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Englisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles

EnglischDeutschDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)Tibetisch / Sanskrit
dawnerscheinenA verb used for the arising of a cognitive appearance on a mental continuum, in analogy with the sun rising at dawn, except that the cognitive appearance is not already existing somewhere hidden in the mind in some unconscious manner and then comes up to consciousness when it dawns. Also translated as "to arise."Tib: shar-ba
death existenceTodes-ExistenzThe period of time in the mental continuum of an individual limited being during which they experience death. Unless one successfully does advanced anuttarayoga tantra meditations at this time, this period lasts only one moment.Tib: 'chi-srid
deceptivetrügerischBeing mistaken or confusing with respect to the appearance of something.Tib: 'khrul-ba
deceptive appearancetrügerische ErscheinungA cognitive object that appears to exist in a manner different from the way in which it actually exists.Tib: 'khrul-snang
deceptive cognitiontrügerische WahrnehmungA cognition that takes a phenomenon's mode of existence that it makes appear -- namely, an appearance of its seemingly true existence -- to be the phenomenon's actual mode of existence. The deceptive cognition may be either accurate or distorted with respect to the appearance it makes of the superficial truth of what the phenomenon conventionally is.Tib: 'khrul-shes
decisive awarenessentscheidendes GewahrseinSee: ascertainment
decisive cognitionentscheidende WahrnehmungSee: ascertainment
decisive explicationsentscheidende ErklärungenPrecise indications of the meaning of the works in The Basket of Sutras by specifying the individual and general definitions of things. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: gtan-la phab-pa
Skt: upadesha
dedicated hearthingebungsvolles HerzSee: bodhichitta
dedicationWidmungSee: dedication prayer
dedication prayerWidmungsgebet / Gebet der WidmungA prayer for the attainment of a spiritual goal or of the circumstances conducive for reaching that goal, in which the person making the prayer directs the positive force (merit) from a constructive action that he or she has done toward ripening into that attainment.Tib: bsngo-ba
Skt: pranidhana
deep awarenesstiefes Gewahrsein(1) In the context of the five types of deep awareness, a type of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. It is "deep" in the sense that it is a fundamental way in which the mind works and has always been there, primordially, with no beginning and no end. (2) When contrasted with "discriminating awareness" (Tib. shes-rab) in the non-Gelug usage of the term, the principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the deepest truth of something (its inseparable voidness and appearance), beyond all words and concepts. (3) In the context of the ten Mahayana far-reaching attitudes, when contrasted with "discriminating awareness," principal awareness that nonconceptually cognizes the two truths of something. (4) In the context of an arya's nonconceptual cognition of voidness, in the Gelug usage, either the principal awareness that explicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness (deepest truth) during total absorption or the principal awareness that implicitly and nonconceptually cognizes voidness during subsequent attainment.Tib: ye-shes
Skt: jnana
deep awareness, accomplishingtiefes Gewahrsein, vollbringendesSee: accomplishing deep awareness
deep awareness, reflexivetiefes Gewahrsein, reflexivesSee: reflexive deep awareness
deep awareness, self-arisingtiefes Gewahrsein, selbstentstehendesSee: self-arising deep awareness
deep awareness alayaAlaya des tiefen GewahrseinsIn the Karma Kagyu system, a synonym for "mind-itself": the pure aspect of mind that is an aspect of Buddha-nature.Tib: kun-gzhi ye-shes
deep awareness DharmakayaDharmakaya des tiefen GewahrseinsSee: Corpus of Deep Awareness' Encompassing Everything
deep awareness of realitytiefes Gewahrsein der RealitätOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness of the superficial truth of something -- namely, awareness of what it is. When developed on the spiritual path, this deep awareness may also be of the deepest truth of something -- namely, its voidness. Also called: deep awareness of the sphere of reality.Tib: chos-dbyings ye-shes
Skt: dharmadhatu-jnana
deep awareness of the equality of thingstiefes Gewahrsein der Gleichheit der DingeSee: equalizing deep awareness
deep awareness of the individuality of thingstiefes Gewahrsein der Individualität der DingeSee: individualizing deep awareness
deep awareness of the sphere of realitytiefes Gewahrsein der Wirklichkeitssphäre / der RealitätssphäreSee: deep awareness of reality
deep awareness that is like a mirrortiefes Gewahrsein, das wie ein Spiegel istSee: mirror-like deep awareness
deep awareness to accomplish thingstiefes Gewahrsein, wie man Werke vollbringtSee: accomplishing deep awareness
deepest bodhichittatiefstes BodhichittaThe deep awareness that has nonconceptual cognition of voidness.Tib: don-dam-pa'i byang-chub-gyi sems
deepest Buddha Gemtiefstes BuddhajuwelA Buddha's Dharmakaya as a source of safe direction (refuge).Tib: don-dam-pa'i sangs-rgyas dkon-mchog
deepest Dharma Gemtiefstes DharmajuwelThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or a monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge). Tib: don-dam-pa'i chos dkon-mchog
deepest leveltiefste EbeneThe level of some phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by something more superficial about that phenomenon. Sometimes translated as "ultimate level" or "deepest ultimate level."Tib: don-dam-pa
deepest level Precious Gemstiefste Ebene der kostbaren JuwelenThe level of the Three Rare and Supreme Gems that are concealed by the apparent level gems.Tib: don-dam-pa'i dkon-mchog
deepest Sangha Gemtiefstes SanghajuwelThe true stoppings and true pathway minds on the mental continuum of an arya, whether a layperson or monastic, as a source of safe direction (refuge). Tib: don-dam-pa'i dge-'dun dkon-mchog
deepest truthtiefste WahrheitIn the Mahayana tenet systems, a true fact about a phenomenon that is veiled or concealed by a more superficial true fact about the same phenomenon. Some translators render this term as "ultimate truth."Tib: don-dam bden-pa
Skt: paramartha
defilementVerunreinigungSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
defining characteristicsdefinierende CharakteristikaSee: defining characteristic mark
definitive teachingendgültige Lehre / eindeutige LehreA passage in a sutra text that discusses the most profound view of voidness, and to which all other passages in all other sutra texts eventually lead or point. Such passages do not need to be explained as indicating anything more profound.Tib: nges-don
Skt: nitartha
deity, forcefulGottheit, kraftvolleSee: forceful deity
deluded awarenessverblendetes GewahrseinA primary consciousness that is aimed at the alayavijnana in the Chittamatra system, or at the alaya for habits in the dzogchen system, and grasps at it to be the "me" to be refuted.Tib: nyon-yid
deluded outlookverblendete AuffassungOne of a set of five disturbing attitudes that view their objects in a certain way, for example as "me" or "mine." They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to, without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. They are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation, but they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything. Also called in full: "a disturbing, deluded outlook on life." Equivalent to the coined term "disturbing attitude." See: disturbing emotion or attitude.Tib: lta-ba nyon-mongs-can
deluded outlook toward a transitory networkverblendete Auffassung in Bezug auf ein vergängliches Netzwerk(1) According to Vasubandhu and Asanga, the disturbing attitude that regards some transitory network from one's own samsara-perpetuating five aggregates as "me" or as "mine." (2) According to Tsongkhapa, the disturbing attitude that focuses on the conventional "me" and regards it as a truly findable "me" identical with the aggregates, or as "me, the possessor, controller, or inhabitant" of the aggregates.Tib: 'jig-tshogs-la lta-ba
Skt: satkayadrshti
delusionVerblendungSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
demonic forcedämonische KraftSomething that harms limited beings or causes interference and obstacles to constructive actions.Tib: bdud
Skt: mara
denumerable ultimate phenomenonmit Worten fassbare letzendliche PhänomeneVoidnesses that are validly cognized conceptually. They are "denumerable" in the sense that they can be counted among what appears to minds validly cognizing phenomena through mentally labeling them with words and concepts.Tib: rnam-grangs-pa'I don-dam
dependent arisingbedingtes EntstehenThe reliance of something on something other than itself for establishing its existence. (1) The reliance of all samsaric phenomena on unawareness for establishing their existence; (2) the reliance of all functional, nonstatic phenomena on causes and conditions for establishing their existence; (3) the reliance of both static and nonstatic phenomena on their parts for establishing their existence; (4) the reliance of all phenomena on mental labeling for establishing their existence. Also translated as "dependent origination."Tib: rten-cing 'brel-bar 'byung-ba
Skt: pratityasamutpada
dependent phenomenonabhängiges PhänomenA validly knowable object that arises dependently on causes and conditions. All nonstatic phenomena. Often translated literally as "other-powered phenomenon."Tib: gzhan-dbang
Skt: paratantra
derivative, mentalAbleitung, geistigeSee: mental derivative
desirable sensory objects, five types ofbegehrenswerte Sinnesobjekte, fünf ArtenSee: five types of desirable sensory objects
desireVerlangenSee: longing desire
desire, longingVerlangen, sehnsüchtigesSee: longing desire
desire realmBereich des BegehrensSee: plane of sensory desires
destructiveschädlich / destruktivStates of mind, or physical, verbal, or mental actions motivated by them, which ripen into unhappiness or the suffering of problems or pain, to be experienced by the person on whose mental continuum they occur. Since the term carries no connotation of moral judgment, the translation "nonvirtuous" is misleading for this term.Tib: mi-dge-ba
Skt: akushala
detachmentLoslösungThe constructive mental factor of bored disgust with and thus lack of longing desire for compulsive existence and objects of compulsive existence. Also translated as "nonattachment."Tib: chags-pa med-pa
Skt: asanga
detection, grossAuffinden, grobesSee: gross detection
devastatevernichtenTo totally weaken the effectiveness of something, such as the positive force of a constructive act, such that it ripens into something far less and more distant in the future, but without completely eliminating its potential to ripen.Tib: bcom
devoidfrei von etwas/ ohne/ bar einer Sache/ leerTotally lacking something, in the sense that something never has in the past, never does in the present, and never will in the future possess a certain characteristic, whether that characteristic is a possibly existing one or an impossible one.Tib: stong
devotion, guruGuru, Hingabe zumSee: guru devotion
dharmaDharma(1) Preventive measures which, if one puts into practice or achieves, prevent the experience of future suffering. (2) Buddha's teachings. (3) Any phenomenon or "thing."Tib: chos
Skt: dharma
Dharma, "real thing"Dharma, der echteSee: real-thing Dharma
Dharma Gem, apparentDharmajuwel, offensichtlichesSee: apparent Dharma Gem
Dharma Gem, deepestDharmajuwel, tiefstesSee: deepest Dharma Gem
Dharma Gem, nominalDharmajuwel, nominellesSee: nominal Dharma Gem
Dharma instructorDharma-AusbilderA teacher, either lay or monastic, Western or Asian, who explains the Buddhist teachings from his or her own experiential insight and understanding.
DharmakayaDharmakayaSee: Corpus Encompassing Everything
Dharma-liteDharma lightA version of the Buddhist teachings without the presentation of past and futures lives and in which the motivating aim is usually just to improve one's samsaric existence of this life.
Dharma-protectorDharma-SchützerA class of forceful beings, tamed by Buddha or a spiritual lineage master such as Guru Rinpoche, and made to take an oath to protect the Dharma and its practitioners. They may be either ordinary worldly beings (non-aryas) or highly realized aryas. In some cases, they are emanations of a Buddha, appearing in the form of a Dharma-protector.Tib: chos-skyong
Skt: dharmapala
dichotomyDichotomieTwo mutually exclusive sets form a dichotomy if all existent phenomena must be a member of either one or the other mutually exclusive set.Tib: dngos-'gal
direct causedirekte UrsacheThe phenomenon that actually produces its result, without need for any intermediary -- for example, a visible object is the direct cause for the seeing of it.Tib: dngos-rgyu
direct cognitiondirekte WahrnehmungAccording to the non-Gelug presentation, the type of cognition that a present moment of sensory consciousness has of the present moment of a mental aspect (mental hologram) of the immediately preceding moment of an external sense object. Compare: indirect cognition.Tib: dngos-su shes-pa
direction, safeRichtung, sichere / Ausrichtung, sichereSee: safe direction
discerning analysisklar erkennende AnalyseSee: subtle discernment
discerning meditationklar erkennende MeditationA method for habituating oneself to an insight, understanding, or state of mind, with which one focuses on an object and generates the desired insight, understanding, or state of mind about it, through using the mental factors of gross detection (investigation) and subtle discernment (scrutiny). The method may also entail applying a line reasoning that one has already understood and become convinced of its validity. Many translators render the term as "analytical meditation."Tib: dpyad-sgom
discernment, subtleUnterscheidungsvermögen, subtilesSee: subtle discernment
discourseausführliche ErklärungAn oral teaching on a spiritual topic, often concerning tantra.Tib: khrid
discriminateunterscheiden(1) To differentiate decisively between two things -- for example, between what is correct and incorrect, (2) to single out something and come to a decisive conclusion about it, for example to incorrectly discriminate the shravaka teachings as being essential for only shravakas, and worthless for bodhisattvas.
discriminating awarenessunterscheidendes GewahrseinThe mental factor that decisively discriminates between what is correct and what is incorrect, or between what is helpful and what is harmful, or between what is appropriate or what is inappropriate, or between what is reality and what is not reality. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: shes-rab
Skt: prajna
discriminationUnterscheidungSee: discriminating awareness
dissociated from confusiongetrennt von VerwirrungSee: untainted
dissolves into its own placein seinen eigenen Ort hinein auflösenSee: releases into its own place
distant lineageentfernte LinieThe lineage of a teaching that began with Buddha himself.Tib: ring-brgyud
distinguished equanimityhervorragender GleichmutSee: uncommon Mahayana equanimity
distinguishingUnterscheidenOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors) that takes an uncommon characteristic feature of the appearing object of a nonconceptual cognition or an outstanding feature of the appearing object of a conceptual cognition, and ascribes a conventional significance to it, different from that of everything else that appears in the background within that cognition. It does not necessarily ascribe a name or mental label to its object, nor does it compare it with previously cognized objects. Some translators render the term as "recognition."Tib: 'du-shes
Skt: samjna
distorted antagonistic thinkingverzerrte, feindselige GeisteshaltungThe action of thinking with a distorted outlook and, in addition, wishing to repudiate, with hostility, anyone that disagrees with one's view. Also called: "thinking with a distorted, antagonistic attitude.Tib: log-lta
distorted cognitionverzerrte WahrnehmungA way of being aware of something that takes its object incorrectly. Conceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its conceptualized object; nonconceptual distorted cognition is deceived with respect to its involved object.Tib: log-shes
distorted outlookverzerrte AuffassungThe disturbing attitude that regards an actual cause, an actual effect, an actual functioning, or an existent phenomenon as not being actual or existent. According to Tsongkhapa, it may also regard a false cause, a false effect, a false functioning, or a nonexistent phenomenon as true or existent. Also translated as "distorted view," other translators render it as "wrong view" or "false view."Tib: log-lta
distorted viewverzerrte AnsichtSee: distorted outlook
disturbing attitudestörende GeisteshaltungEquivalent to a deluded outlook.
disturbing emotionstörende EmotionSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
disturbing emotion or attitudestörende Emotion oder GeisteshaltungA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that, when it arises, causes oneself to lose peace of mind and incapacitates oneself so that one loses self-control. An indication that one is experiencing a disturbing emotion or attitude is that it makes oneself and/or others feel uncomfortable. Some translators render this term as "afflictive emotions" or "emotional afflictions."Tib: nyon-mongs
Skt: klesha
disturbing emotions and attitudes, automatically arisingstörende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, automatisch erscheinendeSee: automatically arising disturbing emotions and attitudes
disturbing emotions and attitudes, doctrinally basedstörende Emotionen und Geisteshaltungen, doktrinär bedingteSee: doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudes
dividing consciousnessUnterteilungen machendes BewusstseinA consciousness that makes dualistic appearances, dividing a moment of experience into an appearance of independently existing consciousness (subject) and object. It is a Kagyu/Nyingma explanation. The Tibetan is rnam-shes, the same as the usual word for consciousness. It is defined like this only in some very special places.Tib: rnam-shes
divine beingGötterwesenA limited (sentient) being in the rebirth state that, out of the six states of rebirth, has the least amount of suffering. This class of being includes some that are on the plane of sensory desires, and all beings on the plane of ethereal forms and the plane of formless beings. Also called a "god."Tib: lha
Skt: deva
divine ear, extrasensorygöttliches Ohr, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory divine ear
divine eye, extrasensorygöttliches Auge, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory divine eye
doctrinally based disturbed emotions and attitudesdoktrinär bedingte störende Emotionen und GeisteshaltungenDisturbing emotions and attitudes that arise based on having been taught and having accepted a non-Buddhist Indian tenet system or a less sophisticated Indian Buddhist tenet system.Tib: nyon-mongs kun-brtags
doctrinally based unawarenessdoktrinär bedingte UnwissenheitThe mental factor of either not knowing or knowing invertedly either behavioral cause and effect or the manner in which the self and all phenomena exist, and which arises on a person's mental continuum based on that person having been taught an incorrect tenet system. Also called: doctrinally based ignorance.Tib: ma-rig kun-brtags
dominating conditiondominante Bedingung / vorherrschende BedingungThe nonstatic phenomena that produce the essential nature of something, such as the eye sensors for the visual consciousness and congruent mental factors of a visual cognition. This condition is called "dominating" – literally, the "overlord condition" – because it rules what the essential nature of its result will be.Tib: bdag-rkyen
Skt: adhipatipratyaya
dominating resultbeherrschende Wirkung(1) The type of environment or society in which one is born or enters and the way it treats one, or (2) objects, such as one's possessions, and what happens to them. Such results may ripen from destructive, tainted constructive, or unspecified actions and are called "dominating results" because they extend over and dominate everything that one experiences in a particular rebirth. Also translated as "comprehensive result," "overriding result" or "overlord result," it is synonymous with "commanding result."Tib: bdag-'bras 
bdag-po’i ‘bras-bu
Skt: adhipatiphalam
dormant factorschlafende FaktorenLiterally, something that is "asleep to the taste of the mind." Affecting variables, associated with mental continuums, which are "lying down" and not rushing to manifest mind (consciousness). They include subliminal awareness, tendencies, and habits.Tib: bag-la nyal
doubtZweifelSee: indecisive wavering
downfall, rootÜbertretung des WurzelgelübdesSee: root downfall
dreadAbscheuThe strong wish not to experience something or for something not to happen. If overlaid with grasping for truly established existence, it becomes fear. Sometimes translated as "fear."Tib: 'jigs-pa
drops, jasmine flowerTropfen der JasminblüteSee: jasmine flower drops
dual appearance-makingduales Erscheinungs-HervorbringenSee: dualistic appearance-making
dullness, mentalTrägheit, geistigeSee: mental dullness
dumbfoundednessBenommenheitIn the dzogchen system, a nominal disturbing attitude, equivalent to automatically arising unawareness regarding phenomena, which obscures rigpa's (pure awareness's) knowing its own nature. Some translators render it as "bedazzlement" or "stupidity," but it has nothing to do with intelligence.Tib: rmongs-cha
dzogchenDzogchenDas Dzogchen bezeichnet ein Mahayana-System oder eine Mahayana-Praxis in den Nyingma-, Bön-, Karma-Kagyü-, Drugpa-Kagyü- und Drigung-Kagyü-Traditionen. Die Praktiken befassen sich damit einen Zugang zu Rigpa zu erlangen, d.h. zu seinem eigenen reinen Gewahrsein, und zu erkennen, dass dieses bereits vollständig alle guten Qualitäten besitzt. Dzogchen wird als "die große Vollendung" übersetzt. Tib: rdzogs-chen

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