Das Berzin-Archiv

Das Buddhismus-Archiv von Dr. Alexander Berzin

Zur Textversion für diese Seite wechseln. Zur Haupt-Navigation springen.

Startseite > Glossar > Glossar Englischer Fachbegriffe

Englisches Glossar Buddhistischer Fachbegriffe

Dieses Glossar enthält bislang nur einen Teil der Fachbegriffe, die auf unserer Webseite verwendet werden. Mit weiterem Fortschreiten der Arbeit am Glossar werden wir weitere Begriffe hinzufügen. Die Definitionen liegen bislang noch nicht in der deutschen Übersetzung vor, wir haben daher in diese Fassung des Glossars die englischen Definitionen aufgenommen.

Wählen Sie einen der folgenden Buchstaben. Es werden dann alle Glossareinträge mit diesem Anfangsbuchstaben angezeigt:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles

EnglischDeutschDefinition (Teilweise Englisch)Tibetisch / Sanskrit
MadhyamakaMadhyamakaA Mahayana school of Indian Buddhism that does not assert the true existence of anything. One of the four Indian Buddhist tenet systems studied by all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism.Tib: dbu-ma
Skt: madhyamaka
mahamudraMahamudraLiterally, "the great seal," a Mahayana meditation practice that focuses on the nature of the mind.Tib: phyag-rgya chen-po
Skt: mahamudra
mahamudra, essenceMahamudra, Essenz-See: essence mahamudra
mahamudra, mantraMahamudra, Mantra-See: mantra mahamudra
mahamudra, pathwayMahamudra, Pfad-See: pathway mahamudra
mahamudra, sutraMahamudra, Sutra-See: sutra mahamudra
MahayanaMahayanaLiterally, a "Vast Vehicle of Mind" - levels or states of mind that, with a vast motivation of bodhichitta, employ vast methods for reach the vast goal of enlightenment. Some translators render the term as "Greater Vehicle."Tib: theg-chen
Skt: mahayana
Mahayana masterMahayana-MeisterA spiritual mentor in whose presence disciples take bodhisattva vows. In a broader sense, a spiritual mentor whose teachings on compassion and bodhichitta lead disciples to develop aspiring and engaged bodhichittas, and then to take bodhisattva vows.
mahayogaMahayogaWithin the Nyingma classification scheme of nine vehicles of mind, the class of tantra leading to dzogchen practice but with the main emphasis and detail on generation stage practice.Tib: ma-ha yo-ga
making ariseEntstehenlassenThe mental activity of appearance-making, which causes a cognitive appearance (mental hologram) to occur as an object of cognition in a moment of a mental continuum. Also translated as: "giving rise to."
mandalaMandalaIn general, a round symbol used to represent a meaning. Most often used to represent a world system.Tib: dkyil- 'khor
Skt: mandala
mandala, bodyMandala, Körper-See: body mandala
mandala, clothMandala, Stoff-See: cloth mandala
mandala, innerMandala, inneresSee: inner mandala
mandala, outerMandala, äußeresSee: outer mandala
mandala, powdered sandMandala aus gestreutem SandSee: powdered sand mandala
mandala, speechMandala der RedeSee: speech mandala
mandala, supportedMandala, unterstützesSee: supported mandala
mandala, supportingMandala, unterstützendesSee: supporting mandala
mandala, three-dimensionalMandala, dreidimensionalesSee: three-dimensional mandala
manifest cognitionmanifeste WahrnehmungA cognition in which the consciousness gives rise to a mental hologram of a cognitive object and, in which, the cognitive object appears, through that hologram, both to the person and to the consciousness of the manifest cognition. Both the person and the manifest consciousness cognitively take it _ both cognize or "know" it. See also: subliminal cognition.Tib: shes-pa mngon-gyur-ba
man-made resultdurch Menschenhand geschaffene FolgenA result that arises as the direct result of the effort of a limited being, but which does not ripen from karma.Tib: skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
Skt: purushakaraphalam
man-made result that is producedvon Menschhand geschaffene Wirkung, die künstlich erzeugt wurdeSomething material, such as a vase, a bruise, or a profit, that arises from someone's effort or actions, but which does not ripen from that person's karma.Tib: bskyed-pa'i skyes-bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
mantraMantraSets of syllables and, often, additional Sanskrit words and phrases, all of which represent enlightening speech and which, when repeated, protect the mind from destructive states. While repeating the mantras of a Buddha-figure, one imagines having the abilities to communicate perfectly to everyone the complete means for eliminating suffering and reaching enlightenment. Mantras shape the breath, and consequently the subtle energy-winds, enabling one to bring the winds under control for use in meditation practice. Tib: sngags
Skt: mantra
mantra-gatheringMantra-Ansammlung, Mantra-SammlungA tantric ritual for giving disciples confidence in the accuracy of a mantra, in which the vowels and consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet are written with colored powder in a grid on the surface of a metal mirror and the tantric master reads out, one by one, the grid location of the consonant and vowel for each syllable of the main mantra. After each specification of the consonant and vowel of a syllable, an assistant takes some colored powder from the mirror and uses it to write the syllable on the surface of another metal mirror.Tib: sngags-btus
mantra mahamudraMantra-MahamudraMeditations on the nature of the mind with regard to the subtlest mind, clear light.Tib: sngags-kyi phyag-chen
me, solidIch, solidesSee: solid "me"
meaning, explicit suggestiveBedeutung, explizit hinweisendeSee: explicit suggestive meaning
meaning, implicit suggestedBedeutung, implizit hingewieseneSee: implicit suggested meaning
meaning/object categoryBedeutungs-Kategorie /Objekt-KategorieThe conceptual category into which fit all items to which an audio category refers. These items are also what the audio category signifies (means).Tib: don-spyi
meaning categorybedeutungsbezogene KategorieThe conceptual category into which fit all significances (meanings) of an audio category.Tib: don-spyi
meaning universalbedeutungsbezogenes AllgemeinesSee: meaning category
means, appropriateMittel, angebrachtesSee: appropriate means
meditationMeditationThe repeated practice of generating and focusing on a beneficial state of mind in order to build it up as a habit.Tib: sgom
Skt: bhavana
meditation, discerningMeditation, klar erkennendeSee: discerning meditation
meditation, stabilizingMeditation, stabilisierende oder verankerndeSee: stabilizing meditation
meditation trainerMeditationstrainerA teacher who instructs one in the mechanics of meditation, such as the correct posture.
meditative equipoisemeditative AusgewogenheitSee: total absorption
melodic verseswohlklingende VerseOne of the twelve scriptural categories. (1) Verses that Buddha uttered during the course of and at the conclusion of his sutras. (2) According to some explanations, scriptures of interpretable meaning.Tib: dbyangs-kyis bsnyad-pa
Skt: geya
mental aspectgeistiges ErscheinungsbildA nonstatic mental hologram, asserted by all Indian Buddhist tenet systems other than Vaibhashika, that is a likeness of an object of cognition, and which both conceptual and nonconceptual mental activity produces in order to cognize the object; the "mental shape" of the appearing object of a cognition. (1) According to Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika, they are fully transparent so that through them, one directly cognizes external objects. (2) According to non-Gelug, they are opaque and thus allow only indirect cognition of external objects.Tib: rnam-pa
Skt: akara
mental bodygeistiger KörperThe type of body that arhats in pure lands have. See: forms of physical phenomena having the functional nature of mind.Tib: yid-lus
mental consciousnessgeistiges BewusstseinA primary consciousness that can take any existent phenomenon as its object and which relies on merely the previous moment of cognition as its dominating condition and not on any physical sensors.Tib: yid-kyi rnam-shes
Skt: manovijnana
mental constancygeistige BeständigkeitSee: mental stability
mental constructgeistige KonstrukteSee: mental fabrication
mental continuumgeistiges KontinuumThe stream of continuity of mental activity (mind, awareness) of an individual being, which has no beginning, which continues even into Buddhahood, and, according to Mahayana, has no end. According to the Hinayana tenets, it comes to an end when an arhat or Buddha dies at the end of the lifetime in which the person attains liberation or enlightenment. Also called a "mind-stream."Tib: sems-rgyud
Skt: santana
mental derivativegeistige Ableitung(A) In Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra and Yogachara Svatantrika: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, a fully transparent appearing object, which is a mental aspect, similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity, through which that external entity is directly cognized also as an appearing object of the cognition. (2) In conceptual cognition, a static conceptual category that is mentally constructed from all individual objective entities that fit into it and thus is a semitransparent, static, metaphysical entity. It is the appearing object through which a fully transparent mental representation of a specific objective entity is cognized. (B) In non-Gelug, except in the case of Chittamatra: (1) In sensory nonconceptual cognition, the opaque, directly cognized appearing object, which is a mental aspect similar to a mental hologram of an external objective entity that the cognition indirectly cognizes as its focal object, but not as an additional appearing object. (2) In conceptual cognition, a conceptually isolated item, an opaque metaphysical entity that stands for the mentally synthesized commonsense object and category in the cognition and which is the appearing object of the cognition.Tib: gzugs-bsnyan
Skt: pratibimba
mental dullnessgeistige TrägheitA mental factor (subsidiary awareness) faulting the appearance-making of mindfulness's mental hold on an object of focus. Some translators render the term as "sinking."Tib: bying-ba
mental exclusionsgeistiges AusschließenSee: mental exclusions of something else
mental exclusions of something elsegeistiger Ausschluss von etwas anderemStatic implicative negation phenomena, including audio categories, meaning/object categories, and conceptually isolated items.Tib: blo'i gzhan-sel
mental fabricationgeistige FabrikationAn appearance of truly established existence that mental activity in a conceptual cognition produces and projects due to the habits of grasping for truly established existence.Tib: spros-pa
Skt: prapanca
mental factorGeistesfaktorSee: subsidiary awareness
mental faculties, nameable, with or without gross formGeisteskräfte, benennbare, mit oder ohne feste FormSee: nameable mental faculties with or without gross form
mental fixationgeistiges FixierenThe mental factor (subsidiary awareness) of maintaining mental placement on any object of cognition taken by any type of cognition, including sensory cognition. Also called "mentally fixating" and "concentration," it accompanies all cognitions and varies in intensity from very weak to very strong. When perfected, it becomes "absorbed concentration."Tib: ting-nge-'dzin
Skt: samadhi
mental flightinessgeistige FlatterhaftigkeitSee: flightiness of mind
mental holdgeistiges FesthaltenThe aspect of a cognition that describes the level of strength of maintenance of attention on the focal object, without letting go of it. Also translated as "mental glue," it is established by the subsidiary awareness (mental factor) of mindfulness and has two aspects: mental abiding and appearance-making.Tib: 'dzin-cha
mental impulsegeistiger ImpulsSee: karma
mental labelinggeistiges Bezeichnen / geistiges Zuschreiben"Geistige Bezeichnen" (Benennen) oder "geistiges Zuschreiben" bezeichnet den Vorgang, bei dem einer Grundlage (wie z.B.: vier Beinen und einem sich darauf befindlichem flachen Brett), mittels der konzeptuellen Wahrnehmung, eine Audiokategorie (wie z.B. das Wort oder der Name "Tisch") oder die Bedeutung / Objekt-Kategorie (wie z.B. "Tisch" als ein individuelles Objekt) zugeschrieben wird. Tib: ming 'dogs-pa
mentally constructed synthesisgeistig konstruierte SyntheseSee: mental synthesis
mentally fixatinggeistig FixierenSee: mental fixation
mental placementPlatzierung des GeistesSee: mental abiding
mental quiescencegeistige RuheSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mental reflectiongeistige Spiegelung / geistige WiederspiegelungSee: mental derivative
mental representationgeistige Darstellung / geistige RepräsentationSomething that appears in a conceptual cognition. (1) In Gelug, a static, fully transparent conceptually isolated item through which the cognition cognizes the external object that the hologram resembles; equivalent to a mental aspect. (2) In non-Gelug, a static, partially transparent mentally synthesized commonsense object and category through which the cognition cognizes a conceptually isolated item (a mental aspect) that stands for a commonsense object.Tib: snang-ba
mental stabilitygeistige StabilitätSingle-pointed placement of the mind on any constructive focal object, without any mental wandering -- a stable state of mind that is not only free of flightiness and dullness, but is also not distracted by any disturbing emotion of the plane of sensory desires. In Mahayana, when conjoined with bodhichitta, a far-reaching attitude. Some translators render the term as "concentration."Tib: bsam-gtan
Skt: dhyana
mental synthesisgeistige SyntheseThe imputation of a conceptual category in which the bases for imputation are the individual sensibilia of a commonsense object, the parts of any of the sensibilia of a commonsense object, the moments in the continuum of a commonsense object, or items sharing a common defining characteristic. Synonymous with "conceptual category" and "category."Tib: spyi
mental synthesis, collectiongeistige SammelsyntheseSee: collection mental synthesis
mental synthesis, kindgeistige ArtsyntheseSee: kind mental synthesis
mental synthesis, objectgeistige ObjektsyntheseSee: object mental synthesis
mental urgegeistiger Drang / geistiger AntriebThe subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mental activity to face an object or to go in its direction. In general, it moves a mental continuum to cognitively take an object. It is equivalent to mental karma and, according to Sautrantika, Chittamatra, Svatantrika-Madhyamaka, and the non-Gelug Prasangika-Madhyamaka schools, it is equivalent to physical and verbal karmas as well.Tib: sems-pa
Skt: cetana
mental wanderinggeistige Abschweifung / AbschweifungA subsidiary awareness (mental factor) that causes the mind to lose concentration and to go on and on, uncontrollably from one object to another, due to any reason.Tib: rnam-g.yeng
mentor, spiritualMentor, spirituellerSee: spiritual mentor
merebloß / lediglichOnly this, without anything more.Tib: tsam
mere equanimitybloßer GleichmutAn equal attitude toward everyone that is devoid of attachment to loved ones, repulsion from enemies, and indifference toward strangers, developed in common in both Hinayana and Mahayana.Tib: btang-snyoms tsam
merely aspiring bodhichittalediglich anstrebendes BodhichittaSee: merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichitta
merely aspiring state of aspiring bodhichittalediglich anstrebender Zustand des anstrebenden BodhichittaThe initial state of aspiring bodhichitta, with which one focuses on one's own future enlightenment and merely has the intention to attain it and to benefit all beings by means of it. Also called: the mere state of aspiring bodhichitta.Tib: smon-sems smon-pa-tsam
mere taking of safe directionbloßes Einschlagen der sicheren RichtungSynonymous with "causal taking of safe direction."Tib: skyab-'gro tsam-pa-ba
meritVerdienstSee: positive karmic force
metaphysical entitiesmetaphysische EntitätenIn the Sautrantika and Chittamatra tenet systems, those phenomena, the existence of which is established by their being merely imputed by conceptual cognition and which are superficial (relative, conventional) true phenomena. According to Sautrantika, they include all static phenomena; according to Chittamatra, they include all static phenomena other than voidnesses, true stoppings, and nirvanas. (1) In the Gelug system, they are the appearing objects of only conceptual cognitions, although they are not the actual cognitive appearances in those cognitions. They may be validly cognized not only by valid conceptual cognition, but also implicitly by valid nonconceptual cognition. (2) In the non-Gelug systems, they can only be validly cognized by valid conceptual cognition. Also translated as "generally characterized phenomena."Tib: spyi-mtshan
Skt: samanyalakshana
metered versesmetrische VerseTwo-to-six-lined verses composed by Buddha. One of the twelve scriptural categories.Tib: tshigs-su bcad-pa
Skt: gatha
method of actualizationMethode der RealisierungSee: sadhana
mindGeistThe cognitive activity of merely giving rise to an appearance or mental hologram of something knowable and cognitively engaging with it.Tib: sems
Skt: chitta
mind, exceptionally perceptive state ofGeisteszustand von außergewöhnlicher WahrnehmungsfähigkeitSee: exceptionally perceptive state of mind
mind, noncontrivingGeist, nicht erfindenderSee: noncontriving mind
mind, primordialGeist, ursprünglicherSee: primordial mind
mind, serenely stilled and settledGeist, gelassen beruhigter und zur Ruhe gekommenerSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mind, stilled and settled state ofGeisteszustand, still gewordener und zur Ruhe gekommenerSee: stilled and settled state of mind
mind, subtlesubtile geistige AktivitätSee: subtle mind
mind, subtlestgeistige Aktivität, subtilsteSee: clear light awareness
mindfulnessVergegenwärtigung(1) The subsidiary awareness (mental factor), similar to a mental glue, that keeps a mental hold on a cognitive object, so that it is not lost. (2) The recollection of something, with which the mind keeps a mental hold on a mental hologram that resembles and represents something previously cognized. The term is often rendered as "memory" or "remembering," but has nothing to do with the recording or storage of mental information.Tib: dran-pa
Skt: smrti
mind-itselfGeist selbst, derIn the Kagyu and Nyingma systems, the deepest nature of the mind.Tib: sems-nyid
mind-streamGeistesstromSee: mental continuum
mind-trainingGeistestrainingSee: attitude-training
miraculous emanationswundersame Emanation(1) In mahamudra and dzogchen texts, a descriptive synonym for the mental aspects (mental appearances, mental holograms) that are produced by the clarity aspect of the mind and which are directly cognized by conceptual or nonconceptual cognition. (2) A synonym for extraphysical emanations.Tib: rnam-'phrul
Skt: vikurvana
miraculous powerswundersame KräfteSee: extraphysical emanations
mirror-like deep awarenessspiegelgleiches tiefes GewahrseinOne of the five types of deep awareness that all beings have as an aspect of Buddha-nature. The deep awareness that takes in all the information about an object of cognition. Also called: deep awareness that is like a mirror.Tib: me-long lta-bu'i ye-shes
miserable phenomenaleidvolle PhänomeneOne of the four aspects of true sufferings. The five aggregate factors from the point of view of their being under the control of the true origins (true causes) of suffering and thus are subject to one or more of the three types of suffering without any break.Tib: sdug-bsngal-ba
Skt: du:kha (duhkha)
mixed with confusionmit Verwirrung verbundenSee: tainted
model clear light mindVorbild eines Geistes des klaren LichtsDas Vorbild eines Geistes des klaren Lichts ist eine subtile Ebene des Bewusstseins, die eine glückselige konzeptuelle Wahrnehmung von Leerheit besitzt, die erlangt wird, wenn die subtilen Energie-Winde zum Teil im zentralen Kanal aufgelöst worden sind. Der Begriff wird auch als "annähernder Geist des klaren Lichts" übersetzt. Tib: dpe'i 'od-gsal
Modest Vehiclebescheidenes FahrzeugSee: Hinayana
Modest Vehicle of Mindbescheidenes Fahrzeug des GeistesSee: Hinayana
moldingsDeckenfries(on walls or ceilings)
momentMomentThe smallest unit of time.Tib: skad-cig
Skt: kshana
monadMonadeAn undifferentiated, partless whole, either the size of an atom or the size of the universe, asserted by non-Buddhist schools of Indian philosophy as descriptive of the atman, the "soul" of a person.Tib: gcig
monastic communityMönchsgemeinschaftSee: Sangha
monastic sanghamonastischer Sangha / Sangha der MöncheSee: Sangha
moral self-dignitymoralische SelbstwürdeAs defined by Asanga, the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how one's actions reflect on oneself.Tib: ngo-tsha shes-pa
Skt: hri
moral self-dignity, no sense ofkein Gefühl von moralischer SelbstwürdeSee: no moral self-dignity
mother-awarenessMutterThe recognition of all beings as having at some time been one's mother. The first of the seven-part cause and effect quintessence teaching for developing bodhichitta.Tib: mar-shes
motivating aimMotivationSynonymous with intention. See: intention.Tib: kun-slong
motivating aim, causalMotivation, ursächlicheSee: causal motivating aim
motivating mental frameworkmotivierender geistiger RahmenA state of mind that accompanies a karmic urge or impulse and which is a cluster of three mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): distinguishing an object on which to focus the action, the motivating aim of what one intends to do with or to that object, and a motivating emotion or attitude. Tib: bsam-pa
motivationMotivationWhen used in Western languages, a state of mind that entails two mental factors (subsidiary awarenesses): a motivating aim and a motivating emotion. A motivating aim is the mental factor of an intention – the intention to reach a certain goal for a certain purpose. A motivating emotion is the mental factor of the positive or negative emotion, such as love and compassion, or jealousy and greed, which accompanies the intention and moves one to attain that goal.
musician, heavenlyMusiker, himmlischeSee: those who sustain themselves on fragrances
mutually exclusivesich gegenseitig ausschließendTwo sets are mutually exclusive if they do not share any common locus -- neither contains a member that also belongs to the other. Also translated as "contradictory."Tib: 'gal-ba

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z alles