practiceRezitationspraxisIn tantra, the meditation practice with which one recites a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings.Tib: kha-'don
recognitionErkenntnisThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of distinguishing an object as being something specific, such as when studying the Dharma, oneself as being a sick person, one's spiritual teacher as being a doctor, and the Dharma as being medicine.Tib: 'du-shes
Skt: samjna
recognitions, threeErkentnisse, dreiSee: three recognitions
recurring existencewiederkehrende ExistenzSee: samsara
recurring samsarasich wiederholendes SamsaraSee: samsara
referent aim, without aAusrichtung auf ein Bezugsobjekt, ohneSee: without a referent aim
referent objectBezugsobjekt der BezeichnungThe validly knowable phenomena that the names and concepts for them, imputed on a basis for labeling, refer to.Tib: btags-chos
referent thingDinge, auf die sich etwas bezieht / Bezugs-DingThe actual "thing" referred to by a name or concept, corresponding to the names or concepts for something, and which is findable, establishing its own existence by its own power, on the side of the referent object of the name or concept. In Gelug, according to Prasangika it is nonexistent and according to lower tenet systems it is existent.Tib: btags-don
reflectionSpiegelungSee: mental derivative
reflection, mentalSpiegelung, geistige / Wiederspiegelung, geistigeSee: mental derivative
reflexivereflexivTurned in on itself.
reflexive appearancereflexive ErscheinungAn appearance of a cognitive object that arises automatically from a person's clear light mind itself. Such an appearance may be either impure (with an appearance of truly established existence) or pure (without such an appearance).Tib: rang-snang
reflexive awarenessreflexives Gewahrsein(1) The cognitive faculty within a cognition, asserted in the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, that takes as its cognitive object the consciousness within the cognition that it is part of. It also cognizes the validity or invalidity of the cognition that it is part of, and accounts for the ability to recall the cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug schools, this cognitive faculty becomes reflexive deep awareness -- that part of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes the two truths of that nonconceptual cognition.Tib: rang-rig
reflexive deep awarenessreflexives tiefes Gewahrsein(1) In Kagyu and Sakya, that aspect of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness that cognizes its own two-truth nature. (2) In Nyingma, that aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that cognizes its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with self-arising deep awareness.Tib: rang-rig ye-shes
refugeZuflucht/ ZufluchtnahmeSee: safe direction
refuge, takeZuflucht nehmenSee: take safe direction
refuge preceptorZufluchts-Präzeptor / die Zufluchten gebende PräzeptorA spiritual mentor who has kept one of the sets of pratimoksha vows purely for a certain number of years and in whose presence spiritual seekers formally take refuge (put a safe direction in their lives), thus committing themselves to the Buddhist path.
refutationWiderlegungSee: negation phenomenon
regardBeachtungSee: firm conviction
regretReue / BedauernThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of not wishing to repeat doing something, either proper or improper, that one did or that someone else made one do. Tib: 'gyod-pa
relating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy mannerzu einem spirituellen Mentor eine gesunde Beziehung aufbauenEntrusting oneself, through mind and actions, to a fully qualified spiritual mentor. Also called: relying on a spiritual mentor, entrusting oneself to a spiritual mentor, whole-hearted commitment to a spiritual mentor. Often translated as: guru-devotion.Tib: bshes-gnyen bsten-pa
relative bodhichittarelatives BodhichittaSee: conventional bodhichitta
relative true phenomenonrelativ wahres PhänomenSee: superficial true phenomenon
relative truthrelative WahrheitSee: superficial truth
release itself in its own placein seinen eigenen Ort hinein auflösenSee: automatically releases itself in its own place
relianceStützeSee: something that supports something else
reliquary monumentReliquien-MonumentSee: stupa
remembering kindnessGüte erinnernRemembering the kindness of motherly love, remembering all the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers. The second of the six part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.Tib: drin-dran
renunciationEntsagung(1) The definite determination to be free of samsara and to gain liberation, and with which one is willing to give up true suffering and true causes. Also translated as "determination to be free." (2) In Theravada, the mental factor to give up all attachment to worldly possessions, social status, and even one's body. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: nges-'byung
Skt: naishkramya
renunciation, short-lived all-excitedEntsagung, kurzlebige, hocherregteSee: short-lived all-excited renunciation
repaying kindnessGüte zurückgebenAppreciating the beneficial things that all beings have shown us when they were our mothers and wishing to benefit them in return. The third of the seven part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.Tib: drin-gso
representation, mentalDarstellung, geistige / Repräsentation, geistigeSee: mental representation
repudiationZurückweisung / NichtanerkennenA conceptual denial of something that is true or is present.Tib: skur-'debs
resolutionEntschlossenheit / EntschlusskraftOne of the ten far-reaching attitudes in the Theravada tradition. An attitude of determination with which a bodhisattva never abandons what he or she needs to do in order to benefit others.Tib: byin-rlabs
Skt: adhisthana
resolve, exceptionalEntschluss, außergewöhnlicherSee: exceptional resolve
respectRespektSee: appreciation
respiteRuhepauseEin vorübergehende Pause oder Unterbrechung von einem Zustand, in dem man keine Muße für Dharmapraxis hat, wie beispielsweise in den üblen Wiedergeburtszuständen. Einige Übersetzer geben den Begriff als "Freiheit" wieder. Tib: dal-ba
responsive awarenessreagierendes GewahrseinSee: responsiveness
responsivenessFähigkeit, auf andere einzugehenThe influencing nature of pure awareness (rigpa) - namely, that it responds to others effortlessly and spontaneously with compassionate communication. See: responsive awareness.Tib: thugs-rje
result, commandingbeherrschende WirkungSee: dominating result
result, comprehensiveumfassende WirkungSee: dominating result
result, dominatingbeherrschende WirkungSee: dominating result
result, man-madeWirkung, die durch Menschenhand hervorgebracht worden istSee: man-made result
result, overlordbeherrschende WirkungSee: dominating result
result, overriding.beherrschende WirkungSee: dominating result
result, ripenedWirkung, gereiftesSee: ripened result
resultant levelWirkungsebeneIn the context of basis, pathway, and resultant levels of something being specified, the level of something, for instance Buddha-nature, in the state of a Buddha when it is fully purified.Tib: 'bras-bu
resultant links of what has been thrownaus dem Geworfenen entstandene GliederIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the three and a half links of resultant loaded consciousness, nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, stimulators of cognition, and contacting awareness, which occur during the development of an embryo in the womb in the life that is thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.Tib: 'phangs-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lag
resultant links of what is actualizedGlieder, die sich aus dem Realisierten ergebenIn the twelve links of dependent arising, the two links of conception and aging and dying in a future rebirth thrown by the activated karmic aftermath of throwing karma.Tib: mngon-par grub-pa'i 'bras-bu'i yan-lag
resultant taking of safe directionresultierendes Einschlagen der sicheren RichtungA taking of safe direction (refuge) that takes as its sources of safe direction the Triple Gem that one will attain oneself in the future, based on actualizing one's own Buddha-nature. Synonymous with "special taking of safe direction." Tib: 'bras-bu'i skyabs-'gro
result that corresponds to its causeWirkung, die der Ursache entsprichtA result that in some way resembles its cause, either in the wish to repeat its causal action or in the experience of something happening back to one that resembles what one did.Tib: rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
Skt: nishyandaphalam
result that corresponds to its cause in one's behaviorWirkung, die der Ursache im eigenen Verhalten ähneltThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of liking or wishing to do an action, in a particular moment, similar to what one has done in the past. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause in one's behavior" and "result that is similar to its cause in one's instinctive behavior."Tib: byed-pa rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
result that corresponds to its cause in one's experienceWirkung, die der Ursache in der eigenen Erfahrung ähneltThe experience of a situation in which something similar to one's previous action happens back to oneself. Also translated as "result that is similar to its cause on one's experience."Tib: myong-ba rgyu-mthun-gyi 'bras-bu
result that is similar to its cause on one's behaviorWirkung, die der Ursache im eigenen Verhalten gleichtSee: result that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior
result that is similar to its cause on one's instinctive behaviorWirkungen, die ihren Ursachen im eigenen instinktivem Verhalten ähnelnSee: result that corresponds to its cause in one's behavior
retreat, serviceabilityTauglichkeits-RetreatSee: serviceability retreat
revealing formoffenbarende FormA form of physical phenomenon, asserted in the Vaibhashika and Gelug Prasangika schools, that shows (reveals) the motivation behind it, and which may be a constructive, destructive or unspecified phenomenon. Examples are the shape of one's body when performing an action, the sound of the words when one speaks, the expression on someone's face, and so on. In general, such a phenomenon may be either one of the five sensory objects or one of the five sensory cognitive sensors.Tib: rnam-par rig-byed-kyi gzugs
Skt: vijnaptirupa
revelatory accountsenthüllende BerichteOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Buddha's revelations of what has happened in the past or prophesies of what will occur in the future. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of definitive meaning.Tib: lung-bstan-pa
Skt: vyakarana
riddanceAufgebenA static state in which an emotional obscuration or a cognitive obscuration has been removed forever from a mental continuum. Equivalent to a true stopping (true cessation). Translated by others as "abandonment."Tib: spong-ba
Skt: hani
rigpaRigpaSee: pure awareness
rigpa, appearance-making basis rigpaErscheinungs-hervorbringendes grundlegendes RigpaSee: appearance-making basis rigpa
rigpa, basisRigpa, grundlegendesSee: basis rigpa
rigpa, effulgentRigpa, strahlendesSee: effulgent rigpa
rigpa, essenceRigpa, Essenz-See: essence rigpa
rigpa of all-embracing spontaneous presenceRigpa der all-umfassenden spontanen PräsenzPure awareness (rigpa) from the point of view of its resultant level as the Dharmakaya of a Buddha.Tib: lhun-grub sbubs-kyi rig-pa
ripenreifen / heranreifen(1) A karmic cause developing or growing to the point at which it can bear fruit, which means produce its result. This is ripening in its definitional sense. (2) A karmic causal factor on a mental continuum exhausting and finishing its presence there as it produces its fruit.Tib: smin-pa
Skt: vipaka
ripened resultgereifte WirkungA nonobstructive unspecified item conjoined with the mental continuum of a limited being, such as the body, consciousness, and feelings of happiness and unhappiness, and which comes from a ripening cause that was also conjoined with his or her mental continuum.Tib: rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-bu
Skt: vipakaphalam
ripeningdas HeranreifenThe process whereby a karmic cause gives rise to its result. See: ripen.Tib: smin-pa
Skt: vipaka
ripening causereifende UrsacheA destructive or tainted constructive phenomenon that, unless one has rid one's mental continuum forever of craving, has the power to produce the nonobstructive unspecified items contained in the five aggregate factors of future rebirth states, such as the body, the types of consciousness, and the feelings.Tib: rnam-smin-gyi rgyu
Skt: vipakahetu
ritual, expiationRitual, Sühne-See: expiation ritual
ritual bountiful feastrituelles freigebiges FestmahlA specially consecrated torma offered to one's tantric master, inseparable from the Buddha-figure, during a tantra ceremonial round of offering.Tib: tshogs
ritual ceremonyRitualzeremonieAlso called puja. See: offering ritual.
ritual trainerRitualtrainerA teacher who instructs one in how to perform Buddhist rituals.
root bodhisattva vowsWurzelgelübde des BodhisattvaThe eighteen primary bodhisattva vows which, if kept purely, act as a root for attaining enlightenment, and which, if fully transgressed, act as a root for rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.
root downfallÜbertretung der WurzelgelübdeA transgression of a root bodhisattva or root tantric vow, which, if it is a full transgression, acts as a root for falling to rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.Tib: rtsa-ltung
root downfall, Kalachakra tantraÜbertretung der tantrischen Wurzelgelübde des KalachakraSee: Kalachakra tantra root downfall
root guruWurzelguruThe spiritual teacher that inspires one the most, such that his or her inspiration serves as the root giving sustenance to one's spiritual growth.Tib: rtsa-ba'i bla-ma
roots of constructive forceWurzeln konstruktiver KraftSee: roots of positive forceTib: dge-rtsa
roots of positive forceWurzel positiver KräfteThe network of positive force (collection of merit), described from the point of view of it serving as the "root" for one to grow into a Buddha.Tib: dge-ba'i rtsa-ba
roots of virtueWurzeln der TugendSee: roots of positive force
root tantric vowsWurzelgelübde des TantraThe fourteen primary tantric vows which, if kept purely, act as a root for attaining enlightenment, and which, if fully transgressed, act as a root for rebirth in one of the worse rebirth states.
RupakayaRupakayaSee: Corpus of Forms
sadhanaSadhanaLiterally, a method of actualization, namely a meditation method for actualizing oneself as a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. Performing a sadhana entails recitation of a ritual meditation text describing the self-visualization process and a complex series of further practices based on that self-generation, such as reciting mantras and making offerings. Synonymous with "self-generation" and "antecedent practice for realization."Tib: sgrub-thabs
Skt: sadhana
safe directionsichere Richtung / sichere AusrichtungA direction that one puts in one's life that will protect one from true suffering and its true causes, and, when one reaches the goal of this direction, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "refuge."Tib: skyabs
Skt: sharana
safe direction, provisional source ofsichere Ausrichtung, vorläufige Quelle derSee: provisional source of safe direction
safe direction, takesichere Richtung nehmen / sichere Richtung einschlagen / sichere Ausrichtung nehmenSee: take safe direction
safe direction, ultimate source ofsichere Ausrichtung, letztendliche Quelle derSee: ultimate source of safe direction
samadhiSamadhiSee: absorbed concentration
SambhogakayaSambhogakayaSee: Corpus of Full Use
same essential naturegleiche essentielle NaturThe relationship between two facts about the same attribute of a phenomenon. In a sense, the two facts are referring to the same phenomenon from two points of view. The two facts may be naturally inseparable, such as the two truths about the phenomenon, or they may constitute a joined inseparability arising from the power of meditation, such as a blissful awareness and an awareness of voidness. Some translators render the term as "one by nature."Tib: ngo-bo gcig
samsaraSamsaraUncontrollably recurring rebirth under the power of disturbing emotions and attitudes and of karma. Some translators render it as "cyclic existence."Tib: 'khor-ba
Skt: samsara
SanghaSanghaThe literal meaning of the Sanskrit term is a "community"; the literal meaning of the Tibetan translation is "those intent on a constructive goal." Four or more people from any of the four groups of the monastic community: full or novice monks or nuns - the four need not necessarily be all from one group or one from each group - and who have unlabored renunciation and are intent on ridding themselves of disturbing emotions and attitudes and thus attaining liberation.Tib: dge-'dun
Skt: sangha
Sangha Gem, apparentSanghajuwel, offensichtlichesSee: apparent Sangha Gem
Sangha Gem, deepestSanghajuwel, tiefstesSee: deepest Sangha Gem
Sangha Gem, nominalSanghajuwel, nominellesSee: nominal Sangha Gem
SarmaSarma-SchulenSee: New TranslationTib: gSar-ma
SautrantikaSautrantikaA Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that asserts the true existence of both reflexive awareness and external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.Tib: mDo-sde-pa
scrutinygenaue PrüfungSee: subtle discernment
secondary bodhisattva vowsNebengelübde des BodhisattvasSee: faulty actions
secondary tantric vowstantrische NebengelübdeSee: thick actions
secret mandalageheimes MandalaThe offering of a blissful awareness, or of a nonconceptual blissful awareness of voidness with a clear-light mind. Also called: hidden mandala.Tib: gsang-ba'i dkyil-'khor
secret offeringgeheimes OpferSee: hidden offering
seeing pathway mindPfadgeist des SehensThe level of mind of arya sharavakas, arya pratyekabuddhas, and arya bodhisattvas with which they first attain a joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana focused nonconceptually on voidness -- or, in general, on the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths -- and with which they rid themselves of one or both sets of doctrinally based obscurations. Often translated as "path of seeing."Tib: mthong-lam
self-arising deep awarenessselbstentstehendes tiefes GewahrseinIn Nyingma, the aspect of pure awareness (rigpa) that automatically arises with awareness of its own two truths or its own threefold nature. Synonymous with reflexive deep awareness.Tib: rang-byung ye-shes
self-cherishingSelbstbezogenheit / sich nur um das eigene Wohl kümmernThe attitude with which one considers oneself as the most important being and has affection for and takes care of only oneself.Tib: rang bces-par 'dzin-pa
self-consciousübermäßig unserer selbst bewusst / übermäßig unserer selbst bewusst (und damit befangen)Being so concerned about oneself and what others think of oneself and that one doesn't make any mistakes, that one becomes awkward and cannot act naturally. Often teenagers are like this. They have pimples on their faces and are so self-conscious about them that they think everyone is looking at them.
self-disciplineSelbstdisziplinSee: ethical self-discipline
self-discipline, ethicalSelbstdisziplin, ethischeSee: ethical self-discipline
self-established existenceselbst-begründete ExistenzSee: existence established by self-nature
self-establishing natureselbst-begründendSee: self-nature
self-evolverAlleinentwickelerSee: pratyekabuddha
self-generationSelbst-ErzeugungSynonymous with "sadhana." A meditation method in which one visualizes and imagines oneself to be a Buddha-figure for which one has received empowerment. See: sadhana.Tib: bdag-bskyed
self-initiationSelbst-InitiationA tantric meditation practice in which one visualizes receiving the entire empowerment (initiation) ritual for a Buddha-figure, performed in order to renew one's tantric vows. It may only be performed if one has done the serviceability retreat of that particular Buddha-figure and the fire-puja afterwards.Tib: bdag-'jug
selflessnessFreiheit von SelbstSee: lack of an impossible "soul"
self-natureSelbstnaturSomething on the side of an object or phenomenon that (1) establishes the existence, in general, of the object or phenomenon and (2) establishes, as well, what the object or phenomenon is. A self-nature may do this either by its own power alone, or by its own power in conjunction with mental labeling. The term may also be translated as "self-establishing nature."Tib: rang-bzhin
self-preoccupationBeschäftigung mit dem "Ich"An attitude of thinking only about oneself, as if one were the only one in the world, and not thinking about anyone else; narcissism.Tib: ngar-'dzin
self-realizerAlleinverwirklicherSee: pratyekabuddha
self-sufficiently knowableeigenständig erkennbarA validly knowable phenomenon that, when actually cognized, does not rely on actual cognition of or by something else, for instance actual cognition of the object's basis for labeling.Tib: rang-rkya thub-pa'i rdzas-yod
self-voidnessSelbstleerheitThe absence of any phenomenon existing, by "self"-nature, in an impossible manner.Tib: rang-stong
semSemAll levels of awareness (levels of mind) that are tainted with the fleeting stains of the emotional and cognitive obscurations. All levels of awareness other than rigpa. Translated as "limited awareness."Tib: sems
semblance, mentalAnschein / AbbildSee: mental aspect
semdeySemdeSee: mind divisionTib: sems-sde
sense of fitnessGefühl der LeistungsfähigkeitThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of feeling totally fit to do something, and which is both exhilarating and blissful, physically and mentally, but in a nondisturbing way.Tib: shin-sbyangs
sense of physical and mental fitnessGefühl der körperlichen und geistigen LeistungsfähigkeitSee: sense of fitness
sensibiliaSinnesdatenDatenmaterial aus Sinnesempfindungen bzw. Sinnesdaten sind Formen physischer Phänomene die sich in einem Augenblick (der Wahrnehmung) über eine ausgedehnten Bereich erstrecken und die von einem der fünf Arten von Sinnesbewusstsein wahrgenommen werden. Das Datenmaterial oder die Daten beziehen sich auf einen Augenblick des Anblicks, des Klangs, des Geruchs, des Geschmacks oder der körperlichen Empfindung wie sie bei der Wahrnehmung eines Objekts mit physischen Qualitäten auftreten.
sensorSensorSee: cognitive sensor
sentient beingfühlendes WesenSee: limited being
serenely stilled and settled state of mindgelassen beruhigter und zur Ruhe gekommener GeistSee: stilled and settled state of mind
serviceability retreatTauglichkeits-RetreatAn intensive tantric meditation practice, done over many meditation sessions, during which one performs the sadhana and recites the mantra of a Buddha-figure ten thousand, one hundred thousand, or many hundreds of thousands of times, depending on the number of syllables in the mantra. When completed and finished off with the appropriate fire puja, this intensive practice makes the mind fit to be used (fit to be put into service) for more advanced tantric practices with that Buddha-figure.Tib: las-rung
set theoryMengenlehreSet theory has to do with the logical pervasions between two or more sets -- mutually exclusive, totally congruent, overlapping, etc. A set is a collection or a group of many items, like the set of all nonstatic phenomena.Tib: bsdus-grva
Skt: dura
seven-part cause and effect methodsiebenteilige Anweisung über Ursachen und WirkungenSee: seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta
ShakyamuniShakyamuniThe Able One of the Shakya Clan, the Sage of the Shakya Clan, an epithet of BuddhaTib: shakya'i thub-pa
Skt: Shakyamuni
shamathaShamathaSee: stilled and settled state of mind
shared meaning, teaching ofgemeinsame Bedeutung, Lehren mit einerSee: teaching of shared meaning
sharing five congruent factorskongruente beinflussende Variablen teilen*****Def****Für eine ausführliche Erklärung vergleichen Sie bitte den Artikel: Kongruente und nichtkongruente beeinflussende Variablen.Tib: mtshungs-ldan lnga
short-lived all-excited renunciationkurzlebige, hocherregte EntsagungThe enthusiastic and fanatic giving up of everything worldly, often based on blind faith that an external source will save us.Tib: sna-thung spu-sud-kyi nges-'byung
shravakaShravakaLiterally, "listeners" to Buddha's teachings - practitioners of the Hinayana vehicle who, motivated by renunciation, strive to attain liberation from uncontrollably recurring rebirth (samsara) and to become an arhat (liberated being) of either the shravaka or pratyekabuddha class. They practice, based on having listened to Buddha's teachings. Some translators render the term as "hearer."Tib: nyan-thos
Skt: shravaka
shravaka arhatShravaka-ArhatA shravaka that has attained liberation. See also: shravaka.Tib: nyan-thos dgra-bcom
Skt: shravaka arhat
sightsAnsichten, AnblickeNonstatic phenomena that can be explicitly cognized by eye consciousness -- namely, colors and shapes. Equivalent to "forms of physical phenomena that can become objects of experience of the eyes." One of the eleven types of forms of physical phenomena.Tib: gzugs
Skt: rupa
similar family causeUrsache der gleichen ArtDie Ursache gleicher Art ist eine Ursache, die zur selben Familie oder Kategorie von Phänomen gehört wie die Wirkung. Zum Beispiel ist die Vorlage zur Herstellung einer Vase die Ursache gleicher Art für die Vase, die man gerade herstellt. Tib: rigs-'dra'I rgyu
Skt: sajatiyakaranam
simultaneously acting conditiongleichzeitig wirkende BedingungAn item that must exist prior to the arising of something and which assists in making the arising happen, but which does not transform into what arises, for instance water for a sprout.Tib: lhan-cig byed-pa'i rkyen
Skt: sahakaripratyaya
simultaneously arisinggleichzeitig auftretenTwo items simultaneously arise if, when one of them arises or happens, the other does also, at the same time. The two items may arise simultaneously either naturally or through the power of meditation. Also called: innate.Tib: lhan-skyes
Skt: sahaja
sinSündeSee: negative karmic force
sincerityEhrlichkeitSincerity has two factors included in it: (1) lack of hypocrisy (g.yo-med) – not hiding our own faults, (2) lack of pretension (sgyu-med) – not pretending to have qualities that we do not have.Tib: bsam-pa
single-pointedeinspitzigConcentration settled on an object or settled in a state of mind (such as compassion) and free of all flightiness of mind an mental dullness.
singular sufficient white panaceaalleinig ausreichendes weißes AllheilmittelAlso called: all-curing single white epanacea, single white remedy, self-sufficient white remedyTib: dkar-po chig-thub
six realms of existencesechs ExistenzbereicheLiterally, the six families of wandering beings. The six types of samsaric rebirth: (1) hell-beings (trapped beings in the joyless realms), (2) clutching ghosts (hungry ghosts), (3) animals (creeping creatures), (4) humans, (5) would-be divine beings (anti-gods), and (6) divine beings (gods).Tib: 'gro-ba rigs-drug
Six-Session YogaYoga in sechs SitzungenIn Gelug, a practice, recited six times daily, required of those who have received an anuttarayoga empowerment, through which they keep the nineteen closely bonding practices for the five Buddha-families.Tib: Thun-drug rnal-'byor
sixty-two wrong viewszweiundsechzig falsche AnsichtenA set of sixty-two incorrect positions regarding the past, present and future of the self, the universe, and so on, propounded by the eighteen non-Buddhist extremeists and refuted in Buddhism. Sometimes translated by others as the sixty-two bad views.Tib: lta-ba ngan-pa drug-cu re-gnyis
skillful meansgeschickte MittelSee: skill in means
skill in meansGeschick bezüglich der MittelThe special discriminating awareness concerning the most effective and appropriate internal methods for actualizing the Buddha's teachings and the most effective and appropriate external methods for making limited beings ripe for attaining liberation and enlightenment. In Mahayana, when conjoined with a bodhichitta, the seventh of the ten far-reaching attitudes. Tib: thabs-mkhas
Skt: upayakaushalya
solid "me"solides "Ich"A "me" that exists as a concrete, autonomous entity, as if it had a line around it or were encapsulated in plastic. A general, nontechnical term for the false "me" (the "me" to be refuted), which has never existed at all.
solidly existing "me"solides "Ich"See: solid "me"
solitary BuddhaAlleinverwirklicher-BuddhaSee: pratyekabuddha
something possessing the actual natureetwas, das die wirkliche Natur besitztSee: property-possessor
soulSeeleAccording to non-Buddhist Indian tenet systems, something findable, either with or without being a conscious phenomenon, inside the body of a person, and which is static, a partless monad, separable from the body, and self-sufficiently knowable.Tib: bdag
Skt: atman
soundGeräusch / KlangAn object explicitly cognized by ear consciousness.Tib: sgra
Skt: shabda
sound universalKlang-AllgemeinesSee: audio category
source, natalUrsprungsquelle / GeburtsquelleSee: natal source
source of safe direction, provisionalQuelle der sicheren Ausrichtung, provisorischeSee: provisional source of safe direction
source of safe direction, ultimateQuelle der sicheren Ausrichtung, letztendlicheSee: ultimate source of safe direction
special insightbesondere EinsichtSee: exceptionally perceptive state of mind
special taking of safe directionbesonderes Einschlagen der sicheren RichtungSynonym for "resultant taking of safe direction."Tib: skyabs-'gro khyad-par-ba
special versesbesondere VersePraises that Buddha uttered with joy for the sake of the long life of his teachings, and not for the sake of specific individuals. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: ched-du brjod-pa
Skt: udana
specific awarenessspezifisches GewahrseinIn the Karma Kagyu system, the aspect of mental activity that is aware of the specific type of awareness of an object that has arisen and the specific object that it is aware of. In a looser sense, awareness of the details that have arisen and one is aware of in a cognition.Tib: rnam-shes
Skt: vijnana
specific-awareness alayaspezifische Alaya des GewahrseinsIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for alayavijnana. See: all-encompassing foundation for all.Tib: kun-shes rnam-shes
specific consciousnessspezifisches BewusstseinSee: specific awareness
speech, enlighteningRede, Buddhas erleuchtendeSee: Buddha's enlightening speech
sphere, openRaum, offenerSee: open sphere
spiritual mentorspiritueller MentorA Buddhist teacher who has had stable realizations, who embodies the teachings in the sense of having integrated them into his or her life, and who confers vows on disciples.Tib: dge-ba'i bshes-gnyen
Skt: kalyanamitra
spiritual teacherspiritueller LehrerA general term for the four levels of Buddhist teachers: a Buddhism professor, a Dharma instructor, a meditation trainer or ritual trainer, and a spiritual mentor.
spontaneously establishing appearancesspontan Erscheinungen hervorbringenThe functional nature of rigpa (pure awareness), which is that it automatically, without any effort, gives rise to pure appearances.Tib: lhun-grub
stability, mentalStabilität, geistigeSee: mental stability
stabilizing meditationstabilisierende Meditation / verankernde MeditationA method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind in which one focuses on an object with that desired insight, understanding, or state of mind and with full conviction in its validity, but without the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) or subtle discernment (scrutiny). Also translated sometimes as "fixating meditation."Tib: 'jog-sgom
stable realizationstabile VerwirklichungIn mahamudra meditation, the state of mind in which the meditator has nonconceptual bare cognition of there being no dualism of meditator and meditation.Tib: rtogs-pa
stainFleck / MakelSomething that obscures the Buddha-nature factors, preventing them from being fully realized.Tib: dri-ma
stain, fleetingMakel, flüchtigerSee: fleeting stain
starknessBlöße / "Nacktheit oder Blöße"The quality of something standing out sharply and dramatically in its appearance, without anything adorning it (like a rock mountain in a desert, totally devoid of any vegetation); the quality of being barren.Tib: stong-pa
state, primordialZustand, ursprünglicherSee: primordial state
state parted from mental fabricationZustand getrennt von geistiger FabrikationThe state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs.Tib: spros-bral
state parted from taking to mindZustand getrennt vom geistigen AufnehmenThe state of mind that is parted from conceptual constructs -- in other words, equivalent to the state parted from mental fabrication.Tib: yid-byed bral-ba
staticstatischSee: static phenomenon
static abstractionstatische AbstraktionSee: static phenomenon
staticnessStatischseinThe noncongruent affecting variable of not changing from moment to moment. Sometimes translated as "permanence."Tib: rtag-pa
Skt: nitya
static phenomenonstatisches PhänomenPhenomena that are unaffected by causes and circumstances and, consequently, do not change from moment to moment and do not produce any effects. Somewhat similar to unchanging facts, they are imputed about some validly knowable phenomenon and only exist and can be validly known so long as the basis for their imputation lasts. Sometimes translated as "static abstractions." Some translators render the term as "permanent phenomena."Tib: rtag-pa
Skt: nitya
sticky attachmentklebrige AnhaftungThe disturbing emotion that exaggerates the good qualities of an object that one possesses, that clings to it like glue, and does not wish to let go.Tib: chags-pa
Skt: sneha
stilled and settled state of mindstill gewordener und zur Ruhe gekommener GeisteszustandA state of mind, attained through meditation, in which the mind is stilled of all mental flightiness and mental dullness, is settled down on an object and remains there, and is accompanied by an exhilarating sense of fitness. Also called a "serenely stilled and settled state of mind," "shamatha." Some translators render the term as "calm abiding" or "mental quiescence."Tib: zhi-gnas
Skt: shamatha
stimulating others' good qualitiesdie guten Eigenschaften anderer anregen (Wachstum)Also translated as "increase."Tib: rgyas-pa
stimulators of cognitionAnreger der WahrnehmungThe focal conditions and dominating conditions that give rise to the six types of cognition -- namely, the cognitive objects and cognitive sensors of each of the six cognitive faculties. In the case of the five sensory faculties, the objects and sensors are forms of physical phenomena, such as sights and photosensitive cells. In the case of the mental faculty, the objects may be any validly knowable phenomenon, while the sensors are the immediately preceding moments of mental cognition. Usually counted as the twelve stimulators of cognition, but in the list of the twelve links of dependent arising, referred to as the six stimulators of cognition, in which case the two cognitive stimulators of each cognitive faculty are counted as one.Tib: skye-mched
Skt: ayatana
stimulators of cognition, link ofdas Glied der WahrnehmungsanregerSee: link of stimulators of cognition
stimulators of cognition, twelveAnreger, zwölfSee: twelve stimulators of cognition
stoppingBeendigungThe total elimination of something such that it never recurs.Tib: 'gog-pa
Skt: nirodha
stopping, trueBeendigung, wahreSee: true stopping
storehouse consciousnessSpeicherbewusstseinSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
straightforward cognitioneinfache WahrnehmungNach Gelug Prasangika, die Wahrnehmung eines Objektes, die, ohne dass man sich auf eine schlussfolgernde Argumentationskette verlassen muss, im ihr unmittelbar vorhergehenden Augenblick entsteht. Die einfache (nackte / bloße) Wahrnehmung kann entweder konzeptuell oder nichtkonzeptuell sein. Tib: mngon-sum
Skt: pratyaksha
stream of continuityStrom von KontinuitätEine Abfolge von Momenten von etwas. Tib: rgyun
strengtheningStärkenThe special discriminating awareness employed for expanding one's discriminating awareness and not letting it be crushed by countering factors, such as attachment to anything. One of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes (ten perfections).Tib: stobs
Skt: bala
stupaStupaA monument within which are kept the relics of a great Buddhist master. Translated as a reliquary monument.Tib: mchod-rten
Skt: stupa
subliminal awarenessunterbewusstes GewahrseinSee: subliminal cognition
subliminal cognitionunterbewusste WahrnehmungA cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, only to the consciousness of the subliminal cognition and only that consciousness cognizes it. The cognitive object of the subliminal cognition does not appear to the person and is not cognized by the person. Nor does it appear to or is it cognized by the consciousness of the manifest cognition that is simultaneously occurring and overpowering the subliminal cognition. Tib: bag-la nyal-gyi shes-pa
subsequent attainmentnachfolgende ErlangungA state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like an illusion. It is attained only upon rising from total absorption on space-like voidness and may occur either while still in meditation or after arising from meditation. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "subsequent realization." Other translators often render the term as "post-meditation."Tib: rjes-thob
subsequent cognitionnachfolgende WahrnehmungOne of the seven ways of knowing something: a nonfraudulent, but not fresh, cognition of an object. It is the second phase of a valid bare cognition or inferential cognition, and is asserted only by the Gelug Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Svatantrika tenet systems.Tib: bcad-shes
subsequent permissionanschließende ErlaubnisA tantric ritual for a specific Buddha-figure, received in order to strengthen further the Buddha-nature factors that were previously activated with a full empowerment. Usually called by its Tibetan name, "jenang." Tib: rjes-snang
subsequent realizationnachfolgende VerwirklichungSee: subsequent attainment
subsidiary awarenessNebengewahrseinBei einem Nebengewahrsein handelt es sich um eine Art des Wahrnehmens eines Objektes, welche ein Primärbewusstsein begleitet [die gleichzeitig stattfindet, wenn auch das Primärbewusstsein aktiv ist]. Das Nebengewahrsein hat mit dem Primärbewusstsein fünf Dinge gemeinsam. Zudem befähigt das Nebengewahrsein zur Wahrnehmung des Objektes oder hilft bei der Wahrnehmung des Objektes. Das Nebengewahrsein wird auch als "Geistesfaktor" bezeichnet. Tib: sems-byung
Skt: caitika
subtle bodysubtiler KörperWithin the gross body of humans, the invisible system of energy-winds, energy-channels, energy-nodes (chakras), and creative energy-drops.Tib: lus phra-mo
subtle creative energy-dropssubtile kreative TropfenSee: creative energy-drops
subtle discernmentsubtile UnterscheidungsfähigkeitA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that actively understands the fine details of the nature of something, having scrutinized them thoroughly. It does not imply verbal thinking, although it may be induced by verbally thinking. According to Asanga, one of the four changeable subsidiary awarenesses. Also translated as "scrutiny," "analysis." and "discerning analysis."Tib: dpyod-pa
subtle energy-windssubtiler EnergiewindSubtle forms of energy that move within the subtle energy-channels of the subtle body and which are the "mount" (the physical basis) for consciousness, either in nonconceptual or conceptual cognition, transporting it through the subtle body. Through anuttarayoga complete stage practices, one can cause them to enter, abide, and dissolve in the central energy-channel and thereby make manifest the subtlest clear light mind.Tib: rlung phra-mo
subtle impermanencesubtile UnbeständigkeitA nonstatic phenomenon's drawing closer each moment to its ultimate end, like a time bomb, based on the fact that the cause for the phenomenon's final disintegration or end is its coming into being, its arising. Tib: mi-rtag-pa phra-mo
subtle mindsubtile geistige AktivitätMental consciousness, both conceptual and nonconceptual.Tib: sems phra-mo
subtlest bodysubtilster KörperThe subtlest life-supporting energy-wind that accompanies each moment of subtlest mind.Tib: lus shin-tu phra-mo
subtlest mindsubtilste geistige Aktivität / subtilster GeistSee: clear light awarenessTib: sems shin-tu phra-mo
subtle windsfeinstoffliche WindeSee: subtle energy-winds
suffering, all-pervasiveLeiden, alles umfassendesSee: all-pervasively affecting suffering
suffering, all-pervasively affectingLeiden, alles umfassendesSee: all-pervasively affecting suffering
suffering of changeLeiden der VeränderungThe suffering of ordinary happiness, which never lasts, never satisfies, and which eventually turns into the suffering of suffering.Tib: 'gyur-ba'i sdug-bsngal
suffering of sufferingLeiden des LeidensThe suffering of gross pain or unhappiness.Tib: sdug-bsngal-gyi sdug bsnal
SugataSugataSee: Blissfully Gone One
superficial true phenomenonoberflächliches wahres PhänomIn den Lehrsystemen der Hinayana-Schulen bezeichnet der Begriff "oberflächliches wahres Phänomen" ein wahres Phänomen, das ein tiefer liegendes wahres Phänomen verschleiert oder verbirgt. Das oberflächliche wahre Phänomen wird auch als relativ wahres Phänomen, konventionell wahres Phänomen oder offensichtlich wahres Phänomen bezeichnet. Tib: kun-rdzob bden-pa
Skt: samvrtisatya
superficial truthoberflächliche WahrheitIn the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that veils or conceals a deeper true fact about the same phenomenon. Also called: relative truth, conventional truth, apparent truth, surface truth.Tib: kun-rdzob bden-pa
Skt: samvrtisatya
superimposeüberlagernSee: interpolation
supported mandalaunterstütztes MandalaThe set of Buddha-figures residing inside the immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system visualized in tantra practice.Tib: brten-pa'i dkyil-'khor
supporting mandalaunterstützendes MandalaThe immeasurably magnificent palace of a symbolic world system, together with the environment around it, visualized in tantra practice.Tib: rten-pa'i dkyil-'khor
sutraSutra(1) Texts by Shakyamuni Buddha, both Hinayana and Mahayana, that discuss themes of practice.(2) Within the context of the Three Baskets (Tripitaka), the texts of Buddha that especially concern the training in higher concentration. (3) Within the context of Buddha's teachings divided into sutra and tantra, the division that does not entail visualization of oneself as a Buddha-figure. (3) Within the context of the twelve scriptural categories, the texts that present what Buddha had to say in a brief and condensed format. Also called: expositions on themes of practice.Tib: mdo
Skt: sutra
sutra mahamudraSutra-MahamudraMeditations on the nature of the mind with regard to only gross and subtle minds -- in other words, sensory and mental consciousness -- and not with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.Tib: mdo'i phyag-chen
SvabhavakayaSvabhavakayaSee: Corpus of Essential Nature
systems of tenetsLehrsystemeSee: tenet systemTib: grub-mtha’
tactile sensationsTaktile Empfindungen und andere KörperempfindungenSee: physical sensations
taintedbeflecktSomething that derives from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is related in some way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. According to Vasubandhu, they give rise to further tainted phenomena; while according to Asanga, only some do that. Also translated as "mixed with confusion. Some translators render this term as "contaminated."Tib: zag-bcas
Skt: sashrava
tainted aggregatesbefleckte AggregateThe five aggregate factors of experience that derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or are related in some with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Some translators render the term as "contaminated aggregates."Tib: zag-bcas kyi phung-po
take refugeZuflucht nehmenSee: take safe direction
take safe directionsichere Richtung einschlagen / in ihnen eine sichere Ausrichtung suchen / einen sicheren Weg in Richtung ...einschlagen / in eine sichere Richtung gehenTo put a direction in one's life, which, when one goes in it, protects one from true suffering and its true causes and which, when one reaches its endpoint, allows one to avoid true suffering and its true causes forever. Some translators render this as "take refuge," but it has no connotation of merely opening up and passively receiving protection.Tib: skyabs-'gro
take safe direction from the Three Gemssichere Richtung zu den Drei Juwelen einschlagenTo turn toward the direction indicated by the Three Rare and Supreme Gems (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) and to put that safe direction in one's life. Some translators render this as "go for refuge to the Three Gems."Tib: dkon-mchog-gsum-la skyabs-su-'gro
taking caresich kümmern (um)See: caring attitude
taking of safe direction, causalEinschlagen der sicheren Richtung, ursächlichesSee: causal taking of safe direction
taking of safe direction, mereEinschlagen der sicheren Richtung, bloßesSee: mere taking of safe direction
taking of safe direction, resultantEinschlagen der sicheren Richtung, resultierendesSee: resultant taking of safe direction
taking of safe direction, specialEinschlagen der sicheren Richtung, besonderesSee: special taking of safe direction
taking to mindgeistig AufnehmenSee: attentionTib: yid-la byed-pa
tamed behaviorgezügeltes VerhaltenEthical behavior with which one both restrains oneself from destructive actions and engages in constructive ones.Tib: brtul-zhugs
tantraTantra(1) An everlasting stream of continuity. On the causal level, the mental continuum, with its various aspects of Buddha-nature. On the pathway level, the continuity of practices involving Buddha-figures. On the resultant level, the continuity of the various corpuses or bodies of a Buddha. (2) The texts that discuss the above topics.Tib: rgyud
Skt: tantra
tantra, nondualTantra, nichtdualesSee: nondual tantra
tantra mahamudraTantra-MahamudraSee: mantra mahamudra
tantric mastertantrischer MeisterA spiritual mentor who confers on disciples tantric vows. According to some commentaries, a spiritual mentor who confers on disciples empowerments and subsequent permissions from any of the classes of tantra.Tib: rdo-rje slob-dpon
Skt: vajracarya
TathagataTathagataSee: Thusly Gone One
teacher, spiritualLehrer, spirituellerSee: spiritual teacher
teaching, definitiveLehre, eindeutige / Lehre, endgültigeSee: definitive teaching
teaching, interpretableLehre, auslegbareSee: interpretable teaching
tendency, karmicTendenz, karmischeSee: karmic tendency
tenet systemLehrsystemA set of principles or assertions of a particular traditional Indian school of philosophy or of astronomical calculations.Tib: grub-mtha'
Skt: siddhanta
ten levels of highly realized mindszehn Ebenen eines höchst verwirklichten Geistesalso translated as: ten bhumi mindsTib: sa-bcu
Skt: dasha-bhumi
termaTermaSee: treasure textTib: gter-ma
testTestTest für Christian
thick actionsschwerwiegende HandlungenA set of eight actions that, at either a yoga or anuttarayoga empowerment, one vows to avoid and which, if committed, weaken meditation practice and hamper progress along the tantra path. Also called: secondary tantric vows.Tib: sbom-po
thing, referentDing, auf die sich etwas beziehtSee: referent thing
thinking with a distorted antagonistic attitudemit einer verzerrten, feindseligen Geisteshaltung denkenSee: distorted antagonistic thinking
thinking with a distorted viewmit einer verzerrten Ansicht denkenSee: distorted antagonistic thinking
thirty-two excellent signsZweiunddreißig hervorragende ZeichenAuch übersetzt als "32 Hauptmerkmale".Tib: mtshan bzang-po gsum-cu rtsa-gnyis
thoroughly established phenomenavollkommen begründete Phänomene(1) In the context of the Mahayana tenet system, a synonym for deepest truths. Specifically, in the Chittamatra system, the various voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvana. (2) In the Buddhist medical system, hereditary, congenital diseases; genetic disorders.Tib: yongs-grub
Skt: parinishpanna
Three Buddha-Bodiesdrei BuddhakörperSee: Three Corpuses of a Buddha
three circlesdrei KreiseThree aspects of an action that are all equally void of true existence: (1) the individual performing the action, (2) the object upon or toward which the action is committed, and (3) the action itself. Occasionally, as in the case of the action of giving, the object may refer to the object given. The existence of each of these is established dependently on the others. Sometimes translated as "the three spheres" of an action.Tib: 'khor-lo gsum
Three Corpuses of a Buddhadrei Körper des Buddha(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), and (3) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.Tib: sku-gsum
Skt: trikaya
Three GemsDrei KleinodienSee: Three Rare and Supreme Gems
Three JewelsDrei JuwelenSee: Three Rare and Supreme Gems
Three Jewels of RefugeDrei Juwelen der Zuflucht / Drei ZufluchtsjuwelenSee: Three Rare and Supreme Gems
three planes of existencedrei Ebenen der ExistenzSee: three planes of samsaric existence
three planes of samsaric existencedrei Ebenen der samsarischen ExistenzA threefold division of samsaric rebirth states: the planes of (1) sensory desires, (2) ethereal forms, and (3) formless beings. Sometimes called "the three realms."Tib: khams-gsum
Skt: tridhatu
three purified statesdrei gereinigte ZuständeThe three states of bodhi; the three states of a shravaka arhat, a pratyekabuddha arhat, and a Buddha.
Three Rare and Supreme GemsDrei Seltene und Überragende KleinodienThe Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. Also called "The Three Gems," "The Triple Gem," "The Three Jewels," and "The Three Jewels of Refuge."Tib: dkon-mchog gsum
Skt: triratna
three realmsdrei BereicheSee: three planes of samsaric existence
thresholdSchwelleAuch übersetzt als: dem Erreichen nahe, schwarze ErscheinungTib: nyer-thob
Thusly Gone OneSo-GegangenerA epithet of a Buddha -- one who has gone to the goal of enlightenment through nonconceptual cognition of voidness, the very nature of reality (thusness).Tib: de-bzhin gshegs-pa
Skt: tathagata
thusnessSoheitSee: very nature of reality
thusness offeringOpfergabe der SoheitSee: offering of the very nature of reality
timeZeitAn interval imputed or measured in the continuum of the occurrence of a sequence of cause and effect. Since time is conceptually imputable, time is a function of and therefore relative to the mind that conceptually imputes it.Tib: dus
Skt: kala
tonglenTonglenSee: giving and taking
total absorptionvöllige VertiefungA state of mind having the joined pair of shamatha and vipashyana, and in which absorbed concentration is focused single-pointedly on a voidness that is like space. It may be either conceptual or nonconceptual. Sometimes translated as "meditative equipoise."Tib: mnyam-bzhag
Skt: samahita
totally conceptional phenomenavöllig konzeptionelle Phänomene(1) In the context of the Chittamatra tenet-system, all static phenomena other than the various types of voidness, true stoppings, and nirvana, plus all non-existent phenomena. (2) In the context of the Madhyamaka tenet-system, all non-existent phenomena, especially true existence.Tib: kun-btags
Skt: parikalpita
totally imaginary forms of physical phenomenavollkommen imaginäre Formen physischer PhänomeneForms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which appear in certain mental states, such as the sensory objects appearing in dreams and the conceptually implied objects in visualizations and imaginings.Tib: kun-btags-pa'i gzugs
trainer, meditationTrainer, Meditations-See: meditation trainer
trainer, ritualRitualtrainerSee: ritual trainer
traits, abidingEigenschaften, andauerndeSee: naturally abiding family-traits
traits, evolvingEigenschaften, sich entwickelndeSee: evolving family-traits
transference of consciousnessÜbertragung des BewusstseinsSee: phowa
transmission, oralÜbertragung, mündlicheSee: oral transmission
treasure textSchatztextTexts planted by Indian or Tibetan masters, either in a physical location, such as inside a pillar of a temple, or in the minds of disciples and hidden there for safekeeping during times that were not conducive for their practice. Often referred to by the transliterated Tibetan term "terma."Tib: gter-ma
Triple GemDreifaches KleinodSee: Three Rare and Supreme Gems
Triumphant OneGlorreiche, derAn epithet of a Buddha - one who has triumphed over the emotional and cognitive obscurations. Some translators render the term as "Victorious One."Tib: rgyal-ba
Skt: jina
true cessationwahre BeendigungSee: true stopping
true existencewahre Existenz(1) An impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Existence established or proven (a) merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, or (b) by the power of something on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis, according to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka. (2) A mode of existence that is true. Existence established or proven by (a) arising from causes and conditions, according to Jetsunpa and Kunkhyen Gelug Sautrantika, or (b) the power of something on the side of an object, according to Panchen Gelug Sautrantika and Gelug Chittamatra. Also translated as "truly established existence."Tib: bden-par grub-pa
true findable existencewahrhaft auffindbare ExistenzExistence established or proven by the power of something findable on the side of an object, either by itself or in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and findably established existence."Tib: bden-par grub-pa
true identity, lack ofwahre Identität, Mangel anSee: lack of true identities
true originwahrer UrsprungAlso translated as: true causesTib: kun-'byung bden-pa
Skt: samudaya-satya
true pathway mindwahrer PfadgeistAlso called: true pathTib: lam-bden
Skt: marga-satya
true realitywahre RealitätA nontechnical term used for what actually exists.
true stoppingwahre BeendigungThe elimination, forever, of some degree of either an emotional or a cognitive obscuration from a mental continuum. They occur only on the mental continuum of aryas -- those with nonconceptual cognition of voidness. Often translated as "true cessation."Tib: 'gog-pa'i bden-pa
Skt: nirodha-satya
true unimputed existencewahre nichtzugeschriebene ExistenzExistence established or proven merely by the power of something on the side of an object and not in conjunction with being something imputable on a basis. According to Madhyamaka, an impossible mode of existence mistakenly considered to be true. Also called "truly and unimputedly established existence."Tib: bden-par grub-pa
truly and findably established existencewahrhaft und auffindbar begründete ExistenzSee: true findable existence
truly and unimputedly established existencewahrhaft und nichtzugeschrieben begründete ExistenzSee: true unimputed existence
truly established existencewahrhaft begründete ExistenzSee: true existence
truth, deepesttiefste WahrheitSee: deepest truth
truth, superficialWahrheit, oberflächlicheSee: superficial truth
truths, twoWahrheiten, zweiSee: two truths
twelve links of dependent arisingzwölf Glieder des abhängigen EntstehensThe twelve-part mechanism whereby the existence of all samsaric phenomena, especially those of future rebirth, are established by reliance on unawareness: (1) unawareness, (2) affecting impulses, (3) loaded consciousness, (4) nameable mental faculties with or without gross form, (5) stimulators of cognition, (6) contacting awareness, (7) feeling a level of happiness, (8) craving, (9) an obtainer, (10) further existence, (11) conception, and (12) aging and dying.Tib: rten-'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyis
twelve stimulators of cognitionzwölf AnregerThe twelve classes of nonstatic phenomena that serve as focal and dominating conditions for the six types of cognition -- namely, (1) sights, (2) eye sensors, (3) sounds, (4) ear sensors, (5) smells, (6) nose sensors, (7) tastes, (8) tongue sensors, (9) physical sensations, (10) body sensors, (11) (all) phenomena, and (12) mnd sensors.Tib: skye-mched bcu-gnyis
Skt: dvadasha ayatana
Two Buddha-Bodieszwei BuddhakörperSee: Two Corpuses of a Buddha
Two Corpuses of a Buddhazwei Körper eines Buddha(1) A Corpus of Forms (Rupakaya) and (2) Corpus Encompassing Everything (Dharmakaya) of a Buddha.Tib: sku-gnyis
two truthszwei Wahrheiten(1) In Hinayana, two types of validly knowable phenomena into which all existent phenomena can be divided: superficially true and deepest true phenomena. (2) In Gelug Mahayana, two true facts that can be validly known about any existent phenomenon. (3) In non-Gelug Mahayana, all existent phenomena cognized with dualistic appearance-making and cognized without dualistic appearance-making.Tib: bden-pa gnyis
ultimate bodhichittaletztendliches BodhichittaSee: deepest bodhichitta
ultimate levelletztendliche Ebene / höchste EbeneThe final, most profound level of something. Sometimes also translated as "deepest level" or "ultimate deepest level."Tib: mthar-thug
ultimate phenomenon, denumerableletztendliches Phänomen, mit Worten fassbaresSee: denumerable ultimate phenomenon
ultimate phenomenon, nondenumerableletztendliches Phänomen, nicht mit Worten fassbaresSee: nondenumerable ultimate phenomenon
ultimate source of safe directionletztendliche Quelle der sicheren AusrichtungThe Buddhas, as the only ones with full sets of true stoppings and true pathway minds on their mental continuums.Tib: mthar-thug-gi skyabs-gnas
ultimate truthletztendliche WahrheitSee: deepest truth
ultimate vehicles of mindletztendliches Fahrzeug des GeistesAccording to the tenets of the Chittamatra Followers of Scripture, three vehicles of mind that lead to three different final goals -- shravaka arhatship, pratyekabuddha arhatship, and Buddhahood -- which, once one has been attained, do not allow for the person who has attained it to achieve one of the other two goals. Thus, shravaka arhats and pratyekabuddha arhats cannot attain enlightenment.Tib: mthar-thug theg-pa
unaffectedvon nichts beeinflusstSee: unaffected phenomenon
unaffected phenomenonnichtbeinflusstes PhänomenA phenomenon that is not affected by causes or conditions. A synonym for static phenomenon. Often rendered by other translators as "unconditioned phenomenon."Tib: 'dus ma-byas
Skt: asamskrtadharma
unartificialnichtkünstlichSee: uncontrived
unassociated with confusiongetrennt von VerwirrungSee: untainted
unawarenessUnwissenheit(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, not knowing. (2) According to Dharmakirti, knowing in an inverted (incorrect) manner. In both cases, unawareness is of either behavioral cause and effect, or of the lack of an impossible "soul" or voidness. Translators often render the term as "ignorance."Tib: ma-rig-pa
Skt: avidya
unawareness, automatically arisingUnwissenheit, automatisch erscheinendeSee: automatically arising unawareness
unawareness, doctrinally basedUnwissenheit, doktrinär bedingteSee: doctrinally based unawareness
uncommendable actionnicht lobenswerte HandlungAn action that ripens into the experience of suffering by the person who commits it or into a hindrance to his or her spiritual practice. An action that cannot be spoken about with praise.Tib: kha-na ma-tho-ba
Skt: avadya
uncommendable action, prohibitedunlöbliche Handlungen, die der Buddha bestimmten Individuen untersagt hatSee: prohibited uncommendable action
unconditioned phenomenonunbedingtes PhänomenSee: unaffected phenomenon
uncontrivednichtkünstlichA state of mind not mentally constructed by conceptual thought. Also translated as "unartificial."Tib: bcos-med
uncontrollably recurring existenceunkontrollierbare sich wiederholende ExistenzSee: samsara
uncontrollably recurring samsaraunkontrollierbar sich wiederholendes SamsaraSee: samsara
unhappinessUnglücklichseinThat feeling which, when it arises, one wants to be parted from it.Tib: mi-bde-ba
Skt: du:kha (duhkha)
unified pairvereintes PaarA pair of items, joined inseparably, in which the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously. Sometimes used as a general term whether the initial attainment of both items occurs simultaneously or sequentially.Tib: zung-'jug
Skt: yuganaddha
unimputednichtzugeschriebenSee: true unimputed existence
universalAllgemeine(s)See: conceptual category
universal, audioAllgemeines, Hör-See: audio category
universal, collectionAlllgemeines, Sammlungs-See: collection mental synthesis
universal, kindAllgemeines, Arten-See: kind mental synthesis
universal, meaningAllgemeines, bedeutungsbezogenesSee: mental category
universal, objectAllgemeines, objektbezogenesSee: object mental synthesis
universal, soundAllgemeines, Klang-See: audio category
unlaboredmühelosA state of mind, such as bodhichitta, generated instantly without needing to work oneself up to it, with deliberate effort, through a series of steps, each of which entails a line of reasoning.Tib: rtsol-med
unlabored bodhichittamüheloses BodhichittaA bodhichitta aim that arises automatically and effortlessly, without need to build up to it through steps or by relying on lines of reasoning.Tib: rtsol-med byang-sems
unmixed with confusionnicht vermischt mit VerwirrungSee: untainted
untaintedunbeflecktSomething that does not derive from a disturbing emotion or attitude, or is not related in any way with a disturbing emotion or attitude. Also translated as "unmixed with confusion" or "dissociated from confusion." Many translators render this term as "uncontaminated."Tib: zag-med
Skt: anashrava
untainted aggregatesunbefleckte AggregateAggregate factors of someone's experience that do not include the causes that will obtain for that being any further samsaric rebirths.Tib: zag-med-kyi phung-po
upsettingaufregendA way of being aware of something that shares five congruent features with craving for one's own tainted, obtainer aggregate factors of experience.Tib: zang-zing
urgeDrangSee: mental urge
VaibhashikaVaibhashikaA Hinayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert reflexive awareness and does assert external phenomena; a subdivision of the Sarvastivada school of Hinayana. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.Tib: Bye-brag smra-ba
Vajra BodyVajra-KörperSee: Vajra Corpus
Vajra Body, ImmutableVajra-Körper, unveränderlicherSee: Immutable Vajra Corpus
Vajra CorpusVajra-KörperIn some dzogchen systems, the voidness factor of the deep awareness of a Buddha's pure awareness (rigpa); the unchanging nature of the other corpuses of a Buddha. Also called Vajra Body.Tib: rdo-rje-i sku
Skt: vajrakaya
Vajra Corpus, ImmutableVajra-Körper, unveränderlicherSee: Immutable Vajra Corpus
VajrayanaVajrayanaThe Diamond-strong Vehicle of Mind, within Mahayana, that makes use of the tantra methods. Synonymous with "Mantrayana" and "Tantrayana."Tib: rdo-rje theg-pa
Skt: vajrayana
valid bare cognitiongültige bloße WahrnehmungBare cognition that is fresh and nonfallacious. See: bare cognition.Tib: mngon-sum tshad-ma
Skt: pratyakshapramana
valid cognitiongültige Wahnehmung(1) According to Gelug Sautrantika, Gelug Chittamatra, and Gelug Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, a fresh, nonfallacious cognition. (2) According to Gelug Prasangika and all tenet systems according to non-Gelug, a nonfallacious cognition.Tib: tshad-ma
Skt: pramana
validly knowable phenomenagültig erkennbare PhänomenePhenomena that can be the objects of valid cognition. Synonymous with "existents."Tib: shes-bya
valid straightforward cognitiongültige einfache WahrnehmungStraightforward cognition that is nonfallacious. See: straightforward cognition.Tib: mngon-sum tshad-ma
Skt: pratyakshapramana
Vanquishing MasterSiegreicher MeisterSee: Vanquishing Master Surpassing All
Vanquishing Master Surpassing AllAlles Übertreffender Siegreicher MeisterAn epithet of a Buddha - one who has conquered (vanquished) all obstacles, attained (mastered) all good qualities, and gone beyond (surpassed) any of the Hindu gods for whom the epithet Bhagavan has also been applied. Some translators render the term as "Blessed One."Tib: bcom-ldan-'das
Skt: bhagavan
vast-mindedgeistig weitreichend, weitreichend-gesonnenAn adjective used to describe a Mahayana practice, practitioner, person, aim, or motivation. It implies something that involves a mind that is aimed at the vastest goal (enlightenment) for the vastest number of beings (everyone).
Vast Vehicleumfassendes FahrzeugSee: Vast Vehicle of Mind
Vast Vehicle of Mindumfassendes Fahrzeug des GeistesSee: Mahayana
vehicleFahrzeugSee: vehicle of mind
vehicle of mindFahrzeug des GeistesA level of state of mind that acts as either (1) a vehicle for bringing one to the spiritual goal of either liberation or enlightenment, or (2) the resultant goal of liberation or enlightenment to which one is brought.Tib: theg-pa
Skt: yana
verses, melodicVerse, wohlklingendeSee: melodic verses
verses, meteredVerse, metrischeSee: metered verses
verses, specialVerse, besondereSee: special verses
vertical mental synthesisvertikale geistige SyntheseA collection or mental synthesis that extends over time, such as a human body over a lifetime.Tib: gong-ma'i spyi
very nature of realityeigentliche Natur der RealitätA synonym for voidness (emptiness). Some translators render the term as "thusness."Tib: de-kho-na-nyid
Skt: tattvam
Victorious OneSiegreicher, der SiegreicheSee: Triumphant One
viewAnsicht / Auffassung / SichtIn the description of a Buddhist system in terms of the view of reality, a way of meditating, and way of behaving that it espouses, the main way for regarding and understanding reality. See also: outlook.Tib: lta-ba
view, distortedAnsicht, verzerrteSee: distorted outlook
view of reality, way of meditating, and way of behavingSicht der Wirklichkeit, eine Meditations- und VerhaltensweiseA way to describe a Buddhist system that specifies it in terms of its main way for regarding and understanding reality, its main topic of meditation, and its main manner of acting in the world.Tib: lta-sgom-spyod gsum
vinayaVinayaSee: rules of discipline
vipassanaVipassanaVipassana (Pali for vipashyana) is a state of mind that cognizes clearly, distinctly and directly the true nature of the breath, thoughts, and all other affecting variables -- namely their being nonstatic (impermanent), suffering, and, in relation to them, the lack of an impossible soul. Also, the Theravada practices leading to this state of mind. See also: exceptionally perceptive state of mind.
viraVira (spirituelle Helden)(spiritual hero)Tib: dpa'-bo
viriniVirini (spirituelle Heldinnen)(spiritual heroine)Tib: dpa'-mo
virtuoustugendhaft / ehrenhaft / rechtschaffenSee: constructive
void formLeerheit-FormSee: devoid form
voidnessLeerheitEine Abwesenheit einer unmöglichen Art zu existieren. Die unmögliche Art zu existieren hat es zu keiner Zeit jemals [überhaupt nie] gegeben. Dieser Begriff wird von Übersetzern häufig mit dem Begriff "Leere" übertragen. [ausgedrückt]Tib: stong-pa-nyid
Skt: shunyata
voidness, otherLeerheit, anderesSee: other-voidness
voidness, realizeLeerheit verwirklichen / Leerheit erkennenSee: realize voidness
voidness, selfLeerheit, selbstSee: self-voidness
vowGelübde(1) In the Sautrantika, Chittamatra, and Madhyamaka schools other than Gelug Prasangika, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to restrain from a certain type of detrimental behavior, which, during a specific ceremony, one has formally promised to restrain from. (2) In the Vaibhashika and Gelug-Prasangika systems, a non-revealing form on a person's mental continuum that performs the same function as in (1) by shaping one's behavior.Tib: sdom-pa
Skt: samvara
vowed restraintgelobte Enthaltung / Einschränkung / ZurückhaltungSee: vow
vow preceptorGelübde-Präzeptor / die Gelübde abnehmender PräzeptorA spiritual mentor who has kept one or more of the sets of pratimoksha vows purely for a certain number of years and who confers on disciples one of the sets of pratimoksha vows that he or she has kept purely.
vows, bodhisattvaGelübde, Bodhisattva-See: bodhisattva vows
vows, tantricGelübde, tantrischeSee: tantric vows
vows for individual liberationGelübde der individuellen Befreiung / Gelübde für die individuelle BefreiungSee: pratimoksha vows
wandering, mentalAbschweifung, geistigeSee: mental wandering
wandering beingwanderndes WesenA being that "wanders" from one uncontrollably recurring rebirth to the next; a being caught in samsara. Synonymous with "limited being" (sentient being).Tib: 'gro-ba
Skt: gamin
wavering, indecisiveSchwanken, unentschlossenesSee: indecisive wavering
way of cognitively taking an objectArt, ein Objekt kognitiv aufzunehmenAlso called: way of taking an objectTib: 'dzin-stangs
ways of being aware of somethingWeisen, in denen man sich etwas gewahr istEine von drei Arten nichtstatischer Phänomene - alle Arten geistiger Aktivität, die ein Objekt wahrnehmen.Tib: shes-pa
wholehearted commitment to a spiritual mentorsich einem spirituellen Lehrer von ganzem Herzen anvertrauenSee: relating to a spiritual mentor in a healthy manner
winds of karmakarmische WindeIn the Kalachakra system, the subtle energy-winds that carry the impulses of karma -- either the karmic impulses that draw one into actions or the karmic impulses with which one carries out physical or verbal actions.Tib: las-kyi rlung
without a referent aimohne Ausrichtung auf ein BezugsobjektA state of mind, such as immeasurable compassion, that lacks focus on the three circles ('khor-gsum) involved -- the action itself (in the case of compassion, wishing all beings to be free from suffering), the object, and the agent -- existing in an impossible way. Also translated as: unaimed.Tib: dmigs-med
words, permittedWörter, gestatteteSee: permitted words
would-be divineMöchtegern-GottAlso called: anti-godsTib: lha ma-yin
Skt: asura
wrong livelihoodfalscher Lebenserwerb / falsche Methode des LebenserwerbsA dishonest means of earning a livelihood or procuring offerings.Tib: log-'tsho
wrong viewfalsche AnsichtSee: distorted outlook
wrong views, sixty-twofalsche AnsichtSee: sixty-two wrong views
YogacharaYogacharaAnother name for the Chittamatra school of Indian Buddhism.Tib: rNal-'byor spyod-pa
zhinayShineSee: stilled and settled state of mindTib: zhi-gnas

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