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Englisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles

EnglischDeutschDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)Tibetisch / Sanskrit
fabrication, parted from mentalFabrikation, getrennt von geistigerSee: state parted from mental fabrication
fabulous accountsfabelhafte BerichteDescriptions of such marvelous, wondrous things as the wisdom, extra-physical powers and saintly deeds of the Buddhas, pratyekabuddhas (self-realizers), and shravakas (listeners). One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: rmad-du byung-ba
Skt: adbhutadharma
faithVertrauenSee: believing a fact to be true
false viewfalsche AnsichtSee: deluded outlook
far-reaching attitudeweitreichende GeisteshaltungenA mental factor that brings one to the far shore of samsara, either to liberation or to enlightenment. There are either six or ten far-reaching attitudes. Also called "perfection." Theravada and Mahayana give slightly different lists of these. According to Mahayana, the six are the far-reaching attitudes of (1) generosity, (2) ethical self-discipline, (3) patience, (4) joyful perseverance, (5) mental stability, and (6) discriminating awareness (wisdom). The Mahayana list of ten adds the far-reaching attitudes of (7) skill in means, (8) aspirational prayer, (9) strengthening, and (10) deep awareness.Tib: pha-rol-tu phyin-pa
Skt: paramita
faulty actionsfehlerhafte HandlungA set of forty-six actions that one vows to avoid and which, if committed, would be detrimental to one's practice of either one of the six far-reaching attitudes or to one's benefiting others. Also called: secondary bodhisattva vows.Tib: nyes-byas
feature, distinguishingMerkmal, unterscheidendesSee: feature, distinguishing
feelingEmpfindung / GefühlSee: feeling a level of happiness
feeling a level of happinessEmpfinden verschiedener Grade von GlücklichseinOne of the five ever-functioning subsidiary awarenesses (mental factors). The subsidiary awareness that accompanies each moment of sensory or mental cognition of a limited being before attaining liberation and with which that being experiences the ripenings of its own karma in the form of something within the spectrum of extreme unhappiness, through neutral, to extreme happiness. Also called "feeling."Tib: tshor-ba
Skt: vedana
filigreeFiligranschmuckA piece of jewelry made of fine, intricately intertwined wires. A word used in the titles of many Buddhist texts to indicate that the subject matter is presented in a manner resembling a filigree, in which the various topics are intricately intertwined, resulting in a beautiful, elegant presentation of the material. Usually translated by others as "ornament."Tib: rgyan
Skt: alamkara
fire-pujaFeuerpujaA tantric ritual, performed mostly upon completion of a mantra-recitation retreat of a Buddha-figure for which one has received an empowerment, during which one tosses into a fire a large number of specific substances, accompanied by elaborate visualizations. It is mostly performed in order to purify any mistakes one has made during the retreat.Tib: sbyin-sreg
firm convictionfeste Überzeugung(1) According to Asanga, the mental factor (subsidiary awareness) that focuses on a fact that one has validly ascertained to be like this and not like that, and which makes one's belief that a fact is true so firm that others' arguments or opinions will not dissuade one. (2) According to Vasubandhu, the term means "regard": the mental factor that takes its object to have some level of good qualities – on the spectrum from no good qualities to all good qualities – and may be either accurate or distorted.Tib: mos-pa
fitness, sense ofLeistungsfähigkeit, Gefühl derSee: sense of fitness
five aggregate factorsfünf Aggregat-FaktorenThe five networks that constitute all the nonstatic phenomena that could make up each moment of the mental continuum of each limited being: the aggregates of (1) forms of physical phenomena, (2) feelings of levels of happiness, (3) distinguishing, (4) other affecting variables, and (5) primary consciousnesses.Tib: phung-po lnga
Skt: pancaskandha
five aggregatesfünf AggregateSee: five aggregate factors
five bodhisattva pathway mindsfünf Arten von Bodhisattva-PfadgeistAlso called: five pathsTib: lam-lnga
Five Buddha-Bodiesfünf BuddhakörperSee: Five Corpuses of a Buddha
five Buddha-wisdomsfünf BuddhaweisheitenSee: five types of deep awareness
Five Corpuses of a Buddhafünf Körper eines Buddha(I) In some presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha (Svabhavakaya), and Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya) of a Buddha. (II) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and Corpus of Great Bliss (Mahasukhakaya) of a Buddha. (III) In other presentations, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Corpus of Essential Nature (Svabhavakaya), and (5) Corpus of Deep Awareness' Enlightening Influence of a Buddha. (IV) In yet other systems, (1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), (4) Vajra Corpus (Vajrakaya), and (5) Corpus of Manifest Enlightenment (Abhisambhodhikaya) of a Buddha.Tib: sku-lnga
five major fields of knowledgefünf Hauptgebiete des Wissens**a) Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, b) Medizin, c) Sprachen und Grammatik, d) Logik und e) geheime oder außerordentliche SelbsterkenntnisTib: rig-gnas lnga
five obscurationsfünf SchleierA set of five mental factors that prevent the attainment of the three higher trainings, in ethical self-discipline, absorbed concentration, and discriminating awareness. According to Nagarjuna's Letter to a Friend, (1) flightiness of mind and regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) indecisive wavering, (4) intentions toward sensory objects, and (5) malice. According to the Kalachakra Tantra, (1) regret, (2) foggy-mindedness, (3) sleepiness, (4) flightiness of mind, and (5) indecisive wavering. Also called: five obstacles.Tib: sgrib-pa lnga
five obstaclesfünf HindernisseSee: five obscurations
five types of deep awarenessfünf Arten des tiefen GewahrseinsFive types of principal awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The five are (1) mirror-like, (2) equalizing, (3) individualizing, and (4) accomplishing deep awareness, and (5) deep awareness of reality. Some translators render this term as "five Buddha-wisdoms." Compare: "deep awareness" (1).Tib: ye-shes lnga
fixating meditationfixierende MeditationSee: stabilizing meditation
flatfade und wirkungslosOne's Dharma practice is flat when it is going nowhere, when it is not taking one anywhere. There is nothing lively in it anymore. "Flat" is usually used for sparkling water (soda water) or beer, when there are no more bubbles.
fleeting stainflüchtiger MakelAn emotional or cognitive obscuration that temporarily obscures the realization of Buddha-nature.Tib: glo-bur-gyi dri-ma
flesh eye, extrasensoryfleischliches Auge, außersinnlichesSee: extrasensory flesh eye
flightiness, mentalFlatterhaftigkeit, geistigeSee: flightiness of mind
flightiness of mindFlatterhaftigkeit des Geistes / geistige FlatterhaftigkeitThe mental factor with which the mind wanders to an object of attraction, due to desire for it or attachment, and which faults the mental abiding of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Sometimes translated as "mental agitation."Tib: rgod-pa
focal conditionfokale BedingungAn external phenomenon that presents an aspect of itself to be an object of cognition, and thus serves as a condition giving rise to a sensory cognition of it.Tib: dmigs-rkyen
Skt: alambanapratyaya
focal objectObjekt der Ausrichtung / AusrichtungsobjektAn external object on which a cognition focuses and which serves as the focal condition of the cognition. Focal objects exist prior to the cognitions of them and have their own continuums different from those of the cognitions of them.Tib: dmigs-yul
focus, sharpFokus, deutlicherSee: sharp focus
foe-destroyerFeind-ZerstörerSee: arhat
foggy-mindednessgeistige UmnebelungThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of a heavy feeling of body and mind that makes the mind unclear, unserviceable, and incapable either of giving rise to a cognitive appearance of its object or of apprehending the object correctly.Tib: rmugs-pa
force, karmicKraft, karmischeSee: karmic force
force, positiveKraft, positiveSee: positive karmic force
forcefulextrem kraftvollUsing extremely strong actions or methods, such as yelling at someone or hitting someone, in order to make the person stop doing something harmful. Forceful methods are used only when all other methods to make the person stop have failed or are impossible in the situation. Some translators render the term as "wrathful," but this has an inappropriate connotation, since "wrathful," in English, is used for the Old Testament God, who, when people disobey Him, gets angry and punishes them.Tib: drag-po
forceful deitykraftvolle GottheitAn emanation of a Buddha in a form of great strength, usually surrounded by flames representing deep awareness, and terrifying, so as to chase away disturbing emotions, interferences, and other harm. Often translated by others as "wrathful deity," although there is no connotation here of "wrath" as in "the wrath of God." Although the Sanskrit and Tibetan terms, here, mean literally "angry," this does not refer to anger as a disturbing emotion, but rather to the strong force of anger to get rid of something detrimental to spiritual well-being and progress.Tib: khro-bo
Skt: kroddha
form aggregateAggregat der FormenSee: aggregate of forms of physical phenomena
formless realmformloser BereichSee: plane of formless beings
form realmBereich der FormSee: plane of ethereal forms
forms of physical phenomenaFormen physische PhänomeneNonstatic phenomena that can either (1) transform into another form of physical phenomenon when two or more of them come into contact with each other, such as water and earth which can transform into mud, or (2) be known as what they are by analyzing their directional parts, such as the sight of a vase seen in a dream. Forms of physical phenomena include the nonstatic phenomena of forms and eye sensors, sounds and ear sensors, smells and nose sensors, tastes and tongue sensors, phyiscal sensations and body sensors, and forms of physical phenomena included only among cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena. Equivalent to the aggregate of forms of physical phenomena.Tib: gzugs
Skt: rupa
forms of physical phenomena, totally imaginaryFormen physischer Phänomene, vollkommen imaginäreSee: totally imaginary forms of physical phenomena
forms of physical phenomena arising from gaining control over the elementsFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man Kontrolle über die Elemente erlangtForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are actually emanated by the power of absorbed concentration.Tib: dbang-'byor-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena existing in actual situationsFormen physischer Phänomene die in wirklichen Situationen existierenForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are spaces that are in between objects and either too large or too small to be seen, such as the space in between astronomical bodies or in between atoms.Tib: mngon-par skabs yod-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mindFormen physischer Phänomene, die die funktionelle Natur des Geistes habenThe type of subtle phenomena that the body of an arhat in a pure land is: although still included among cognitive stimulators that are forms of physical phenomena, they are visible only to the eye consciousness of arhats in pure lands. Although they are not ways of being aware of anything, their functional nature is similar to that of forms of physical phenomena that can be known only by mental consciousness. Synonymous with "mental bodies."Tib: yid-kyi rang-bzhin gyi gzugs
forms of physical phenomena included (only) among the cognitive stimulators that are (all) phenomenaFormen physischer Phänomene, die (ausschließlich) bei den kognitiven Anregern enthalten sind, die (alle) Phänomene sindForms of physical phenomena that are not knowable by sensory consciousness, but are only knowable by mental consciousness. These include (1) those that make up other things by amassing together, (2) those existing in actual situations, (3) those arising from clearly taking them on, (4) totally imaginary forms, and (5) those arising from gaining control over the elements.Tib: chos-kyi skye-mched-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomena that make up other things by amassing togetherFormen physischer Phänomene, die andere Dinge bilden, indem sie sich ansammelnForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are the invisible objects, such as atoms and subatomic particles, that make up visible objects.Tib: bsdud-pa-las gyur-pa'i gzugs
forms of physical phenomenon arising from clearly taking them onFormen physischer Phänomene, die dadurch entstehen, dass man sie eindeutig übernimmtForms of physical phenomena included only among the cognitive stimulators that are all phenomena and which are acquired on a mental continuum, such as the nonrevealing forms of vows and of karmic actions.Tib: yang-dag-par blangs-pa-las byung-ba'i gzugs
foundation consciousnessgrundlegendes BewusstseinSee: all-encompassing foundation consciousness
four axiomsvier AxiomeThe four axioms for examining a Dharma teaching in order to accept its validity: (1) dependency, (2) functionality, (3) establishment by reason, and (4) the nature of things.Tib: rigs-pa bzhi
four binding factorsvier bindende FaktorenFactors which, when they accompany someone's acting in breach of a vow, bind that person to the full karmic result, in the sense of guaranteeing that the full karmic result will follow.Tib: kun-dkris bzhi
Four Buddha-Bodiesvier BuddhakörperSee: Four Corpuses of a Buddha
four close placements of mindfulnessvier feste Ausrichtungen der VergegenwärtigungVon anderen Autoren als "vier Grundlagen der Achtsamkeit" übersetzt.Tib: dran-pa nyer-bzhag bzhi
Skt: smrtyupasthana
Four Corpuses of a Buddhavier Körper eines Buddha(1) A Corpus of Emanations (Nirmanakaya), (2) Corpus of Full Use (Sambhogakaya), (3) Corpus of Deep Awareness Encompassing Everything (Jnanadharmakaya), and (4) Corpus of Essential Nature of a Buddha.Tib: sku-bzhi
four hallmarks of the Dharmavier Kennzeichen des DharmaFour points which, if contained in a system of teachings, indicate that the system is a Buddhist one: (1) all affected (conditioned) phenomena are nonstatic (impermanent), (2) all tainted phenomena are problematic (suffering), (3) all phenomena are devoid and lacking an impossible "soul," while (4) a nirvana release is a pacification and something constructive. Also called "four sealing points for labeling an outlook as being based on enlightening words."Tib: chos-kyi sdom-pa bzhi
four joysvier FreudenSee: four gradations of joyful awareness
four placements of confidencevier Grundlagen des VertrauenDon’t place your confidence on the person, place it on his or her teachings; don’t place your confidence on his or her words, place it on their meanings; don’t place your confidence on their interpretable meanings, place it on their definitive meanings; (to understand them) don’t place your confidence on your dividing consciousness, place it on your deep awareness.Tib: rton-pa bzhi
four placements of mindfulnessvier Ausrichtungen der VergegenwärtigungSee: four close placements of mindfulness
four sets of applied realizationsvier Gruppen von angewendeten VerwirklichungenAlso translated as: four yogasTib: sbyor-ba bzhi
fourth empowermentvierte ErmächtigungAlso called: word empowerment (tshig-dbang)Tib: dbang bzhi-pa
fresh and cleanfrisch und reinArising anew in each moment without being stained by any mental constructs -- descriptive of pure awareness (rig-pa) in the dzogchen systems.Tib: so-ma
front-generationErzeugung vor einemThe part of a self-initiation in which one generates in front of oneself the supported and supporting mandalas from which one will receive the full empowerment.Tib: mdun-bskyed
functional naturefunktionelle NaturThe nature of a phenomenon defined in terms of the function that the phenomenon performs.Tib: rang-bzhin
functional phenomenonwirksames Phänomen(1) A validly knowable, existent object that performs a function -- in other words, it produces a result -- namely, a nonstatic phenomenon. (2) In the Vaibhashika system, all validly knowable, existent phenomenon, all of which at least perform the function of acting as an object for the valid cognition of them.Tib: dngos-po
further existenceWeiterexistenzSee: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existenceTib: srid-pa
Skt: bhava
further existence impulseImpuls, weiter zu existierenSee: karmic impulse that actualizes a further existence

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles