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Das Buddhismus-Archiv von Dr. Alexander Berzin

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Startseite > Glossar > Glossar Englischer Fachbegriffe

Englisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles

EnglischDeutschDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)Tibetisch / Sanskrit
effulgent rigpastrahlendes RigpaStrahlendes Rigpa bezeichnet das reine Gewahrsein (rigpa) aus dem Blickwinkel seines Aspektes spontan Erscheinungen hervorzubringen. Strahlendes Rigpa ist synonym mit dem Begriff "Erscheinungs-hervorbringendes grundlegendes Rigpa". Tib: rtsal-gyi rig-pa
eight sets of realizationsacht Gruppen von Verwirklichungenalso translated as: eight phenomena.Tib: dngos-po brgyad
eight transitory things in lifeacht vergängliche Angelegenheiten des LebensPraise or criticism, good or bad news, gains or losses, things going well or poorly -- or, more specifically, the emotional ups and downs of overexcitement and depression in response to these eight. Also called the "eight worldly dharmas."Tib: 'jig-rten-pa'i chos-brgyad
eight worldly dharmasacht weltliche DharmasSee: eight transitory things in life
elevationErhöhungSee: inspiration
emanation, miraculousEmanation, wundersameSee: miraculous emanations
embodied beingkörperliches WesenA being with a limited body. Any being other than a Buddha. Synonymous with "limited being," "sentient being."Tib: lus-can
Skt: dehin
emergence, definiteAustritt, endgültigerSee: definite emergence
emotion, disturbingEmotion, störendeSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
emotional afflictionLeidenschaftSee: disturbing emotion or attitude
emotional obscurationsemotionale SchleierFleeting stains that temporarily "cover" or accompany mental activity (more precisely, clear light mental activity), thereby preventing the mental activity from cognizing phenomena without accompanying disturbing emotions or attitudes. They include the disturbing emotions and attitudes, as well as their tendencies (seeds), and prevent the attainment of liberation from samsara, Also translated as "obscurations that are the disturbing emotions and attitudes"and "obscurations preventing liberation."Tib: nyon-sgrib
Skt: kleshavarana
empowermentErmächtigungA tantric ritual that activates and empowers Buddha-nature factors to grow so that, through repeated, sustained tantric practice, they will eventually transform into the Three Corpuses (Bodies) of a Buddha. An empowerment also plants new seeds, or potentials, that will likewise grow in the same manner. The term is often translated as "initiation."Tib: dbang
Skt: abhishekha
empowerment, discriminating deep awarenessErmächtigung des tiefen unterscheidenden tiefen GewahrseinsSee: discriminating deep awareness empowerment
empowerment, fourthErmächtigung, vierteSee: fourth empowerment
empowerment, secretErmächtigung, geheimeSee: secret empowerment
empowerment, vajra deep awarenessErmächtigung des Vajra-tiefen GewahrseinsSee: vajra deep awareness empowerment
empowerment, vaseVasen-ErmächtigungSee: vase empowerment
empowerment, wordErmächtigung des WortesSee: word empowerment
emptinessLeereSee: voidness
energy, karmicEnergie, karmischeSee: karmic energy
energy-channel, centralEnergiekanal, zentralerSee: central energy-channel
energy-channel, leftEnergiekanal, linkerSee: left energy-channel
energy-channel, rightEnergiekanal, rechterSee: right energy-channel
energy-windEnergiewindAlso called: energy-wind breathsTib: rlung
Skt: prana
energy-wind, subtleEnergiewind, subtilerSee: subtle energy-winds
energy-wind breathsEnergiewind-AtemzügeSee: energy-wind
engaged bodhichittaausübendes BodhichittaA mind of bodhichitta which, when focused on one's own individual not-yet-happening enlightenment, imputable on the basis of the Buddha-nature factors of one's mental continuum, is committed to attaining that enlightenment by having taken bodhisattva vows and which then enters into the type of behavior that will bring one to enlightenment.Tib: 'jug-sems
engagement, cognitiveSichbefassen, kognitivesSee: cognitive engagement
enigmaticrätselhaftAlso translated as: secret, hiddenTib: gsang-ba
Skt: guhya
enlightening deedserleuchtende TatenAccording to Mahayana, a set of twelve actions or deeds in the life of a Buddha, with which a Buddha demonstrates to all limited beings the way to achieve enlightenment.Tib: mdzad-pa
enlightening influenceerleuchtender EinflussThe unceasing, unending, effortless activity of a Buddha, which helps bring all limited beings to higher rebirth, liberation, and enlightenment. Such activity does not require a Buddha actually doing anything: a Buddha's attainment itself exerts a positive influence on others to pacify disturbance, stimulate the growth of good qualities, bring disorder under control, and forcefully end any harm. Also translated as: "Buddha-activity."Tib: 'phrin-las
Skt: samudacara
entityEntitätA truly existent "thing," either objective or metaphysical, that exists as a findable "thing" on its own, established as that "thing" by its own power from its own side.
entity, metaphysicalEntität, metaphysischeSee: metaphysical entities
entity, objectiveEntität, objektiveSee: objective entities
epic presentationsepische DarstellungenPresentations of the vast and profound aspects of such topics as the six far-reaching attitudes (six perfections) and ten arya bodhisattva levels of bhumi-mind (ten bhumis) of The Basket of the Mahayana or Bodhisattva Sutras. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: shin-tu rgyas-pa
Skt: vaipulya
equalizing and exchanging self and othersunsere geistigen Einstellungen uns selbst und anderen gegenüber gleichsetzen und austauschenA method for developing a bodhichitta aim, consisting of (1) developing mere equanimity, (2) developing uncommon Mahayana equanimity, as a way to regard all others equally in the same way as one regards oneself, (3) thinking of the disadvantages of a self-cherishing attitude, (4) thinking of the advantages of cherishing others, (5) giving and taking, with attitudes of love and compassion, as a way of exchanging one's attitudes about self and others, (6) exceptional resolve, and (7) developing a bodhichitta aim.Tib: bdag-gzhan mnyam-brje
equalizing deep awarenessgleichsetzendes tiefes GewahrseinOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that is aware of several items as belonging equally to the same category, or as fitting into the same pattern. Also called: deep awareness of the equality of things.Tib: mnyam-nyid ye-shes
equal status causeUrsachen des gleichen StatusCauses for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena as they are -- either in the same ethical category or on the same plane of existence.Tib: skal-mnyam-gyi rgyu
equanimityGleichmut(1) The mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of having an equal attitude toward everyone. (2) In Theravada, when conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, the tenth of the ten far-reaching attitudes -- the attitude with which one does not expect anything in return for one's help, being indifferent to pleasure and pain, and to any benefit or harm one might receive.Tib: btang-snyoms
Skt: upeksha
equanimity, mereGleichmut, bloßerSee: mere equanimity
equipoise, meditativeAusgewogenheit, meditativeSee: total absorption
essence mahamudraEssenz-MahamudraA pathway of mahamudra practice concerning the nature of the mind in which specially qualified disciples receive the inspiration of the realizations all the lineage masters through receiving a vajra deep awareness empowerment and thereby achieve realization of mind-itself, equivalent to a seeing pathway mind. As "those for whom it happens all at once," they achieve enlightenment simultaneously with this realization. Also known as "the singular sufficient white panacea."Tib: snying-po'i phyag-chen
essence rigpaEssenz-RigpaEssenz-Ripga ist das reine Gewahrsein vom Standpunkt her, dass es ursprünglich rein ist und als offener Raum dient, in dem das strahlende Rigpa fungiert. Tib: ngo-bo'i rig-pa
essential natureessentielle NaturDie allgemeine Art von Phänomen, die eine Sache ist - beispielsweise ein Anblick, ein Klang und so weiter. [So ist beispielsweise die essentielle Natur des schönen Anblicks eines Sonnenuntergangs, der Anblick] Tib: ngo-bo
essential nature, sameessentielle Natur, gleicheSee: same essential nature
ethically neutralethisch neutralSee: unspecified phenomenon
ethically unspecifiedethisch nicht näher bezeichnetSee: unspecified phenomenon
ethical narrativesethische ErzählungenRules, codified by Buddha for those who are ordained, concerning which actions constitute a breach of their vows. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: gleng-bzhi
Skt: nidana
ethical self-disciplineethische Selbstdisziplin(1) In Theravada, the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) to avoid doing any harm to others, by keeping one's vows, free from anger or ill-will even if others harm one. (2) In Mahayana, the mental urge to safeguard the actions of one's body, speech, and mind, which comes from having turned one's mind away from any wish to cause harm to others and from the disturbing and destructive mental factors that had motivated one to harm others. When conjoined with a bodhichitta aim, it becomes a far-reaching attitude.Tib: tshul-khrims
Skt: shila
even-mindedausgewogen / ausgewogener GeistA tranquil state of mind that stays in the middle with regard to being either happy or unhappy, in all circumstances, such as when meeting with or parting from friends. Literally, "a state of standing in the middle."Tib: dbus-gnas-nyid
Skt: madhyasthata
even-temperedausgeglichen / ausgeglichener GeistThe mental factor of not becoming either too involved or indifferent toward others, even when helping them.
ever-functioning mental factorimmer arbeitender geistiger FaktorSee: ever-functioning subsidiary awareness
ever-functioning subsidiary awarenessimmer arbeitendes NebengewahrseinAccording to Asanga, a set of five subsidiary awarenesses that accompany every moment of cognition: feeling a level of happiness, distinguishing, an urge, contacting awareness, and paying attention or taking to mind.Tib: kun-'gro
evolving family-traitssich entwickelnde Familieneigenschaften(1) In the Chittamatra system, the tendencies (seeds) that, newly gained by listening, contemplating and meditating on Buddha's teachings, are imputable on the basis of the stained minds of each limited being and which serve as factors allowing that being to attain arya pathway minds. (2) In the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka system, the factors, imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being, that are fit to become the essential nature of a deep awareness Dharmakaya. (3) In the Prasangika-Madhyamaka system, the factors imputable on the basis of the stained mind of each limited being that are fit to become the essential natures of a Corpus of Forms and a deep awareness Dharmakaya of a Buddha.Tib: rgyas-'gyur-gyi rigs
evolving traitssich entwickelnde EigenschaftenSee: evolving family-traits
excellent signshervorragende ZeichenSee: thirty-two excellent signs
exceptionally perceptive state of mindGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher WahrnehmungsfähigkeitA state of mind that, in addition to being stilled and settled (shamatha), is accompanied by an additional sense of fitness -- the subsidiary awareness of feeling totally fit to discern and understand fully the subtle details of anything. Vipashyana is not necessarily focused on voidness or on the four noble truths, although most commonly in sutra it is. Other translators render the term as "special insight." Tib: lhag-mthong
Skt: vipashyana
exceptional resolveaußergewöhnlicher EntschlussThe full determination with which one takes the responsibility to lead all limited beings to liberation and enlightenment. Sometimes translated as "pure wish."Tib: lhag-bsam
Skt: adhyashaya
exceptional sincerityaußerordentliche EhrlichkeitExceptional sincerity has, in addition to the factors comprising sincerity, two more factors: 3) nonattachment (ma-chags-pa), 4) going forward in a special way (khyad-par-du 'gro-ba).Tib: lhag-bsam
excludeauschließento eliminateTib: sel-ba
existence, inherentExistenz, inhärenteSee: existence established by self-nature
existence, trueExistenz, wahreSee: true existence
existence established as trueals wahr begründete ExistenzSee: true existence
existence established by self-natureExistenz, die durch Selbstnatur begründet istExistence of something established or proven by the fact that the referent object of the imputation of it can be found upon searching for it. For example, the existence of a table established or proven by the fact that when one searches for the object that the mental label "table" refers to, one can find the object, a "table." Also translated as "self-established existence," it is often translated by others as "inherent existence."Tib: rang-bzhin-gyis grub-pa
existent phenomenonexistierendes PhänomenSee: existents
existentsExistierendeValidly knowable phenomena.Tib: yod-pa
explications, decisiveErklärungen, entscheidendeSee: decisive explications
explicit apprehensionexplizites BegreifenIn the Gelug system, apprehension of a cognitive object in which a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) of the involved object of the cognition arises. Compare: implicit apprehension.Tib: dngos-su rtogs-pa
explicit cognitionexplizite WahrnehmungSee: explicit apprehension
explicit suggestive meaningexplizit hinweisende BedeutungOne of the six alternative meanings. When an expression in a root tantra text has two dissimilar meanings, the literal, evident, or face value meaning of the expression. It suggests or leads one on to the second meaning (the implicit suggested meaning), which is dissimilar to what is actually said on face value.Tib: drang-don
Skt: neyartha
expositions on themes of practiceDarstellungen der praxisbezogenen ThemenSee: sutra
external objectäußeres ObjektSee: external phenomenon
external phenomenonäußeres PhänomenA nonstatic phenomenon that arises from a natal source different from the natal source of the consciousness that cognizes it -- namely, from a natal source that is not connected with the mental continuum of the individual who cognizes it.Tib: phyi-don
Skt: bahyartha
extraphysical emanationsaußerphysische EmanationPhysical bodies having abilities that are beyond the usual capacity of the body -- such as the ability to run great distances at an incredible speed, to fly, to increase or decrease in size, to multiply, to walk on water, to pass beneath the earth, and so on -- which are produced (emanated) from karma, recitation of mantra, the power of specially consecrated substances, or the power of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: rdzu-'phrul
Skt: rddhi
extraphysical powersaußerphysische KräfteSee: extraphysical emanations
extrasensory divine eyeaußersinnliches göttliches AugeCognition that is able to "see" in the sense of know, future rebirths. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: lha'i spyan
extrasensory eye of deep awarenessaußersinnliches Auge des tiefen GewahrseinsA Buddha's omniscient awareness that is able to "see" the two truths about all phenomena. One of the five types of extrasensory eyes, possessed only by Buddhas.Tib: ye-shes-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of discriminating awarenessaußersinnliches Auge des unterscheidenden GewahrseinsCognition that is able to "see" voidness nonconceptually. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana)..Tib: shes-rab-kyi spyan
extrasensory eye of the Dharmaaußersinnliches Auge des DharmaOne of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana). (1) According to the Gelug explanation, cognition that is able to understand the mental capacities of others, in order to be able to teach them appropriately. (2) According to the Karma Kagyu explanation, a Buddha's omniscient awareness that possesses the ten forces that enable a Buddha to lead all beings to enlightenment.Tib: chos-kyi spyan
extrasensory flesh eyeaußersinnliches fleischliches AugeCognition that is able to see great distances without obstruction, to see through solid objects such as walls, to see in all directions at the same time, and so on. One of the five extrasensory eyes gained as a byproduct of the attainment of an actual state of the first level of mental stability (the first dhyana).Tib: sha'i spyan
extrasensory perceptionaußersinnliche WahrnehmungSee: advanced awareness
extremely obscure phenomenonextrem verschleiertes PhänomenA validly knowable phenomenon that can be apprehended through authoritative texts or speech, such as the enlightening words of the Buddha, or that can be apprehended through the words of persons who are valid sources of information.Tib: shin-tu lkog-gyur
extreme outlookextreme AuffassungThe disturbing attitude that regards one's five samsara-perpetuating aggregates in either an eternalist or nihilistic way. (1) According to Vasubandhu, an extreme outlook that views the samsara-producing aggregate factors themselves as either lasting eternally or ending totally at death, with no continuity in future lives. (2) According to Tsongkhapa, a disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness that focuses on the conventional "me" and considers it either as having a truly existent identity permanently or as not having continuity in future lives.Tib: mthar-'dzin-pa'i lta-ba
Skt: antagrahadrshti
eye of deep awareness, extrasensoryAuge des tiefen Gewahrseins, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of deep awareness
eye of discriminating awareness, extrasensoryAuge des unterscheidenden Gewahrseins, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of discriminating awareness
eye of the Dharma, extrasensoryAuge des Dharma, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory eye of the Dharma

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles